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Full text of "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal"

AS 


472 


C2195X 


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lmn?° N,AN INST TLmON 




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au«.i_ 

London, i*i.w . 
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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 



VOL. LXI. 

PART II. (Natural History, &c.) 

(Nos. I to III.— 1892.) 

EDITED BY 

Surgeon- Captain f, ji. Tull ^alsh ; J. JA. ^S. 

NATURAL HISTORY SECRETARY. 



It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science 
in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such communications shall be long 
intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall entirely cease." Sir Wm. Jones. 



CALCUTTA : 

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, 

AND PUBLISHED BY THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY, 57 PARK STREET, 

1893. 



*s 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

Page. 
Bigot, J. M. F. ; — Catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, 

Part II, 133 

„ III, 178 

Bruhl, P. ; — De Panunculaceis Indicis Dispittationes. (Tab. Ill — 

VI.) 270 

King, George, M. B., LL. D., F. R. S., C. I. E. ;— Materials for a 

Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, No. IV, 1 

Nice'ville, Lionel de ; — Note on the Indian Butterflies comprised 

in the subgenus Pademrna of the genus Euplcea, 237 

Peal, S. E. ; — The Communal Barraclcs of Primitive Paces (Plates 

I and II), 246 

Prain, D. ; — Novicise Indict V. An undescribed Mezoneuron 

from the Andaman Groiip, ,.,•.,, 130 



Bates of Issue. Part II, 1892. 

No. I. — Containing pp. 1 — 132, was issued on June 13th, 1892. 
No. II.— Containing pp. 133—236, was issued on July 23rd, 1892. 
No. III.— Containing pp. 237—324, with Plates I, II, III, IV, V and 
VI, was issued on January 24th, 1893. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



TT > Communal Barracks of Primitive Races (Peal). 



III^ 

v > Aquilcgia (Bruhl). 
VI ) 



INDEX. 



Names of New Genera and Species have an asterisk (*) prefixed. 



ACALYPTERICTI, 207 

Acanthipeza, 222 

„ maculifrons, 222 

Acanthoneura, 221 

„ maculipermis, 221 

Acanthonevra, 225 

„ fuscipennis, 225 

Acarus, 236 
Acemyia, 183 
Achanthiptera, 204 
Achias, 191, 221 

„ horsfieldii, 191, 221 
,, ichneumonea, 191 
„ oculatics, 191 
Achiasice, 191 
Acidia, 227 

„ quadrincisa, 227 
„ soror, 227 
Acinia, 226 

,, faciestriata, 227 
Aciphore^:, 216, 223 
-4cM«-a, 227 
Aconitum, 272 

„ Napellus, 271, 272 
Acromyia, 155 
-Aciia, 186 
Acurana, 148, 149 

„ sexfasciata, 148, 149 
Adapsilidi, 219 
-Adia, 204 
Adrama, 222 

„ selecta, 222 
Agastrodes, 223 

,, niveitarsis, 223 
Agonosoma, ]55 
^grrt'o, 189, 190 
Agromyza, 233 

„ tristella, 234 

Agromyzides, 232 
Agromyzina, 232 
Agromyzin.e, 232 
Alcimus, 142 

„ hospes, 142 
,, rufibarbis, 143 
j4.ZZocofosia, 139 

„ aurata, 139 

,, triangulum, 139 

Allograpta, 177 
Alphonsea, 4, 124 
* „ Curtisii, 125, 127 

42 



*Alphonsea, cylindrica, 125, 127 
,, elliptica, 125 

* „ lucida, 125, 126 
„ Maingayi, 125 

* „ sub-dehiscens, 125, 126, 127 
Alternata, 175 

Aminta, 207 
.4?iastcec7itt,s, 163 

„ longirostris, 163 

^lazaj/orea, 3, 67, 69 

,, fruticosa, 68 

,, javanica, 69 

„ luzonensis, 68, 69 

* ,, Scortechinii, 68 
„ sumatrana, 21 

„ zeylanica, 68 

Ancylosyrplius, 167, 175 

„ salvise, 167 

Andrenosoma, 149 

,, sequalis, 148 

„ crassipes, 119 

,, formio, 148 

„ fusifera, 149 

Anempodiata, 133 
-4«<cero;psi's, 191 
Anomalocerati, 234 
J.wona, 2 
J.«owacea, 74, 85 

ANONACEJ3, 1, 89, 90 

Anthomyia, 196, 203, 204, 205, 207 

,, aliena, 205 

„ bibax, 204 

,, feina, 204 

,, lisetosa, 205 

,, calens, 204 

„ canicularis, 207 

,, chalcogaster, 203 

„ detracta, 205 

,, exigua, 204 

„ ^ra, 204 

,, illocata, 205 

„ indica, 205 

„ indicaia, 205 
,, • leuticeps, 205 

„ ZobaZi's, 205 

,, metallica, 202 

,, nigra, 204 

,, pero?, 205 

., quadrata, 204 

„ tonitrui, 204 



326 



Index. 



Anthomyia, trina, 204 
Anthomyza, 203, 204, 205 
Anthomyzid^e, 192 
Anthomtzidce, 203 
anthracid.b, 159 
Antheacides, 159 
Antheaciens, 159 
Antheacii, 159 
Antheacini, 153, 159 
Anthrax, 159, 160 

absalon, 161 
albida, 161 
albo-fulva, 161 
alexon, 162 
aperta, 161 
append iculata, 161 
argyropyga, 160 
auriplena, 161 
basifascia, 162 
himacula, 162 
bipunctata, 160 
carbo, 162 
earbonaria, 161 
clara, 161 
collaris, 162 
combinata, 162 
degenera, 162 
dm, 160 
distigma, 160 
dives, 162 
dor yea, 159 
duvaucelii, 161 
fulvula, 161 
hyalina, 160 
instituta, 161 
insulata, 161 
Zar, 160 
limpida, 161 
Queens, 160 
lucida, 161 
manife^ta, 161 
pennipes, 159 
purpnrnria, 161 
referens, 161 
rupcoUit, 162 
sateUitia. 162 
satyrus, 161 
scmilucida, 161 
semiscita, 160 
sphinx, 160 
tantalu?, 160 
troglodyta, 160 
AnUcheta, 208 
Antipalus, 146 

„ ?<ne»eckn, 146 
Aphritis, 166 
Aporomyia, 186 
Apterina, 232 

Aquilegia, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 
282, 283, 307, 316, 317, 318, 
419, 322 



Aquilegia, alpina, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 

281, 282, 283, 284, 

293, 294, 296, 314, 

315, 316, 323 

,, „ -uar. himalaica, 284, 294 

„ „ „ typica, 281, 284, 

294, 323 
„ Amaliae, 282, 283, 312 
„ arctica, 317, 318 

atrato, 277, 279, 233, 287, 
288 
„ aurea, 284, 302, 303 

Bauhini, 274, 284, 296 
„ Bemardi, 284, 287 
„ Bertolonii, 275, 276, 277, 279, 
281, 282, 283, 284, 290, 295, 
296, 307, 313, 314, 323 
„ brevistyla, 275, 282, 316, 317, 

319, 320, 321 
„ ,, far. leiocarpa, 319 

„ „ „ ijera, 319 

ca«n<iea, 277, 278, 282, 318, 
319, 320 
„ „ rar. typica, 279 

„ cemadetms, 275, 276, 278, 279, 
282, 286, 317, 318, 
319, 320, 321, 322 
,, ,, uar. Fendleri, 320 

„ ,, „ SMnneri, 320 

„ „ „ typica, 318, 319, 

320 
„ „ „ ue?a, 320 

,, casca, 317 
„ caucasica, 283, 284, 287 
„ chrysantha, 282, 318, 319 
„ dinarica, 275, 284, 287, 289 
discolor, 283, 284 
Ebneri, 275, 277, 278, 283, 284, 
287, 289 
„ ecalcarata, 316, 317, 321, 323 
„ Einseleana, 274, 275, 276, 277, 
278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 
284, 296 
„ eynensis, 296 
„ Jlavescens, 282, 319, 320, 321 

322 
„ formosa, 277, 279, 280, 282, 317, 

318, 319, 321, 322 
„ „ var. arcticdela, 319 

„ „ „ caerulea, 320 

,, „ ,, chrysantha, 320 

„ „ „ Kamtshatica, 320 

,, „ „ macrantha, 320 

,. „ „ saxicola, 320 

„ „ ,, truncata, 320 

„ „ „ vera, 319, 320, 321 

„ „ 271, 273, 275, 277, 

278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 
284, 304, 305, 306 
„ Fussii, 284, 302, 303 
Gebleri, 284, 302 



Index. 



327 



Aquilegia, glandulosa. 273, 274, 275, 276, 

' 277, 278, 279, 280, 

281, 282, 283, 284, 

296, 302, 303, 314, 

316, 323 

,, ,, var. discolor, 302 

„ „ „ Gebleri, 284, 303 

,, „ „ genuina, 279,284 

„ „ „ jucunda, 284, 

302 
„ „ „ sulphurea, 284, 

303 
„ ,, „ transsilvanica, 

284, 303 
„ „ „ typica, 279, 303, 

323 
„ „ ,, vera, 303 

„ glauca, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 

304 
„ „ var. nivalis, 301 

„ glaucophylla, 287 
„ grata, 276, 277, 284, 285, 299, 

315 
„ Saenkeana, 287, 290 
,, himalaica, 319 
„ hybrida, 286, 317, 318 
„ jucunda, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 

302, 303, 323 
„ Karelini, 324 
„ Eitaibelii, 274, 276, 277, 278, 

280, 284, 296 
„ Kunaorensis, 275, 278, 283, 304, 

306, 324 
„ „ var. suaveolens, 

277, 278, 279, 
280, 281, 283, 
305 
„ lactiflora, 283, 284, 310, 315 
„ leptoceras, 275, 276, 280, 282, 

283, 284, 309, 316 
„ longisepala, 277, 284, 287, 288 
„ Magellensis, 313 
,, mandshuricis, 282 
„ Moorcroftiana, 271, 273, 274, 
276, 277, 279, 280, 
281, 282, 283, 284, 
291, 294, 296, 297, 
304, 306, 308, 313, 
315, 316, 324 
„ „ var. afghanica, 284, 

307, 309 
,, ,, „ fragrans, 284, 305, 

308, 314, 323 
„ „ „ glauca, 284, 306, 

309 
„ „ „ Kunaorensis, 284, 

306, 309,310, 
323, 324 
„ „ „ suaveolens, 284, 

294, 305, 309, I 
323, 324 



Aquilegia Moorcroftiana, var. Bubaphplla, 
284-, 307, 309 
„ „ typica, 278,f279, 

280, 281 
„ „ Wallichiana, 284, 

306, 309 
„ „ Winterbottomiana, 

284, 305, 
309, 313 

nevadensis, 284, 313 

nigricans, 275, 277, 278, 279, 

280, 283, 284, 287, 288, 290, 

291, 296, 323 

nivalis, 275, 276, 277, 279, 280, 

281, 283, 284, 294, 299, 

300, 314, 316, 323, 324 

„ var. paradoxa, 274, 

284, 301, 323 
„ „ saccocentra, 284, 

294, 301 , 323 
olympica, 282, 284, 287 
Ottonis, 280, 284, 285, 312 

„ var. Amalise, 285, 313, 

315 
„ „ typica, 285, 313, 

315 
oxypetala, 285 
oxysepala, 275, 276, 278, 279, 

281, 282, 283, 284, 
285, 286, 313, 317, 
318, 319, 321, 322 

,, var. hansuensis, 284, 

285 
„ „ mandshurica, 284, 

285 
paraplesia, 284, 287, 290 
parviflora, 282, 317, 321, 323 
pubiflora, 273, 275, 276, 277, 
278, 279, 280, 281, 

282, 283, 284, 306, 
310, 314, 315, 3^3, 
324 

,, var. Citnninghami, 

284, 311 
,, „ humilior, 306 

,, ,, Massuriensis, 

284, 311 

„ „ subnuda, 285,311 

pyrenaica, 273, 274, 275, 276, 

277, 278, 279, 280, 

281, 282, 283, 284, 

285, 290, 294, 295 

296, 299, 312, 313, 

315, 316, 323, 324 

„ , decipiens, 290, 

296 
„ „ discolor, 284 

285, 299 



,, genuina, 
285 



278 



328 



Index. 



Aquilegia pyrenaica, var. iypica, 278, 279, 
280 
„ „ „ vera, 299 

„ Beuteri, 284, 295 
„ sibirica, 275, 282, 317, 319, 321 
SUnneri, 279, 282, 319, 320, 321 
„ Sternbergii, 284, 287, 288, 290 
,, suaveolens, 277 
„ subalpina, 284, 287, 289 
„ stilphurea, 284, 302 
„ thalictrifolia, 274, 276, 277 

279, 280, 282, 296, 297, 309 
„ transsilvanica, 279, 284, 302, 

303 
„ truncata, 318, 319 
„ viridiflora, 279, 280, 282, 306, 

317, 321, 323 
„ viscosa, 274, 275, 276, 277, 282, 

283, 284, 296, 315 
„ „ var, Einseleana, 284, 

297, 323 
„ „ KitaV>elii, 285, 297 
„ „ „ thalictrifolia, 284, 297 

» ). >, ti/pica, 297 

vulgaris, 273, 274, 275, 276, 

277, 278, 279, 280, 

281, 282, 283, 285, 

286, 287, 290, 312, 

313, 314, 316, 318, 

319, 321, 322, 323 

„ ,, var, alpina, 293, 305 

„ „ atrata, 284, 288, 

293 

,, ,, ,, Bernardi, 284, 

287, 292, 314 

„ „ „ caucasica, 284, 

287, 292 
, „ „ dinarica, 284, 

289, 293 
„ „ „ Ebneri, 284, 289, 

„ ,, 293 
, „ „ eynensis, 284, 290 

293, 324 
„ „ „ fragrans, 306 

,, ,, genuina, 278, 281 

„ „ „ grandijlnra, 305 

,, „ „ Karelmi, 274, 275, 

283, 284, 288, 
293, 316, 324 
„ ,, „ longisepala, 284, 

28S, 292 
„ „ ,, Moorcroftiana, 271, 

306 
i) ,, „ nigricans, 284, 

290, 293 
„ , olumpica, 281,287, 

292 
» » »*Jfixysepala, 285 

,, „ ,, paraplesia, 284, 

290, 293 
,, „ „ pubiflora, 301 



Aquilegia vulgaris, var. pyrenaica, 305 
„ „ ,, reeticornu, 284, 

289, 293, 315, 
324 
„ „ „ typica, 274, 275, 

276, 278, 279, 
280, 284, 287, 
289, 290, 292, 
313, 316 
„ „ „ varia, 276, 284, 

289, 293, 313, 
316 
„ Wallichiana, 306 

„ Winterbottomiana, 297 
Argyra, 158 

,, spinipes, 158 
Argyromwba, 160 

„ distigma, 160 

,, rnelania, 160 

,, semiseita, 160 

Argyrospila, 159 
Aricia, 203, 204, 205, 207 
,, argentata, 203 
„ inaperta, 203 
„ patula, 203 
Arina, 208 
Artabotnjs, 3, 28, 30, 37, 38 

* „ eostufus, 31, 37 

„ crassifolius, 31, 33 

* ,, gracilis, 31, 35 

* ,, grandifolius, 30, 31, 38 

* „ Loivianus, 31, 34 

,, macrophyllus, 31, 37 
„ Maingayi, 31, 35 
„ malayana, 121 

* „ oblongus, 31, 33 

* ,, oxycarpus, 31, 34 
„ parviflora, 37 

„ pleurocarpus, 30, 32 
„ pleurogyntis, 34 
,, polygynus, 32, 35 

* „ Scortechinii, 30, 32 
,, speeiosus, 31, 35 

,, suaveolens, 31, 36 

* „ venustus, 30, 32 

Wrayi, 31, 37 
A seta, 166 

,, brachysto7na, 166 
Asilid-e, 139 

Asihts, 134, 135, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 
146, 147, 150, 154, 155 

„ agilis, 145, 147 

,, agnitus, 142 

„ albibarbis, 145 

„ anicius, 141 

,, annulatus, 144 

„ apicata, 146 

,, appendiculatus, 145 

,, armatipes, 145 

„ atratulus, 144 

„ aurata, 139 



Index. 



329 



Hits, barbatus, 146 

barium, 146 

bengalensis, 145 

bifidus, 145 

chinensis, 144 

claripes, 145 

congedus, 146 

contortus, 146 

debilis, 146 

ephippium, 145 

flagrans, 146 

flavicomis, 145 

fratemus, 147 

fusiformis, 146 

gamoti, 140 

gobares, 141 

griseus, 147 

iamenus, 146 

javanus, 142 

latifascia, 146 

Za£ro, 147 

limbipennis, 145 

lineosus, 146 

loetus, 145 

longistylus, 147 

maculatus, 142 

maculifemora, 145 

melanurus, 146 

minuseulus, 146 

misao, 145 

nigrimystaceus, 145 

nudipes, 145 

paterculus, 146 

penultimus, 146 

perplexus, 142 

prsefiniens, 146 

#Msio, 145 

rufibarbis, 145 

shalumus, 146 

sundaicus, 145 

trifurius, 145 
Asthenina, 232 
Atomaria, punetiplena, 220 
Atomog aster, 204 
Atomosia, 148 

„ halictides, 148 
„ purpurata, 148 
^lirona, 169 

„ volucelloides, 170 
^zeZia, 204 
-AzeZidos, 203 
Baccha, 166 

„ amphithce, 166 

„ gratiosa, 167 
„ maeulata, 166 
„ pedicellata, 167 
,, sapphirina, 166 
„ tripartita, 166 

„ vittata, 166 
Bactrocera, 217 

„ fasciatipennis, 217 



Bactrocera, maculipennin, 217 

Baryterocera, 174 

„ inclusa, 174 

Bengalia, 195 

„ dioclea, 195 
„ labiata, 195 
,, lateralis, 195 
„ melanocera, 195 
,, pallens, 195 
„ testaeea, 195 

Besseria, 191 

JBtZn'o, 133, 154, 155, 160, 234 
,, satyrus, 161 
,, sphinx, 159 

Bigonicheta, 18 

Blainvillia, 203, 220 

Blepharella, 186 

„ lateralis, 186 

Blepharipa, 181, 182 

Blepharipeza, 182 

,, indiea, 182 

„ thervwphila, 182 

Blepharipoda, 182 

Blondelia, 182 

Bocagea, 7, 79, 124 
,, elliptiea, 7 

,, hexandra, 82 
,, pisocarpa, 89 
„ polycarpa, 185 

Boisduvalia, 225 

„ rutilans, 220, 225 

Bombibia, 164 

Bombylime, 153, 159 

Bombylius, 162, 163 
,, ardens, 162 
,, maculatus, 162 
„ orientalis, 162 
„ pulchellus, 162 
„ socms, 162 
„ tricolor, 162 

Bonga Cananga, 39 

BORBORIN.E, 231, 232 

Borborus, 231 

„ punctipennis, 232 

Bothria, 182 

Brachyglossum, 164 

Brachyopa, 217 

Byoinya, 201 

Calliope, 229 

Calliphora, 196, 197, 198, 200 
,, fulviceps, 196 
„ rufipes, 196 

Calliprobola, 165 

Calobata, 212, 213, 214 
„ albimana, 212 
„ -albitarsis, 212 
„ basalis, 212 
„ cede»s, 212 
„ confinis, 212 
,, contracta, 212 
„ cyanesccns, 212 



330 



Index. 



Caldbata, immixta, 212 
„ leucopeza, 212 
„ morbida, 212 
„ prudens, 212 
„ splendens, 212 
„ strenua, 212 
„ stylophora, 212 
„ vidua, 212 
Calobatim:, 211 
Caltha palustris, 271, 272 
calypterat.e, 179 
Caltptericti, 178 
Camilla, 231 
Campy locera, 218 

„ myopina, 218 
„ robusta, 218 
Campylocheta, 182 
Cananga, 12, 39, 40, 41 

„ monosperma, 41, 42 
„ odorata, 39, 40, 41 
,, ouregow, 40 
„ sylvestris, 39, 40 
,, ,, uar. angustifolia, 40 

„ „ „ latifolia, 40 

„ ,, „ trifoliata, 40 

„ virgata, 29, 41 
Canangium, 3, 39, 40 

,, odoratum, 41, 42 
* ,, Scortechinii, 41, 42 
Capromyzinje, 232 
Carcelia, 168 
Cardiacephala, 214 

„ longicollis, 214 

Caricea, 205, 206 

„ Zepfosowa, 206 
Carpomyia, 224 
Carpomyz*:, 214, 216, 223 
Cartosyrphus, 168 

„ pilipes, 168 

Carulia, 181 
Catabomba, 175 
Catapicephala, 189, 196 

„ spJewdens, 189, 196 

Cat ilia, 187 
Celeripes, 236 
Celyphus, 228 

„ fuscipes, 228 
„ tews, 228 
„ obtectus, 228 
,, scutatus, 228 
Cephalia, 214, 215 

„ bicolor, 214 
Cephalops, 163 
Cerais, 233 

„ wagfmconn's, 233 
Cerajocera, 224 
Ceratitis, 222 

„ capitata, 222 
„ citriperda, 222 
Cena, 165 

„ eumentoi'des, 165 



Ceria, javana, 165 
Ceromasia, 181 
Cei/a;, 212 
Chalcidimorpha, 137 

„ myops, 137 

Charax, 222 

„ planidorsum, 222 
Chatolyga, 182 
Cheilopogon, 134 
Chelisia, 205 
Chelyphora, 223 

„ bomeana, 223 

Chetina, 182 
Chetoecra, 208 
Chetogena, 182 
Chilizina, 210, 232 
Chloria, 228 

„ clausa, 228 
Chloropid^i, 232 
Chlorops, 232, 233 

„ eonfusus, 233 
„ extraneus, 232 
„ longicomis, 233 

„ nicobarensis, 233 
„ stiolatus, 232 
Chceades, 149 

,, aurigena, 149 
Chortophila, 204 
Chromatomyia, 219 
Chrysomya, 197, 198 

„ chrysoides, 197 

,, duvaucelii, 197, 199 

„ flaviceps, 197 

„ remuria, 197 

„ fi/afa, 197 

Chrysomyza, 228 
Chrysoxoma, 155 
Chrysotoxum, 166 

„ antiquum, 166 

„ baphyrus, 166 

„ indieum, 166 

Chrysotus, 157 

„ chinensis, 157 
„ rostratus, 157 
CHYLISID.2E, 229 
Chyliza, 229 

„ calida, 230 
„ histrionica, 229 
,, maeularis, 230 
Chylizina, 229 
Citibozna, 174 

„ aurata, 174 
Clasiopa, 232 

„ albitarsis, 232 
Clematis siklcimensis, 271 
Ccelomyia, 207 
Conlopa, 229, 233 

„ orientalis, 229, 233 
Ccenogaster, 174 
Cosnosia, 205, 206 
„ fcoop.s, 206 



Index. 



331 



Ccenosia, compressiventris, 206 
,, falcata, 206 
„ grata, 206 
,, insurgens, 206 
„ leucospila, 206 
„ loeta, 206 
„ macularis, 206 
„ rnarginata, 206 
„ modesta, 206 
j, pulla, 206 
„ pumila, 206 
„ simplex, 206 
„ torrida, 206 
CoZobcea, 208 
Comastes, 162 

„ pulchellus, 162 
Comes spectabilis, 150 
Compsomyia, 200 

„ accincta, 200 

„ cceruleivirens, 200 

„ dita;, 199 

„ violaceinitens, 200 

Conicera, 234 
Conopilla, 164 
Conopcejus, 164 

Conors, 164, 165, 166, 169, 172, 173, 174, 
178 
„ annulosus, 164 
„ calopus, 164 
„ erythrocephala, 164 
„ gji'^as, 174 
„ javanica, 164 
„ nubeculosus, 164 
„ pactyas, 164 
„ tenellus, 164 
„ testacea, 164 
Conopsidi, 164 
Conopsidii, 164 
Conopts, 192 

Consobrina spectabilis, 150 
Coprina, 173 

Copromyza, 229, 231, 232, 233 
Cordyligastor, 188 

„ fuscifacies, 188 

Cordylurid^:, 210, 229 
CoriacEjE, 234 
Cormansis, 148 

„ halictides, 148 
Cosmina, 194 

„ micans, 194 
„ pinangiana, 194 
„ varia, 194 
Creophilas, 179 
Crossotocnema, 187 

„ javana, 187 

Crumomyia, 232 
Crtptoceres, 234 
Cucurbitace^;, 41 
Curtonevra, 196 

,, pruinosa, 196 
Cyathocalyx, 2, 28, 30, 38, 41 



Cyathocalyx, Maingayi, 28, 29 

,, virgatus, 28 
Cyathostemma, 2, 8, 11 

* ,, acwminatum, 8, 11 

* „ HooTceri, 8, 10 

* „ Scortechinii, 8, 9, 11 
„ viridiflorum, 8, 9 

* „ Wrayi, 8, 9 
Cynomyia, 190, 196 

„ /orits, 190 
„ fulviventris, 190 
„ quadrivittata, 196 
„ violacca, 190, 196 
Cyrtopogon, 138 

„ laphrides, 138 
„ scatophagoides, 138 
Dactyliscus, 138 

Dac^s, 209, 217, 218, 221, 224, 226 
„ senea, 218 
,, caudata, 221 
„ crw*, 224 
,, cylindricus, 217 
,, fascipennis, 217 
„ ferrugineus, 217 
,, incisus, 2l7 
„ Klugii, 217 
„ limbipennis, 217 
,, longicornis, 217 
„ modesta, 224 
,, ritsemse, 217 
,, squalidus, 217 
„ umbrosus, 217 
Dalmannia, 178 
Damalis, 137 

„ andron, 137 
„ felderi, 138 
„ fumipennis, 137 
„ fuscus, 137 
„ grossa, 138 
„ maculata, 137 
„ major, 137 
„ marginata, 137 
„ myops, 137 
„ pallida, 138 
„ planiceps, 137 
„ saigonensis, 137 
„ signatus, 137 
„ tibialis, 137 
DANAINiE, 241 
Dasyllis, 149 

„ gftgas, 149 
Dasymaschalon, 43, 111 
Dasyna, 229 
Dasyneura, 221 

„ caudata, 221 

„ taw, 221 

„ zonata, 221 

Dasypogon, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 155 
„ albonotatus, 134 

,, ambryon, 134 

„ aphrices, 134 



332 



Index. 



Dasypogon, apicalis, 136 

,, apiformis, 134 

5, aurata, 139 

,, balbilus, 135 

„ bifidus, 145 

,, cerco, 134 

,, chinensis, 140 

„ damias, 134 

s , decretus, 135 

,, dorsalis, 134 

,, dwa;, 136 

„ echelus, 135 

„ hypsaon, 134 

,, imberbis, 134 

„ imbrex, 135 

,, imbutus, 134 

„ incisus, 134 

„ inopinatus, 135 

,, inopportunus, 135 

,, lanatus, 135 

„ Zibo, 135 

,, nigricavda, 134 

,, otacilius, 135 

„ pekinense, 134 

,, poli/gnotus, 135 

., proclivis, 135 

,, pulverifer, 134 

,, rhypa?, 135 

„ scatophagoides, 135 

„ sincnse, 136 

„ sordid us, 134 

,, subaumtus, 134 

,, S!<ra, 135 

,, trimelas, 134 

„ virens, 134 

,, %-olcatus, 134 
Dasypogonidje, 133 
Dasypogonina, 133 
Degeeria, 182 

„ albipes, 182 
Deh'a, 204 
Delphinium, 272 

,, camptocarpum, 271 

„ Napellus, 271 

,, persicum, 271 
Desmos, 43 

,, chinensis, 45 

„ cochin-chinensis, 44 

Pean'a, 187, 188, 189 

„ c?iZ6e, 188 

„ divergens, 187 

„ extend ens, 187 

,, festivcr, 187 

„ javanensis, 187 

„ lepida, 187 

„ ?nacropt(.s, 187 

„ munda, 187 

,, subcompressa, 187 
Dexim:, 187 

Dexilla, 187 
Dexin.e ; 187, 188 



Dialineurn, 154 
Diaphorus, 158 

„ eeneus, 158 

„ delegatus, 158 

,, mandarinus, 158 

Diateina, 213 
Didea Ellenziederi, 175 

„ macquarti, 167 
Dioctria, 137 

„ albonotatus, 134 
DiopsiD-as, 215 
Diopsis, 215, 216 

„ apicalis, 216 

,, attenuata, 215 

„ belzebuth, 216 

,, circularis, 215 

„ dalmanni, 215 

„ discrepans, 215 

,, dubia, 216 

„ graminicoln, 216 

,, ichneumonea, 215 

„ indica, 215 

„ latimana, 215 

„ lativola, 215 

„ quinqueguttata, 215 

„ suhfasciata, 215 

„ si/kesii, 216 

„ villosa, 216 

,, tvestivoodii, 215 
Diospyros frondosa, 7 
Diplogaster, 204 

„ nigricauda, 204 

DlPTERA, 133 
DlPTEROCARPE^E, 1 
DlSCIFLORJE, 1 

Discocerina, 232 
Discomyza, 231 

„ pelagica, 231 

„ punctipennis, 231 
Disepalum, 1, 3, 69 

„ anomalum, 69 
* „ longipes, 69 
Ditomogaster, 220 

,, xunthomera, 220 
Doleschalla, 189 

„ nigra, 189 

„ pt'cfa, 189 
dolichocera, 210 
Dolichopom:, 155 
Dolichopus, 157, 158, 229 

„ alligatus, 158 

„ collectus, 158 

„ electus, 158 

„ fuscipennis, 158 

„ nit ens, 156 

,, ziczac, 158 
Dorbinia, 186 
Dona, 182 
Drepananthus, 3, 38 

„ pruvife>us, 38, 39 

„ ra.mulijlorus, 38, 39 



Index. 



333 



Drepananthus, stenox>etala, 119 
Drosophila, 231 

,, insulana, 231 
„ liyieata, 231 
„ nigriventris, 231 
Drosophilim:, 231 
Dryomyza, 209 

,, maculipennis, 209 
Dryomyzin^;, 208 
Dry ope, 209 
Drs/ajo, 230 

„ lispoidea, 230 
Duvaucelia, 179, 191 

„ bicincta, 179, 191 
Dj/ciier, 208, 211, 220 

,, decora, 218 
Dyseris, 148 
Echinomyia, 180 

„ brevipennis, 180 

,, fiavopilosa, 180 

,, javana, 180 

„ lithanthrax, 180 

„ platymesa, 180 

,, rufo-analis, 180 

,, sacontala, 180 

„ tepens, 180 

„ varia, 180 

.Esrena, 204 
EfirZe, 204 
Elachigaster, 220 

„ albitarsis, 220 

Elasmocera, 138 
Ellipeia, 2, 24 

„ costata, 24, 26 

„ cuneifolia, 24, 25, 28 

„ grZabra, 24, 26 

* „ leptopoda, 24, 25 
,, nervosa, 25, 27 

„ parviflora, 56 

* „ pumila, 24, 27 
„ undulata, 56 

Elophilus, 169, 172 

Emphysomera, 139 

„ co?iopsoia!es, 139 

„ femorata, 139 

,, nigra, 139 

,, nigrifemorata, 139 

,, peregrina, 139 

,, spathulata, 139 

EMPiD-ffi, 154 

Empis, 155 

Endoiasimyia, 168 

,, Indiana, 168 

Enicita, 214 

Eniconevra, 220 

„ fenestralis, 220 

Enicoptera rufiventris, 222 

Enicopus, 214 

Ensina, 226 

„ guttata, 226 
„ reticulata, 226 



Entomoble, 179 
Ephdrinid-s:, 230 
Ephidrina, 230, 232 
Epiceia, 155 
Epidesmia, 227 
.EVax, 134, 144 

,, curiatius, 144 
„ rufiventris, 144 
,, sinensis, 144 
Erigone, 181 
Eriozona, 175 
Eristalinus, 169 
Eristalis, 165, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 231 

„ a?sepws, 170 

„ assymnus, 170 

,, albibasis, 171 

,, amphicrates, 168 

„ andrpemon, 170 

„ antidotus, 170 

„ argyrocephalus, 170 

„ arvorum, 169 

„ barbatus, 171 

„ bengalensis, 169, 172 

,, cerealis, 169 

„ chalcopygus, 170 

,, chrysopygus, 168 

,, cognatus, 169 

,, curvipes, 171 

„ dentipes, 170 

,, ej'rawis, 168 

„ extents, 170 

„ flavofasciatus, 168 

,, javanus, 170 

„ Zahts, 170 

„ Icetus, 169 

„ macquarti, 168 

„ maxima, 170 

„ multifarius, 170 

„ niger, 169 

,, nitidus, 171 

„ obliquus, 169 

„ cegrotus, 175 

„ orientalis, 169 

„ pallinervis, 170 

„ proserpina, 169 

„ quadrilineatus, 169 

„ quadristriatus, 170 

,, quadrivlttatus, 169 

„ quinquefasciatus, 171 

„ quinquelineatus, 171 

,, quinquestriatus, 169 

,, sinensis, 169 

„ singularis, 171 

,, solitus, 170 

„ sugeiis, 169 

,, tarsalis, 170 

,, tomentosus, 170 

„ transpositus, 171 

„ ursinus, 171 

,, varipes, 168 

„ veniralis, 171 



43 



334 



Index. 



Eristalis, vestitus, 169 
„ vilis, 169 
,, vinctorum, 170 
„ violaceus, 170 
,, zonalis, 168 
Eristalomyia, 169, 171 
fo, 171 
„ orientalis, 171 

„ paria, 171 

„ picta, 171 

Eristicus, 144 
Ernestia, 181 
Estheria, 187 
JSuZeto, 225, 227 

„ (Trypeta) mutica, 225 
Eumeros, 173 
Eumerosyrphus, 167 

,, indianus, 167 

,, indicus, 167 

Eumerus, 172 

„ albifrons, 173 
„ aurifrons, 172 
„ inclica, 173 
„ macrocerus, 172 
,, nicobarensis, 173 
„ splendens, 173 
Eumezoneuron, 130 
Euphemia, 203 

Euplosa, 237, 238, 240, 243, 245 
,, apical is, 242, 244 
„ augusta, 244 
,, burmeisteri, 244 
„ crassa, 241, 244 
„ erichsonii, 238, 241, 243, 244, 245 
„ grantii, 241 
„ harrisii, 245 
„ hopei, 245 
„ illustris, 241, 244 
„ imperialis, 244 
„ indigofera, 244 
„ fciug-w, 238, 239, 240, 243, 244. 

245 
„ froZ/r/n, 237, 241, 242, 213, 244, 

245 
„ toman, 238 
„ macclcllandi, 244 
„ masoni, 241, 244 
„ mitlanitx, 238 
„ pembertoni, 244 
„ regal it, 244 
„ shcncillii, 244 
„ si7ihala, 238. 239, 240, 242, 243 
,, uniform is, 24 1 
„ (PademmaJ erichsonii, 241 
„ „ A-Zwc/n, 240, 241 

,, ,, Icollari, 241 

„ ,, sinhala, 240 

,, (Stictoplcea) harrisii, 245 
Euplceina, 239 
eupolyalthia, 51 
Eupteromyia, 207, 



Eupteromyia, trivittata, 207 
Eurhina, 234 

„ albovariegata, 224 
Eurigaster, 185, 186 

„ cuprescens, 185 

„ languida, 185 

„ muscoides, 185 

„ subferrifera, 185 

Eurypalpus, 218 

„ testaceus, 218 

Euthycera, 211 
Exogaster, 191 
Exoprosopa, 159, 160 

„ albicincta, 159 

,, audouinii, 160 

„ aurantiaca, 159 

„ bengalensis, 159 

,, binotata, 159 

,, bralnna, 159 

,, chrysolampis, 159 

„ doryca, 159 

„ flavofasciata, 159 

„ fuscanipennis, 160 

„ javana, 159 

,, pennipes, 159 

,, sphinx, 159 

Exorista, 186 

,, fasciata, 186 

Fabricia, 180 
Funnia, 207 
Faurcllia, 180 
Pa^s-fa, 181 
FeZtea, 203, 205 
Feronia, 235 

„ spinifera, 236 

Fucomyia, 229, 233 
Gastrode-e, 179 
Gastrophilus, 178 

„ bengalensis, 178 

„ egtu, 178 

Gastrus, 178 
Gaustellia, 178 
Gauzania, 209 

„ devecta, 209 
Geomyza, 232 

„ laticosta, 232 
,, spuria, 232 

Geomtzides, 231 
Geomyzinje, 231 
Gomrhynchus, 178 
Go?ua, 179, 182 
afra, 179 
„ bicincta, 179 
,, dioclea, 195 
„ dotata, J 95 
„ indiea, 180, 182 
„ javana, 180 
,, javanica, 179 
„ minuta, 180 
„ osstroides, 180 
„ rufitibialis, 180 



Index. 



335 



Gon 


a, thermophila., 182 ! 


Habropogon, 138 


„ varia, 194 


,, jucundus, 138 


Goniothalamus, 3, 70, 79, 90, 98 


Habzelia ferruginea, 121 


# 


Curtisii, 70, 75 


„ oxyantha, 114 


)> 


/wZuus, 70, 74, 79 


IDematomyzje, 178 


j) 


giganteus, 70, 73 


Harpamerus, 155 


>) 


Griffithii, 71, 75 


Helina, 204 


)> 


Kunstleri, 70, 73 


Helomyza, 208, 233 


>> 


„ mr. marcantha, 


„ sequata, 208 




73 


,, circumfusa, 208 


>> 


macrophyllus, 71, 76 


„ exeuns, 208 


» 


inalayanus, 70, 74, 79 


„ fuscicostata, 208 


• 


Prainianus, 70, 72 


„ inter euns, 208 


# 


„ i>ar. angusti- 


„ invicta, 208 




petala, 72 


„ limbata, 208 


* 

>> 


Ridleyi, 71, 76 


,, maura, 208 


# 


Seortechinii, 71, 77 


„ orientalis, 208 


>) 


Slingerlandtii, 74 


„ provecta, 208 


j? 


subevenius, 70, 71 


Helomyzin^e, 208 


>> 


Tain's, 71, 77 


Helophilus, 172, 173 


* 

>> 


tenuifolius, 70, 71, 72 


„ bengalensis, 172 


# 


„ -uar. aborescens, 


„ insignis, 172 




72 


„ notabilis, 172 




uvarioides, 70, 71, 78 


„ pilipes, 172 


# 


TFrai/i, 71, 78 


Hemerodromyd^;, 154 


Gonypes, 135 


Hemigaster, 220 


Grammicomyia, 213 


„ albovittatus, 220 


» 


testacea, 213 


Heramya, 220 


Graptomy 


sa, 173, 174 


Herbina, 208, 209 


j? 


brevirostris, 174 


Herbstia, 186 


>) 


interrupta, 174 


Herina, 217 


>> 


longirostris, 174 


„ calcarata, 217 


)> 


ornidia, 174 


,, cyaneiventris, 218 


>) 


ventralis, 173 


Hermyia, 186 


Orwafferia, 


12, 40, 41, 100 


„ alacris, 186 


>> 


biglandulosa, 100 


„ beelzebub, 186 




, 


canangioides, 57 


,, imbuta, 186 




j 


caudata, 118 


Hesyquillia, 220 




„ 


cinnamomea, 66 


Heteralonia, 159 




,, 


cordata, 17 


Heteromyza, 233 




i 


elliptica, 65 


„ orientalis, 233 




, 


fasciculata 


Heteromyzim:, 232 




9 


globosa, 124 


Heteromyzides, 232, 234 




> 


hypoglauea, 53 


Heterostoma, 233 




1 


Jenkinsii, 57 


Hilar a, 155 




} 


lateriflora, 59 


„ bares, 155 




, 


macrophylla, 96, 97 


Hippoboscidjs, 234 




5 


micrantha, 21 


Hippobosca, 235, 236 




J 


multinervis, 66 


„ calopsis, 235 




, 


pallida, 97 


„ francilloni, 235 




5 


Parveana, 57 


,, siua?, 265 




> 


ponddk, 67 


,, variegata, 235 




, 


ramosissima, 92 


Hcematohia, 192 




> 


simiarum, 53 


Homalomyia, 207 




» 


sumatrana, 53 


,, canicularis, 207 


Gymnoiom^;, 179 


Homalwra, 233 


Gj/mmopa, 


23 


,, maculipennis, 233 


,, 


gutticosta, 231 


Hubneria, 186 


,, 


infusa, 231 


Hyalostemma Roxburghiana, 124 


Gymosomc 


, 179 


Hybos, 155 




) 


indica, 179 


„ brachialis, 155 



336 



Index. 



Hybos, gagatinus, 155 
Hybotid^;, 154 
HydrellidEjE, 230 
Hydrochus, 157 
Hydromyzim:, 230 
Hydrophoria, 203, 205 
Hydrotsea, 203 

„ chalcog aster, 203 

„ solennis, 203 

Hylemyia, 205 
Hyperalonia, 159, 160 

„ audouinii, 160 

„ fuscanipennis, 160 

„ cenomceus, 160 

,, tantalus, 160 

Hijperechia, 148 

„ xylocopiformis, 148 

Hypocera, 234 
Hypocerid^;, 234 
Hypodermina, 178 
Jdia, 192, 193, 194 
,, bengalensis, 193 
„ bicolor, 194 
„ bivittata, 114 
„ cincta, 194 
„ discolor, 193 
„ Jlavipennis, 193 
„ jlavipes, 193 
„ fulvipes, 194 
„ lateralis, 194 
„ Uiiihipcunis, 194 
„ niandarina, 193 
„ marginata, 194 
„ melanostoma, 193 
„ metallica, 193 
„ nigricauda, 194 
„ obsoleta, 192 
„ quadrimaculata, 194 
„ qitadriiiutiita, 193 
„ simplex, 194 
„ tenebrosa, 194 
„ testacca, 193 
„ tripartita, 194 
„ unicolor, 194 
„ varia, 194 
„ xanthogaster, 193 
„ xanthogastera, 193 
Jmatisma, 172 

„ orientalis, 172 

Isamia rothncyi, 242 
„ sinhala, 240 
Ischyrosyrphus, 167, 175 

j, BMHBj 167 

„ tiger inns, 167 

Isomera, 179 

Isopyrum, 316 

„ biternatum, 316 

„ grandiflorum, 316, 323 

„ microphyllum, 316, 323 

Istoeheta, 182 

Itamus, 147 



Itamus, dipygus, 147 
„ fr at emus, 147 
„ griseus, 147 
„ Zafro, 147 
„ longistylus, 147 
Jurinea, 179 
Jurinia, 179 

,, indica, 179 
Kentia, 41, 103 
Keratocera, 230 
Kingstonia, 4, 128 

„ nervosa, 128 

Lampria, 149 

„ senea, 150 
„ auribarbis, 149 
Lamprogaster, 219, 226 

basilutca, 219 
divisa, 219 
Jlavipennis, 219 
frauenfeldi, 219 
jrZabra, 219 
guttata, 219 
niarginifera, 227 
punctata, 219, 
sexvittata, 227 
transversa, 219, 227 
truncatala, 219 
inffata, 219 
zonata, 219 
Lap/ina, 148, 149, 150 
abscissa, 152 
senea, 150 
alternans, 150 
aureola, 153 
barbicrura, 153 
baxifcra, 151 
basigutta, 151 
bipartita, 151 
blumei, 153 
chrysotehis, 152 
cingulifera, 152 
claripennis, 151 
colorata, 150 
completa, 152 
comptissima, 152 
eongrua, 150 
constricta, 152 
crass ipes, 149 
cyanea, 150 
detecta, 152 
dim, 152 
diversa, 153 
elegans, 150 
ek'a, 152 
fervens, 150, 153 
flavifaeies, 151 
fulvicrura, 153 
fusifcra, 149 
futilis, 153 
gigas, 149 
grari'pes, 153 



Index. 



387 



Laphria hirticornis, 148 

„ histrionica, 153 

„ horrida, 152 

„ ignobilis, 153 

„ imbellis, 152 

,, inaurea, 151 

,, incivilis, 152 

„ interrupta, 152 

,, javana, 151 

,, kollari, 149 

„ latere-punctata, 151 

,, lepida, 152 

,, leucoprocta, 151 

„ luteipennis, 151 

„ melania, 151 

„ mulleri, 153 

,, notabilis, 151 

„ orcMS, 151 

„ partita, 152 

,, plana, 151 

,, producta, 150 

,, radicalis, 151 

„ reinwardti, 150 

,, rudis, 152 

„ sasiwi, 153 

„ scapularis, 150 

„ semifulva, 151 

„ senomera, 151 

„ seticrura, 153 

„ shalumus, 152 

„ signatipes, 153 

„ sobria, 151 

„ solita, 153 

„ spectabilis, 149, 150 

„ splendida, 149 

„ taphius, 153 

„ triangularis, 152 

„ imijascia, 152 

„ vulcanus, 151 

LiAPHRIDiE, 147 

Laphrina, 147 
Laphyctis, 138 

„ stigmaticalis, 138 

Lasiophthieus, 175 

„ annametes, 175 

Latreillia, 181, 182 

,, psamathe. 181 

Lauxania, 229 

curvinevris, 229 
detereuns, 229 
diadema, 226 
encera, 229 
nigropunctata, 229 
rufiventris, 229 
Lauxanid^;, 228 
Laxenecera, 148 

„ albibarbis, 148 

,, flavibarbis, 148 

Lecanipa, 182 
Lentiphora, 233 
Leopoldius, 164 



LEPTAPODID.E, 211 
Leptogaster, 135 

„ Zeut's, 136 

,, macilentus, 136 

,, marion, 136 

,, nutilus, 136 

„ simplex, 136 

„ tricolor, 136 

„ varipes, 136 

„ vitiosus, 136 

Leptopodit^i, 211 
211 
Leptopus, 155 
Leucophora, 204 
Leucozona, 175 
Limnophora, 204 

„ bengalensis, 204 

,, tnacei, 204 

Limosia, 204, 205 
Linnemyia, 185 

„ it'taw, 185 

iis^e, 206 

assimilis, 207 
dilatata, 207 
glabra, 206 
hyalipennis, 207 
nicobarensis, 207 
orientalis, 207 
sinensis, 207 
tetrastigma, 207 
vittipennis, 207 
Lithorhychus, 159 
Lochites, 135 

,, testaceus, 135 
Lomacantha, 186 
Lonchomera leptopoda, 129 
Lonchopalpus, 178 
Longina, 213 
longinidi, 211 
Loxocerid^, 210, 229 
Loxonerva, 218 

„ decora, 218 

Lucilia, 196, 197, 198, 200 
abdominalis, 200 
bengalensis, 198 
brevigaster, 198 
cseruleifrons, 198 
chalybea, 199 
cssrulea, 199 
cyanea, 199 
defixa, 199 
devisa, 199 
duaj, 199 
eximia, 198 
flavicalyptrata, 198 
flaviceps, 197, 199 
flavidipennis, 198 
indica, 19S 
inducta, 199 
Zcwita, 200 
leonardi, 200 



338 



In dex. 



Lucilia, leucodes, 200 
,, ligurriens, 200 
,, orientalis, 199 
,, pavonina, 200 
„ phellia, 199 
,, philippensis, 198 
,, pinguis, 200 
„ polita, 199 
,, porphyrina, 198 
„ reetinervis, 200 
„ ruficeps, 199 
,, ruficornis, 199 
„ serenissima, 199 
„ temperata, 199 
„ trita, 199 
„ inretis, 200 
„ viridiaurea, 200 
„ vittata, 199 
Lycastris, 167 

„ albipes, 167 
Li/da, 209 
Lydella, 181, 182, 185, 186 

„ lucagus, 185 
Macharece, 182 
Macrochira, 231 
Macrosoma, 203 
Macrotoma, 213 

„ pelleterii, 213 

Magnolia, 54 
Maira, 149 

„ iewea, 150 
„ cambodgiensis, 150 
„ elegans, 150 
„ hispideUa, 150 
,, nigrithorax, 150 
,, nycthemera, 150 
„ paria, 150 
„ producfa, 150 
,, scapwian's, 150 
„ spectabilis, 149 
,, tuberculata, 150 
Malacosoile, 207 
Marshamia, 183 

„ pofcms, 183 

Mastcera, 181, 186 

„ albescens, 181 
„ cilipes, 181 
„ elongata, 181 
„ incivica, 181 
„ longiseta, 181 
,, mretceps, 181 
„ rubriventris, 181 
„ tenuisetosa, 181 
„ mcaWa, 181 
Medina, 182 
Megacephali, 163 
Megachetum, 229 
Megaglossa, 220 
Megapollion, 136 
Mc^aspts, 168 

„ chrysopygas, 168 



Megrasjpis, crassws, 168 
„ errans, 168 

„ zonalis, 168 

Megistog aster, 188 

„ costatus, 188 

,, fuscipennis, 188 

„ imbrasus, 188 

Meigenia, 181 

„ ciliata, 181 
„ latestriata, 181 

Meiogyne, virgata, 29 

Melanomya, 188 

Melanophora, 188 

Melanostoma, 175, 177 

„ orientalis, 177 

,, univittata, 177 

Melina, 208 

Melinda, 196, 197, 198 
,, metilia, 196 

Melithreptus, 177 

MelitobIjE, 234 

Melius erytropygatum, 136 

Melodorum, 3, 41, 64, 70, 101, 107, 111, 
112, 113 
„ bancanum, 105 

„ cylindricum, 102, 106 

„ elegans, 103, 111, 112 

„ /wZsrens, 101, 102, 104, 111, 

112 
„ glaucum, 63 

„ hypoglaucum, 102, 106, 107 

„ Kentii, 112 

„ lanuginosum, 103, 108 

„ latifolium, 103, 105, 106, 108 

„ „ rar. ovoidea, 106 

„ „ „ typica, 106 

* „ litseaefolium, 101, 103 

„ macranthum, 102, 104 

„ Maingayi, 103, 109 

„ manubriatum, 102, 104 

,, mollissimum, 105 

„ monospermum, 85 

„ parviflorum, 102, 107, 108 

„ pisocarpum, 103, 112 

„ prismaticum, 103, 109, 111 

„ pyramidale, 112 

„ t rubiginosum, 103 

,, sphaerocarpum, 102, 107, 108 

Meriania, 181 

Mericia, 18 L 

Merodon, 171 

,, albifasciatus, 171 
„ varicolor, 171 

Mesogramma, 177 

Mesograpta, 177 

Mesorhaga, 158 

,, torquata, 158 

Metallea, 201 

Metopia, 182 

Metopina, 234 

Mezoneuron, 130 



Index. 



339 



*Mezoneuron, andamanicum, 130, 131 
„ cucullatum, 130 

,, enneaphyllum, 130 

,, glabrum, 130 

„ pubescens, 130 

,, sumatranum, J 30 

Mezzettia, 4, 128 
* „ Curtisii, 129 

„ Herveyana, 129, 130 
„ leptopoda, 129 
Michogaster, 215 

,, bambusarium, 215 

Michotamia, 148 

,, analis, 148 

,, annulata, 148 

Micramptoma, 173 
Microcera, 163 
Microdon, 166, 173 

,, apicalis, 166 
,, stilboides, 166 
„ sumatranus, 166 
Micropeza, 213, 214 

„ fragilis, 213 
Microstylium, 136 

„ amoyense, 136 

,, apicalis, 136 

,, basirufum, 136 

„ bicolor, 136 

,, brevipennatum, 136 

,, brunnipenne, 136 

„ erytropygum, 136 

„ eximium, 137 

„ flaviventre, 136 

„ hxmorrhoidale, 137 

,, incomptus, 137 

,, indutum, 137 

,, nigricauda, 134 

„ mgrnm, 1 37 

,, nitidiventris, 137 

„ sinense, 136 

,, spinitarsis, 136 

,, vestitum, 137 

„ meet, 137 

Mdas, 133 

,, rvficornis, 133 
Midasid^, 133 

Milesia, 165, 166, 168, 171, 172, 173 
,, gigas, 165 
j. limbipensis, 165 
,, macularis, 165 
,, meyeri, 165 
,, reinivardtii, 165 
„ vespoides, 165 
Miliusa, 4, 123 

„ campanulata, 124 
* „ longipes, 123, 124 
,, macroearpa, 124 
„ macropoda, 124 
,, mollis, 124 
„ Boxburghiana, 123, 124 
,, tristis, 124 



Miliusa, Wallichiana, 123 
Miliusi^:, 3, 90 
Mimegralla, 213 

„ birmanensis, 213 

Minettia, 210 

,, signata, 210 
Mitrephora, 3, 23, 79, 86, 87, 89, 90 
„ excelsa, 23 

,, macrophylla, 86, 87 

,, Maingayi, 86 

„ ,, uar. Kurzii, 86, 87 

* „ Prainii, 86, 88 

„ reticulata, 86, 87, 88 

,, serosa, 81 

,, Teysmanii, 86 

„ Thorellii, 87 

,, vaudseflora, 87 

Mitrephore^;, 3, 90 
Mochterus, 147 

„ patruelis, 147 

Monoon, 50 

„ canangioides, 57 

„ lateriflorwm, 59 
,, sumatranum, 53 
Morellia, 190, 196 

„ ajwea, 190, 196 
Morinia, 188 

„ c7iioe, 188 
Mosillus, 228 
Mufetia, 197 
IHitZio, 166, 175, 210 
„ serratus, 175 
Ifitsca, 155, 175, 188, 192, 193, 196, 197, 
198, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 
207, 217 

abdominalis, 200 
adumbrata, 202 
<#*a, 190 
aZbma, 202 
cmcta, 202 
chalybea, 199 
cinerea, 183 
cingalesina, 203 
cluvia, 202 
ccerulea, 199 
confixa, 201 
convex if rons, 202 
corvina, 202 
crux, '224i 
defixa, 199 
deter minata, 202 
diffidens, 201 
dioclea, 195 
divisa, 199 
domestica, 202 
dotata, 195 
dw», 199 
eutainiata, 203 
exempta, 201 
fcrrugincus, 217 
fuscipennis, 188 



340 



Index. 



Musca, hortensia, 202 
„ hortulana, 202 
„ humilis, 202 
„ inducta, 199, 202 
„ infixa, 188 
,, jejuna, 195 
„ lauta, 200 
„ ligurriens, 200 

,, mediana, 202 
,, metilia, 196 
,, inicans, 188 
,, munda, 201 
„ nebwZo, 202 
,, niveisynamma, 202 
„ perjixa, 201 
,, phellia, 199 
„ pinguis, 200 
„ planiceps, 202 
„ poWfo, 199 
„ porphyrina, 198 
,, refixa, 201 
„ remuria, ]97 
„ rufifrons, 202 
,, scapular*?, 203 
,, serenissima, 199 
„ temperata, 199 
„ fci/ato, 197 
„ fn'fa, 199 
„ varia, 180 
„ varicoJor, 201 
„ ventrosa, 202 
„ nVois, 200 
,, virid in urea, 200 

„ xanthomelas, 202 

muscabub, 192 

Muscejb, 192 

Mttecwui, 192, 193, 19C, 205 
„ quadrinotata, 193 

Jfya, 197 

M.t/antha, 207 

Mycetia, 231 

Mycophaga, 205 

jl/// ( /;r, 205 

Mi/das, 133 

MYDASmx, 133 

Mydasii, 133 

Mtdasina, 133 

Mydina, 203, 205 

Afvemws, 220 

Myobia, 185 

„ nigripes, 185 
,, rob ust a, 185 

Myocera, 187 

Myochrysa, 187 

MyoiUiia. 220 

MyODHME, 216 

Myoleja, 227 

Myopa, 178 

„ cincta, 178 

Myopella, 178 

Myophora, 190 



Myophora, duvaucelii, 190] 
„ fulvicornis, 190 

Hyophthiria, 235 

„ reduvioidesy 235 

Myopicte, 178 
Myopina, 178 

Myristica Finlaysoniana, 104 
Myrmecomya, 214 
JZVecera, 186 
Nectarinus, 175 
Nectarius, 175 
Nematoproctus, 158 
Nemorcea, 181 

„ bieolor, 182 
Nemorilla, 182 

Nemotelus, 133, 154, 158, 160 
-Nerea, 231 
JTen'a, 211 

NERIADES, 211 

Nerina, 204 

Nerius, 211, 214 

,, duplicatus, 211 
„ fusripermis, 211 

,, fuse us, 211 
„ indica, 211 
,, inermis, 211 
,, lincolatus, 211 

Xirmnmyia, 235 

NiteUia, 201 

Jfteeta, 223 

„ latiuscula, 223 

Nothybus, 211 

„ longithorax, 211 

Notiphila, 230, 232 

„ albiventris, 230 

,, chinensis, 230 

„ ciliata, 230 

,, dorsopunctata, 230 

„ fasiata, 230 

,, iminiiciiluta, 230 

„ indica, 230 

,, pcrcgrina, 230 

„ railititula, 230 

,, sinensis, 230 

.Nwsa, 118 

„ sequalis, 148 
„ formio, 148 

Nyctcribia, 236 

„ ferrarii, 236 

,, hopei, 236 

,, jenynsii, 236 

,, viinuta, 236 

,, roylii, 236 

,, sykesii, 236 

Nycteribi*:, '234, 236 

Nycteribid^:, 234, 236 

Oblicia, 210 

Ochromyia, 195, 198 
,, bieolor, 195 

„ fasciata, 195 

„ fulcescens, 195 



Index. 



341 



Ochromyia, javana, 195 
,, jejuna, J 95 

„ quadriuotata, 195 

Ochropleurum, 186 

,, javanum, 186 

Ochthera, 231 

„ rotimdata, 231 

Ocyphro, 179 

Ocyptera, 191 

,, bicolor, 191 

„ fuscipennis, 191 

,, umbripennis, 191 

Ocypterat^:, 176, 191 

OCTPTERID^;, 191 

CEsTRACIDES, 177 

CESTRIDiE, 177, 178 

(Estrus, 178 

Olfersia, 235 

,, longipalpis, 235 

,, spinifera, 236 

OZma, 232 

Ommatius, 139 

,, cmdrocles, 140 

„ argyrochirus, 140 

„ aurata, 139 

„ chinensis, 140 

„ compeditus, 139 

,, conopsoides, 139, 140 

„ cort/phe, 140 

,, despectus, 140 

„ dispar, 140 

j, frauenfeldi, 140 

„ fulvidus, 140 

„ gracilis, 140 

,, hecale, 140 

,, impeditus, 140 

,, inextricatus, 140 

,, inswlaris, 141 

„ leucopogon, 139 

,, minor, 140 

„ nanus, 140 

„ noctifer, 140 

„ pennies, 140 

,, pictipennis, 140 

,, pinguis, 141 

,, platymelas, 139 

,, rubicundus, 141 

„ rufipes, 140 

,, signinipes, 140 

,, spathulata, 139 

,, spinibarbis, 140 

,, suffitsus, 141 

, , taeniomerus, 

Onodont, 203 

Oodigaster, 183 

Ophira, 203 

,, congressa, 203 
,, nigra, 204 
,, riparia, 204 

Oplogaster, 205 

44 



Opomyza, 232 
Opomyzidjs, 210, 211 
Orectocera, 185 

,, mican-s, 185 

Orellia, 185 
Ormia, 195 
Omidia, 174 
Omithomyia, 235 

„ columbse, 235 

,, javana, 235 

,, nigricans, 235 

Ornitophila, 235 
Orophea, 3, 79, 87, 88, 89, 90 
acuminata, 82 
anceps, 86 
cunelformis, 83, 84 
dodecandra, 80, 84 
enterocarpa, 79, 82 
gracilis, 79, 83 
hastuta, 80, 83 
hexandra, 79, 8i 
hirsuta, 79, 81 
Katschallica, 79, 80 
maculata, 79, 82, 85 
polycarpa, 80, 85 
reticulata, 87 
sefosa, 79, 80 
Thorelii, 82 
undulata, 86 
uniflora, 83 
Ortalida, 216 
Ortalims, 214, 223 
Ortalis, 214, 220, 221 
,, isara, 220 
„ rutilans, 220 
Oscinides, 232 
Oscinina, 232 

Oscinis, 211, 217, 220, 232, 233 
„ ensifera, 233 
,, insignis, 233 
Osmcea, 186 
OitYes, 220 
Oxycephala, 218 

,, pictipennis, 218 

Oxigraphide, 272 
Oxymitra, 3, 97, 100 
„ ajjinis, 98 
,, bassicefolia, 110 

,, biglandulosa, 98, 100 

,, calycina, 98, 99 
,, cuneiformis, 99, 100 
„ j^ipes, 97, 98, 99 
„ ^iaaca, 97, 98, 101 

OXYMITRE^!, 90 

Oxyna, 226, 

Oxyphora, 223 

,, malaica, 223 

P't'lcmma, 237, 238, 239, 243, 241 
,, apicalis, 242 

„ augusta, 242 

„ bwmeisteri, 242 



342 



Index. 



Pademma, crassa, 241 

„ dharma, 242 

,, erichsonii, 241 

,, grantii, 241 

„ illustris, 241 

,, impcrialis, 242 

M indigofera, 242 

„ Hugii, 240, 241 

„ Jcollari, 241 

,, macclellandi, 242 

M masoni, 241 

„ pembertoni, 242 

„ regalis 242 

„ sherivillii, 242 

„ sinhcda, 240 

„ uniformis, 242 

PaZes, 182 
Palloptera, 209 
Palomidce, 208, 210, 229 
Palpomyia, 220 
Palpostoma, 195 
Pahma, 205, 206 
Ponzeria 181, 
Paracelyphus, 228, 

„ hyacinthus, 228 

Paragus, 175 

,, crcnulatus, 175 
„ politus, 175 
,, ser rains, 175 
Paralimna, 230 

,, 230 

Paralophosia vnibuta, 186 
Pamrtabotnjs swmabrcma, 115 
Pecfci'a, 189 
Pegomyia, 204 
/ 179, 180 

„ javanica, 179 
Pelops doryca, 159 
Peodes, 158 

,, nicobarcnsis, 158 
Perichcta, 182 
Petalophora, 222 
Phceanthus, 4, 121 

* ,, mumicvs, 121, 122 

„ -cms, 124 

„ 121, 122 

„ mtfaww, 121, 122 

Phania, 191 

„ indiea, 191 
Phantasma, 213 
Phaonia, 203 
Pluisia, 179 

„ indiea, 179 
Phasiad^e, 179 
Pherbellia, 208 
Pherbina, 211 
Philinta, 207 
Phillodkomyna, 154 
Philodendria, 232 
Philodicus, 142, 143 

„ agnitus, 142 



Philodicus, ceylcmicus, 143 
,, chinensis, 143 

„ confinis, 143 

„ esoterno-testacca, 143 

„ fuscus, 142 
,, innotabilis, 142 

,, javanus, 142 

„ rubritarsatus, 143 

„ ruftbarbis, 143 

„ rufo-ungulatus 143 

„ xvestermanni, 143 

Philonicus, 143 

,, nigrosetosus, 143 

PTiora, 232, 234 

„ cleghorni, 234 
,, orientalis, 234 
,, sinensis, 234 

Phorbia, 204 

Phorella, 189 

PHOKIDJ3, 234 

Phormia, J 95, 197 

„ ctofafa, 195 
Phorocera, 182 

„ hynlipennis, 182 

„ javana, 182 

,, zebina, 182 
Phorosia, 178 
Phrissopodia, 189 

„ metallica, 189 

Phryno, 185, 186 
Phryxe, 181, 186 
Pkthiria, 163 

,, gracilis, 163 

Phthiridicm, 234, 236 
PlITIIlUoMYI.E, 234 

Pfowmosia, 195 

„ fulvicomis, 195 

Phyllis, 204 

Physocephala, 164 

Pliytomyia, 168 

„ chri/sopygus, 168 

Phytomyzides, 234 

Pictina, 178 

PlOPHILIDiE, 230, 231 

Pipiza, 175 

PIPCNCDLID.E, 163 

Pipiniculus, 163 

, abscissus, 163 

„ armatus, 163 

Platycheirus, 175 

Platychira, 182 

Plat y stoma, 218, 220, 226 
„ albitarsis, 220 

,, albovittatus, 220 

„ ductus, 227 

„ decora, 218 

„ irrorata, 220 

„ orientalis, 220 

„ punctiplena, 220 

„ rigida, 220 

„ s«2?er6a, 220 



Index. 



343 



Platystoma, xanthomera,' 220 
Plaxemya, 201 
Plintliomi/ia, 198 

„ emimelania, 198 

Pogonosoma, 149 

„ beccarii, 149 

,, stigmatica, 149 

Poilopus, 155 
Pollenia, 201 

,, muncla, 201 
,, reflectens, 201 
Polyalthia, 3, 28, 40, 41, 49, 58, 64, 97 
100, 129 
,, aberrans, 51, 63, 64 

„ andamanica, 50, 53, 56, 57 

„ argentea, 97 

* „ Beccarii, 52, 65 

„ biglandulosa, 100 

* „ &uKata, 51, 64 

,, cinnamomea, 52, 66 

* „ clavigera, 51, 60 

* ,, congregata, 51, 55, 61 
„ cuneiformis, 99, 100 

,, dubia, 96 

* ,, dumosa, 50, 52 
,, elliptica, 65 

„ fruticans, 21 

* ,, glomerata, 51, 61 

* „ Hookeriana, 50, 57 

* » hypogcea, 51, 62 

„ hypoleuca, 50, 52, 53 

,, Jenkinsii, 50, 54, 56, 57 

,, Korinti, 51 

* „ Kunstleri, 50, 55 
„ lateriflora, 51, 58 

* ,, macrantha, 50, 54, 6 
,, macrophylla, 76, 96 

* ,, macropoda, 51, 60 61 
,, niagnoliceflora, 50, 54 
„ obliqua, 51, 63 

* „ oblonga, 51, 65, 78 

* ,, pachyphylla, 52, 66 
,, pulchra, 50, 55 

„ ,, i>ar. angustifolia, 55 

„ pycnantha, 52, 67 

,, scleropliylla, 51, 59 

* „ Scortechinii, 50, 56 

,, simiarum, 50, 58, 59 

,, ,, -uar. parvifolia, 58 

„ subcordata, 51, 64 

,, sit&erosa, 52 

,, sumatrana, 50, 53 

,, Tei/smannii, 66 

Poli/cheta, 182 
Polyctenes, 235 

Zi/ne, 235 
,, spasmas, 235 

Polystodes, 215 

Popo!<ua, 3, 21, 28, 88, 89, 90, 97 
„ aflinis, 92 
,, Beddomiana, 93 



Popowia, fcetida, 91, 93 

* „ /msc«, 91, 94, 95 

Helferi, 91, 93 
„ Hookeri, 91, 97 

Kurzii, 89, 91, 96, 97 
„ nervifolia, 27, 28, 91, 95 

* „ nitida, 21, 91, 92, 97 
„ parvifolia, 97 

„ piauciflora, 91, 92 

* ,, perakensis, 91, 94 
„ pisocarpa, 90 

,, ramosissima, 90, 91, 92, 94 

,, rufula, 92 

,, tomentosa, 91, 95 

* „ velutina, 91, 94 
Porphyrons, 157, 158 
Priomerus, 168 

„ fasciatus, 168 

Proctachantus, 143 

Promachus, 141, 143 

„ albopilosus, 141 

,, amorges, 141 

„ anicius, 141 

„ bifasciatus, 142 

„ felinus, 142 

„ gobares, 141 

,, heteropterus, 141 

,, inomatus, 142 

,, leucopareus, 142 

„. maculatus, 142 

„ marcii, 141 

,, melampygus, 142 

,, nicobarensis, 141 

„ orientalis, 141 

„ paliipennis, 141 

„ rufimistacea, 141 

„ testaceipes, 141 

,, viridAventris, 141 

„ vittula, 142 

Prosyrogaster, 219 

„ chelyonothus, 219 

Pseuduvaria reticulata, 87 

PsiZa, 210 

,, apicalis, 210 
,, craciata, 222 

Psilides, 229 

PsiLiNiE, 210, 229 

Psilocephala, 154 

„ indica, ll 4 

Psilomyda, 210 

Psilomtdje, 210, 229 

Psilomyia, 210 

Psilopa, 231 

Psilopodius, 155 

,, eeneus, 155 

,, allectans, 157 

,, alliciens, 157 

,, apicalis, 156 

„ appendicidatus, 1 56 

,, ar,niUatus, 156 

„ bislectuii), 156 



344 



Index. 



Psilopodius, cfelestis, 156 
„ clams, 156 

,, collucens, 157 

,, conicomis, 156 

„ crinicomis, 156 

„ cupido, 156 

„ delectans, 157 

„ derelictus, 157 

,, elegans, 156 

filatus, 157 
„ fiavicornis, 156 

„ fuscopennatus, 156 

„ illiciens, 157 

„ leucopogon, 156 

„ nitens, 156 

„ obscuratus, 157 

„ patellatus, 157 

,, posticus, 156 

„ prolectans, 157 

„ proliciens, 157 

„ pusilhis, 156 

„ robwstws, 156 

„ setipes, 156 

„ subnotatus, 156 

„ tenebrosus, 157 

„ villi pes, 157 

„ vittatus, 156 

Psilopus, 155 

„ globifer, 155 
Pterogenia, 219 

„ dayak, 219 
„ flavipennis, 219 

Pterospylus, 155 

„ bicolor, 155 

Ptilona, 227 

„ breti'eomrs, 227 
„ ditnlopi, 227 
„ notabilis, 227 
„ scvmaculata, 227 
Pupipara, 234 
Purpurellia, 178 

PUTRELLIDE.E, 234 

Pyramidanthe, 103 

„ macrantha, 111 

„ ntfa, 110, 111 

Pyrellia, 200 

„ confixa, 201 

„ diffidens, 201 

„ exempta, 207 

„ per/ixa, 201 

„ re/a-rt, 201 

„ 8t"«a7i, 201 

„ sfe77a, 201 

„ violacea, 200 
Pyrophcena, 175 
Ramburia, 186 

Ranunculace.e, 270, 271, 273, 316 
Ranunculus Shaftoanus, 272 
Raphina, 155 
Rapliis, 189 

„ elongata, 189 



Raymondia, 236 

„ huberi, 236 

„ hollari, 236 

Reaumuria, 179 
Rliadinomyia, 221 

,, orientalis, 221 

Rhaphium, 157 

„ dilatatum, 157 

Rhedia, 179 

„ aim, 179 
Rhengice, 172 
Rliinia, 193 

„ fulvipes, 193 
„ testacea, 193 
Rhopalocarpus, 69 

„ fruticosus, 68 

Rhynchomya, 192 

,, aberraws, 192 

„ bicolor, 192 

,, indica, 192 

„ obsoleta, 192 

„ palliceps, 192 

„ plumata, 192 

Rhynomya, 182 
Rhysomyzce, 179, 191 
Ei'oaa, 222 

„ confinis, 222 
„ erebus, 222 
„ lanceolata, 222 

„ 7103!, 222 

Rivellia, 221 

„ persicx, 221 
Roesellia, 185 
Rohrella, 203, 205 
Rutilia, 187 

,, angusticarinata, 187 
„ flavipennis, 187 
„ nitens, 287 
Sageraea, 2, 6, 7 
„ elliptica, 7 
„ Hookeri, 7 
Salpinx crassa, 241 
,, erichsonii, 241 
,, grantii, 241 
„ illustris, 241 
„ Mugii, 241 
,, masoni, 241 
Snpromyza, 209, 210 

„ bengalensis, 209 

„ biguttata, 209 

„ conferta, 209 

„ fallenii, 209 

„ javana, 210 

„ ieris, 209 

„ pcesila, 210 

„ scutellaris, 210 

Sapromyzim;, 229 
Sarcophaga, 189, 190, 196 
,, aliena, 190 

„ emigrata, 190 

„ indicata, 190 



Tndete. 



345 



Sarcophaga, javana, 189 

lineatocollis, 189 

princeps, 189 

reciproca, 190 

ruficornis, 189 

rufipalpis, 190 

sericea, 190 

taenionota, 189 

tenuipalpis, 189 
Sarcophagece, 188 
Sarcophagus, 188 
Sarcophila, 190 

„ aZ&a, 190 

Sargus, 229 
Saropogon, 135 

„ scalare, 135 

Satyra, 158 
Scaptomyza, 231 

Scatomyzids, 207, 208, 210, 234 
Scatomyzides, 207, 208, 229 
Scatophaga, 208, 210, 220, 224, 226, 227 
Scatophagies, 207 

St'ATOPHAGINA, 207, 208 

Schoenomyza, 205 
Scholastes, 219, 226 

„ ductus, 227 

Sciapus, 155 
Sciomyza, 208 

„ orientalis, 208 
,, propinqua, 209 
„ repleta, 208 
„ reticulata, 209 
,, terminalis, 209 
Sciomyzids, 210 
Sciomyzina, 208, 210 
Scceva, 175 

„ scutellaris, 176 
Scylaticus, 138 

„ degener, 139 

„ vertebratus, 138 

Scyomyzides, 229 
Senogaster, 172 

„ lutescens, 172 

Senometopia, 186 
Senopterina, 218 

„ senea, 218 

„ batavensis, 218 

„ fiavipes, 218 

„ labialis, 218 

,, marginata, 218 

„ zonalis, 218 

Sepedon, 210 

„ asnescens, 211 
,, crishna, 211 
,, ferruginosus, 210 
,, javanensis, 210 
,, plombellus, 211 
Sepsid.e, 211, 214 
Sepsis, 214 

,, bicolor, 215 
„ complicata, 214 



Sepsis, indica, 214 
,, lateralis, 214 
„ monostigma, 215 
,, nit ens, 214 
„ trivittata, 214 
,, viduata, 215 

Servillia, 180 

Stews, 178 

Silbomyia, 188 

„ fumipennis, 188 

,, fuscipennis, 188 

„ infixa, 188 

„ micans, 183 

Simosyrphus, 161, 175 

,, planifacies, 167 

Sisyropa, 182 

„ thermophila, 182 

Sitarea, 224 

Solieria, 185 

Somomya, 197, 198 

„ atrifacies, 198 
„ birmanensis, 197 
„ ceeruleocincta, 197 
,, ccerulcolimbata, 198 
„ cyaneocincta, 198 
„ dives, 198 
„ fuscocincta, 197 
„ infumata, 197 
„ melanorhina, 198 
„ nebulosa, 198 
„ nitidifacies, 198 
„ obesa, 197 
„ pachysoma, 198 
„ pagodina, 197 
„ pictifacies, 197 
„ rubiginosa, 197 
„ versicolor, 197 
„ xanthomera, 198 

Sophia, 187 

Sophira, 222 

„ concinna, 222 
„ venusta, 223 

Spallanzania, 179 

Spariglossum, 164 

Spathipsilopus, 155 

„ globifer, 155 

Spatigaster, 175 

Spazigaster, 175 

Sphserocera, 231 

SPHiEROCERIDS, 234 

Sphegina, 168 

„ macropoda, 168 

Sphenella, 226, 227 
,, indica, 227 
„ sinensis, 227 

Sphixea, 165 

„ flavifacies, 165 
„ fulvipes, 165 
„ fuscicosta, 165 

Sphiximorpha, 165 

Sphixosoma, 164 



346 



Index. 



Sphixosoma, anchor ata, 165 
Sphosrophoria, 177 

„ bengalensis, 177 

„ indiana, 177 

Sphryracephala, 216 

,, hearseiana, 216 

Spilogaster, 203, 205 

,, albiceps, 205 

,, leucocerus, 205 

„ prwmosits, 205 

Stelechocarpus, 2, 4, 5 

„ Burahol, 4, 5, 6 

* ,, nitidus, 4, 5 

„ punctatus, 4 

Stenopetalon, 43 
Stichopogon, 138 

„ albicapiUus, 138 

,, nicobarensis, 138 

Stictoplcea, 237 

„ harrisii, 245 

Stomorhina, 193 

„ hirittata, 193 

,, quadrinotata, 193 

Stomoxis, 192 

„ calcitravs, 192 
„ flavvpennis, 192 
„ lildlriv, 192 
„ plurinotatus, 192 
Strutiomys, 166 
Strkblidje, 234, 236 
Streblidi, 234, 236 
Strumeta, 223 

„ conforms, 223 
Btylophora, 225 

„ zonata, 225 

a, 208, 209 
Sytota, 209 
Syinuirplioncura, 201 

„ ciprina, 201 

Synolcus, 147 

„ xanthopus, 147 
'.sin, 192 
Byritia, 173 

„ oricntalis, 173 
„ rujifacies, 173 

SYRPHIfi, 164 

Syrphid^:, 164 
SYRPHIN.fi, 164 

Byrphus, 165, 166. 167, 168, 189, 171, 172, 
173, 174,^175, 177, 191, 210 

„ alter nuns, 175 

„ iircuritm, 169 

„ ossimiW8, 176 

,, baltcatus, 175 

„ confrater, 176 

,, conscquens, 177 

„ constat His, 176 

,, corollse, 176 

„ coromancZeZenstSj 176 

„ cothonea, 176 

„ cranages, 176 



Syrphus, crassus, 1 68 

„ cyatJiifer, 177 

„ divertens, 177 

„ duplex, 177 

„ ericetorum, 167 

„ erythropygus, 175 

„ fascipennis, 175 

,, heterogaster, 177 

„ incisuralis, 167 

,, infirmus, 175 

,, javanus, 176 

,, lunatus, 176 

„ macropterus, 177 

,, megacephalus, 168 

,, mundus, 176 

,, nectarinus, 175 

„ neglectus, 176 

„ cegrotus, 175 

,, opimius, 176 

,, orientalis, 177 

„ orsua, 176 

„ pedius, 176 

,, plani fades, 167 

,, plcuralis, 177 

,, quadrilineatus, 169 

,, quinquestriatus, 169 

„ rufofasciatus, 176 

„ salvias, 167 

„ Scutellaria, 176 

,, serarises, 176 

,, splendens, 177 

„ striatum, 176 

,, triligatus, 175 

„ trilimbatus, 175 

„ inii vittata, 177 

,, virtltnircii*, 176 

,, zonalis, 168 

„ zonatus, 1G8 
Sytropus, 163 

„ eumenoides, 163 

,, ophioneus, 163 

,, polistoides, 163 

„ tipuloides, 163 
Tachina, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 
186, 192 

,, adusta, 184 

„ alacris, 186 

„ aZta, 184 

„ atriventris, 184 
beelzebub, 186 

,, bomboides, 184 

„ cilipes 181 

,, cinerea, 183 

„ convergens, 183 

„ dorsal i.<, 184 

„ ewans, 183 

„ fasciata, 184 

„ fart'iic/iiii*, 183 

,, fulva, 184 

,, grandis, 184 

„ imbrasus, 188 



Index. 



347 



Tachina, imbuta, 186 

,, indica, 182 

„ innocens, 184 

„ javana, 180, 184) 

„ litlianthrax 180 

,, macularis, 183 

,, mellea, 183 

„ metallica, 183 

,, molitor, 181) 

,, munda, 183 

„ nigricornis, 183 

„ nigriventris, 183 

„ nitida, 184 

„ ophirica, 185 

„ orbata, 184 

„ orientalis, 184 

„ potans, 183 

„ psamathe, 181 

» rufifrons, 183 

,, salva, 184 

„ sobria, 184 

,, subcinerea, 181 

,, sugens, 183 

„ thermophila, 182 

„ tricincta, 184 

„ umbrosa, 184 

,, viridiaurea, 183 
Tachinari^i, 179 
Tachinarice, 179 
Tachinid^:, 179 
Tachydromyia. 155 
Tac hydro jiyn.*:, 154 
Tseniaptera, 213 

„ albimana, 213 

„ amsena, 213 

„ cinereipennis, 213 

Tairmairia, 173 
Tanipoda, 212 

„ caligata, 212 

„ cubitalis, 213 

„ luteilabris, 213 

„ strenua, 212 
Tanypezina, 211 
Tanypezin^;, 211, 214 
Teleopsis, 216 

„ breviscopium, 216 

„ fulviventris, 216 

,, longiscopium, 216 

„ syhesii, 216 
Temnocera, 174 

„ violacea, 174 

Tephitis fessata, 224 
Tephritid/e, 216, 223 
Tephritis, 200, 214, 217, 220, 221, 224, 
226, 227. 228, 232 

,, asteria, 226 

„ brahma, 226 

„ fasciventris, 226 

„ paritii, 226 

,, violacea, 200 
Tephritoidi, 216 



Tepritis, 232 
Terellia, 224 
Tetanocera, 211 

,, discalis, 211 

TETANOCERIDiE, 210 

Tetanocerin^, 210 
Tezara, 214 

,, compressa, 214 
Thalictrum punduanum, 271 

» „ uar rufum, 271 

Thelaira, 187 
Thelidomyd^i, 211, 214 
Themara, 221 

„ ampla, 221 

,, hirtipes, 221 

,, maculipennis, 221 

,, ypsilon, 221 

THERAMYM3, 188 

Thereva, 154, 173, 179 
,, albina, 154 
,, bigoti, 154 

,, cylindrica, 154 
,, indica, 154 
,, lateralis, 154 
,, nigella, 154 
„ nivaria, 154 
,, persequa, 154 
, prsecedens, 154 
„ sequa, 154 

„ seqiiens, 154 
THEREVIDiE, 153 
Therobia, 178 

,, abdominalis, 178 
TJiryptocera, 186 

,, setinervis, 186 
Tigridemyia, 167 
Tigridiamyia, 167 
Tigridomyia, 167 

„ pictipes, 167 

Tt'mia, 228 
Tolmerus, 147 

„ agilis, 147 
,, nicobarencis, 147 
Toxonevra, 209 
Toxophora, 163 

„ javana, 163 

„ zilpa, 163 
Trennia, 203 
Trinaria, 159 
Trineura, 232, 234 

„ peregrina, 232 
Trineura, 231 
Trineurides, 234 
Trivalvaria, 97 
Trixomorpha, 182 

„ indica, 180, 182 

Trollius, 271 

„ Zaii'Ms, 272 
„ palustris, 271 
„ 172 
„ sinensis, 172 



348 



Index. 



Trupanea, 141, 142, 143, 220, 224, 226 

,, agnita, 144 

„ albopilosa, 143 

„ albopilosus, 141 

,, amorges, 141 

,, apicalis, 143 

„ apivora, 144 

,, bifasciata, 143 

,, bifasciatus, 142 

,, caJamws, 144 

,, confinis, 143 

„ contractu, 144 

„ duvaucelii, 143 

„ cxterno-testacea, 143 

,, flavibarbis, 143 

,, fwscus, 142 

,, heteropterus, 141 

,, innotabilis, 142 

,, tnserews, 144 

„ javana, 142 

., leucopyga, 144 

,, maculatus, 142 

,, maculipes, 144 

,, marcii, 141 

,, vrientalis, 141 

„ pallipeunis, 141 

„ rubritarsata, 142 

,, rubrttarstztus, 143 

„ rufimistacca, 141 

„ rufo-ungulatux, 143 

,, sagittifera, 144 

„ telifcra, 144 

„ testaceipes, 141 

,, univcntris, 144 

,, varipes, 143 

„ ctrtdweTifrts, 141 

„ wester manni, 143 
Trypeta, 222, 224, 225, 226, 227 

,, acrostacta, 224 

„ antiqua, 225 

„ attttOj 224 

„ bast'/ans, 224 

„ capituta, 222 

,, coTitrarto, 225 

,, crtt0, 2'24 

„ cylindrica, 225 

,, fcrni'iiiicti, 225 

„ festata, 224 

,, wicwsa, 224, 225 

„ melaleuca, 224 

,, mixta, 225 

„ modesta, 224 

,. mutica, 225 

„ obsoleta, 224 

,, quadrinicisn, 227 

„ reinhardti, 224 

,, rudis, 224 

,, sinensis, 225 

,, sinica, 224 

„ sMZa, 225 

„ tubifera, 224 



Trypeta, tucia, 224 
„ vagfa, 224 
,, violacca, 224 
Trypetida, 223 
Trypetid^;, 216 
Trypetin^e, 216, 223 
Trypoderma, 178 

„ abdominalis, 178 

Tubicalyx, 130 
ZJZidia, 228 

»wea, 228 

cZcrasa, 228 

diver gens, 228 

fulviceps, 228 

melanophila, 228 
Ulidi^;, 227 
Ulidina, 228 
U>io»ia, 3, 40, 42, 49, 1 1 1 

amherstiana, 45 

biglandulosa, 45 

cauliflora, 66 

chinensis, 45 

cochin-chinensis, 44 

cordifolia, 45 

crinita, 43, 48 

Dasymasehala, 43, 47 

,, i?ar. Blumei, 47 

„ „ TFa«ic/n, 47 

desmantha, 43, 48 

Desmos, 43, 44 

discolor, 43, 44, 45, 47 

„ i>ar. bracteata, 45 
„ „ lozvigata, 45 
„ „ latifolia, 45 
,, „ jntbescems, 45 
„ „ pubifiora, 45 

dumosa, 43, 45 

Dunalii, 43, 45 

fulva, 44 

grcmdiflora, 17 

latifolia, 105 

leptopetala, 42 

Lessertiana, 45 

longifora, 43, 46, 47 

macravtha, 111 

macrophylla, 76 

mesnyi, 64 

odoratu, 40, 42 

pedunculosa, 44 

pycnantha, 48, 67 

Roxburghiana, 45 

simiarum, 58 

sphxrocarpa, 108 

stenopetala, 43, 49 

suareoZejis, 37 

snbcordata, 65 

undulata, 45 

virgata, 29 

TFro?/*', 43, 47 
Unonea;, 2, 8, 90 
UreKta, 226 



Indea 



349 



Urophora, 226, 227 

„ fasciata, 226 
„ tseniata, 226 
„ vittithorax, 226 

Uvaria, 2, 8, 11, 23, 24, 74, 79 

* „ andamanica, 13, 21 
„ astrosticta, 13, 23 

„ aurita, 15 
„ axillaris, 42 
,, Bwrahol, 6 
„ canangioides, 57 
,, cordata, 17 

* „ Curtis ii, 12, 19 
„ dioica, 124 

„ dulcis, 12, 14, 15 

„ elegans, 21, 111 

„ elliptica, 7 

„ excelsa, 13, 22 

,, flava, 18 

„ fracta, 42 

,, fulgens, 104 

„ gigantea, 74 

„ grandiflora, 14, 17 

,, Hamiltoni, 12, 13, 14 

j) „ it//'. Kurzii, 14 

„ heterocarpa, 23, 26 

„ hirsuta, 12, 18 

,, javana, 15 

£are^, 12, 13 

latifolia, 105, 106 
).- j, wzr. ovoidea, 106 

4 *"oica, 106 



Uvaria, tripetala, 122 
„ velutina, 18 
„ Vogelii, 90 
„ zeylanica, 40 
Uvaria, 2, 7, 8, 90 
1'iilmiia, 223 

„ complicata, 223 
Ventrimacula doryca, 159 
Vidalia, 225 

„ impressifrons, 225 
T'oZ((ceZ/a, 163, 174, 188, 190, 196, 201 
,, aurata, 174 
„ mutata, 174 
„ nubeculosa, 174 
„ obesa, 174 
„ opalina, 174 
„ peleterii, 174 
„ trifarciata, 174 

Fon'fl, 183 

WintJiemia, 182, 186 
Xarnuta, 209 

,, leucotelus, 209 
Xiphandrium, 157 
Itria, 221 

„ antica, 221 
„ obliqim, 221 
Xylopia, 3, 107, 111, 112 

„ caudata, 113, 117 
* „ Curtisii, 113, 116 
„ dicarpa, 113, 114 
„ elliptica, 113, 117 
„ ferruginea, 114, 120 

£,,„„,. no -.io 



350 



Index. 



Zenillia, 186 

Zigemula flavipennis, 219 

Zona, 200 

,, violacea, 200 
Zoobice, 179, 234 



Zoobidi, 234 
Zoobidoe 234 
Zoomyia, 235 
Zygsenula, 219 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE. 



No. 1.— 1892. 



I. — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. — By George King, M. B., 
LL. D., F. R. S., C. I. E., Superintendent of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. 

No. 4. 
As explained in No. 1 of these papers, I was unable to take up fclie 
Nat-)-"?,l Family of Anonaceae in its natural sequence. Having now 
been able + o work it out, I present my account of it to the Society. 
Another of the Thalamifloral families (Dipterocarpece) still remains to be 
worked out before beginning the Disciflorce. In the present paper 
I have followed, for the most part, the arrangement of tribes aud the 
limitations of genera adopted by Sir J. D. Hooker in his Flora of 
British India ; and in most of the instances where I have not done 
so the fact has been noted. 

Order IV. ANONACE.E. 
Trees or shrubs, often climbing and aromatic. Leaves alternate, 
exstipulate, simple, quite entire. Flowers 2- rarely 1-sexual. Sepals 3, 
free or connate, usually valvate, rarely imbricate. Petals 6, hypo°'\'nous 
2-seriate, or the inner absent. {Flowers dimerous in Disepalum). Stamens 
many, rarely definite, hypogynous, closely packed on the torus, filaments 
short or ; anthers adnate cells extrorse or sublateral, connective pro- 
duced into an oblong dilated or truncate head. Ovaries 1 or more, apo- 
1 



2 G-. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

carpous, very rarely (Anona~) syncarpous with distinct or agglutinated 
stigmas, style short or ; ovules 1 or more. Fruit of 1 or more, sessile 
or stalked, 1- or many-seeded, usually indekiscent carpels. Seeds 
large ; testa crustaceous or coriaceous ; albumen dense, ruminate, often 
divided almost to the axis into several series of horizontal plates ; 
embryo small or minute, cotyledons divaricating. — Distrib. Tropics of 
the Old World chiefly ; genera about 45 with 500 or 600 species. 
Tribe I. Uvari^. Petals 2-seriate, one or both 
series imbricate in bud. Stamens many, close- 
packed ; their anther-cells concealed by the 
overlapping connectives. Ovaries indefinite. 
Sepals imbricate ; trees or shrubs. 

Flowers small, globular, scarcely open- 
ing ; often uni-sexual and from the 
older branches or trunk ; ovules 6 to 
8, or indefinite. 

Trees ; flowers 1 -sexual ; ovules 
many ; torus conical or hemis- 
pheric ... ... ... 1. Stelechocarptis. 

Trees or shrubs ; flowers unisexual 
or hermaphrodite ; ovules 6 to 8 ; 
torus flat ... ... 2. Sageraea. 

Sepals valvate ; climbers. 

Flowers small, mostly hermaphrodite ; 
petals incurved, ovules 6 to 8; torus 
flat ... ... ... 3. Cyathostemma. 

Flowers usually large and from the leafy «. 

branches, petals spreading ; torus flat. 

Flowers 2-scxual ; ovules many ... 4. Uvaria, 
Flowers 1- or 2-sexual ; ovules so- 
litary, rarely 2 ... ... 5. Ellipeia. 

Tribe II. Unonej;. Petals valvate or open in bud, 
spreading in flower, flat, or concave at the base 
only ; inner subsimilar or 0. Stamens many, 
close-packed ; their anthei'-cells concealed by 
the overlapping connectives. Ovaries indefi- 
nite. 

Flowers trimerous. 

Petals conniving at the concave base and covering the stamens 
and ovaries. 

Ovaries 1-3, many-ovuled ; pedun- 
cles not hooked ... ... 6. Cynthocalyx. 



1892.] G. King — -Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 

Ovaries many, 2-ovuled : peduncles 

hooked ... ... ... 7. Artabotrys. 

Ovaries many ; ovules 4 or more ; 

peduncles straight ... ... 8. Drepananthus. 

Petals flat, spreading from the base. 
Ripe carpels indehiscent. 

Ovules many, 2 -seriate ; petals 
lanceolate, stamens with acute 
apical appendage ... 9. Ganangivm. 

Ovules 2-6, 1 -seriate on the 

ventral suture ... ... 10. JJnona. 

Ovules 1-2, basal or subbasal... 11. Polyalthia. 
Ripe carpels follicular ... 12. Anaxagorea. 

Flowers dimerous ... ... ... 13. Disepalum. 

Tribe III. Mitrephore^:. Petals valvate in bud, 
outer spreading ; inner dissimilar, concave, con- 
nivent, arching over the stamens and pistils, 
(divergent in some Mitreplwras) . Stamens many, 
(few in Orophea), closely packed ; anther-cells 
(except in Orophea) concealed by the overlapping 
connectives. Pistils numerous (few in some Oro- 
plieas). 

Inner petals clawed. 

Inner petals connivent in a cone, but 

not vaulted ... ... 14. Goniothalamus. 

Inner petals vaulted, 

Stamens about 6, Miliusoid ; inner 

petals longer than the outer ... 15. Orophea. 
Stamens numerous, Uvarioid ; inner 
petals not longer or very little 
longer than the outer ... 16. Mitrephora. 

Inner petals not clawed. 

Flowers globose ; petals subequal .., 17. Popoivia. 
Flowers elongate ; inner petals much 

shorter than the outer ... ... 18. Oxymitra. 

Tribe IV. Xtlopiej;. 'Petals valvate in bud, thick 
and rigid, connivent ; the inner similar but smaller, 
rarely 0. 

Outer petals broad ; torus convex ... 19. Melodomm. 
Outer petals narrow, often triquetrous ; 

torus flat or concave ... ... 20. X.ylopia. 

Tribe V. MiliusejE. Petals valvate in bud, the 



4 G-. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

outer sometimes very small like the sepals. Sta- 
mens often definite, loosely imbricate ; anther- 
cells (except in Phceanthus) not concealed by 
the connectives. Ovaries solitary or indefinite. 
Ovaries indefinite. 

Sepals and outer petals similar and minute ; 
inner petals very large, often cohering by 
their edges. 

Ovules 1 or 2 : stamens numerous, 
quadrate, with broad truncate 
apical processes concealing the 
anther-cells from above ... 21. Phceanthus. 

Ovules 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4 ; stamens 
few or numerous, compressed, the 
apical process of the connective 
compressed, rot broad or truncate, 
and not concealing the anther- 
cells from above ... ... 22. Miliusa. 

Petals larger than the sepals, often saccate 

at the base, subequal or the inner smaller 23. Alphonsea. 
Ovaries solitary. 

Outer petals valvate, inner imbricate ... 24. Kingstonia. 

All the petals valvate ... ... 25. Mezzettia. 

1. Stelechocari'US, Blume. 

Trees. Leaves coriaceous. Flowers dioecious, fascicled, on the old 
wood. Sepals 3, small, elliptic or orbicular, imbricate. Torus conical. 
Stamens indefinite ; connective dilated, truncate. Ovaries indefinite, 
ovoid ; stigma sessile ; ovules 6 or more. Ripe carpels large, berried, 
globose, 4-6-seeded. — Distrib. Species 3 or 4, all Malayan. 

Leaves pellucid-punctate ... ... ... 1 S. punctatus. 

Leaves not pellucid-punctate. 

Flowers of both sexes alike ... ... 2 S. niticlus. 

Male flowers smaller than the female ... 3 S. Burahol. 

1. Stelechocarpus rcxCTATUS, King n. sp. A tree 20 to 30 feet 
high : young branches slender, cinereous-pnberulous, becoming glabrous. 
Leaves membranous, minutely pellucid-punctate, elliptic-ovate, shortly 
acuminate, slightly narrowed in the lower fourth to the rounded sub- 
oblique base : upper surface shining, glabrous except the pubescent 
impressed midrib ; lower surface shining, paler than the uppter, sparsely 
puberulous or glabrous, the reticulations minute and distinct : main 
nerves 12 to 14 pairs, bold and prominent on the lower, slightly impres- 



1892.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 5 

seel on the upper, surface : length of blade 7 to 10 in., breadth 3 to 4 in. ; 
petiole '15 to "2 in., stout, pubescent. Male flowers in several-flowered 
fascicles from woody tubercles on the trunk, pedunculate : buds turbi- 
nate, nearly - 5 in., in diam. ; peduncles 1 to 1*5 in. long, stout, thickened 
upwards, ebracteolate, puberulous. Sepals very coriaceous, rotund, 
concave, conjoined at the base, spreading, rugose, pubescent outside, 
glabrous inside. Petals very coriaceous, rotund, concave, glabrous ; 
the outer 3 puberulous outside ; the inner three smaller than tbe outer, 
quite glabrous, otherwise like them and all of a dark brownish colour. 
Anthers sessile, flat, the cells elongate on the anterior surface, the back 
striate : apex without any appendage from the connective. Female 
flowers and fruit unknown. 

Perak ; King's Collector, No. 7183. 

Although female flowers and fruit of this have not yet been found, I 
describe it as a new species of Stelechocarpus without any hesitation. 
Its male flowers have exactly the facies of those of S. Burahol, Bl. ; but 
they are larger. They, however, differ as to shape of petals ; the leaves 
of this species are distinctly pellucid-punctate (while those of S. Burahol 
are not) and they are broader and have slightly more nerves than those of 
S. Burahol. When boiled, the flowers of the two have exactly the same 
peculiar sweetish smell. 

2. Stelechocarpus nitidus, King, n. sp. A tree 30 to 60 feet 
high ; all parts glabrous except the inflorescence : young branches 
darkly cinereous, slender. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, shortly 
acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces shining, very minutely scaly, 
the midrib and nerves deeply impressed on the upper, bold and promi- 
nent on the lower; the reticulations distinct on both : main nerves 10 
to 12 pairs, curved, sub-ascending, inter-arching within the edge : length 
of blade 6 to 9 in., breadth 1"8 to 3"25 in., petiole '35 in. Male flowers 
in many-flowered fascicles from tubercles on the trunk, pedicellate ; 
buds turbinate; flowei'S when open probably nearly 1 in. in diam. : 
pedicels stout, thickened upwards, 1 to 1*5 in. long, scui-fy-puberulous, 
each with several sub-rotund glabrous bracteoles mostly near its base. 
Sepals very coriaceous, shortly oblong, obtuse, concave, spreading, con- 
joined at the base, puberulous or glabrescent, warted externally. Outer 
3 petals much larger than the sepals and somewhat larger than the inner 
3 petals, rotund, concave, very coriaceous, glabrous, with scurfy warts 
externally near the middle : inner 3 petals coriaceous, rotund, blunt, 
cucullate, glabrous. Female flowers like the males, stamens none : 
Ovaries very numerous, obscurely 3-angled, adpressed-sericeous. Torus 
hemispheric. Ripe carpels broadly ovoid, blunt, 2 - 5 in. long, 175 in. in 
diam., puberulous, minutely warted ; pericarp thick, fleshy. Seeds 
about 8 in 2 rows, flattened, 125 in. long, and - 5 in. thick. 



6 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Perak ; in dense forest at low elevations, King's Collector, Nos. 7629 
and 8224. 

This species has the flowers of both sexes alike. The carpels of 
this species are much larger than those of S. Burahol, Bl. ; and its leaves 
are more thickly coriaceous and shining, the nerves and midrib being 
much more depressed on the upper and prominent on the lower surface. 

3. Stelechocarpus Burahol, H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 94. A tree 
20 to 60 feet high : young branches slender, dark-coloured, glabrous. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acute or very shortly acu- 
minate, the base cuneate : both surfaces glabrous, shining, the reti- 
culations minute and distinct, the lower with minute black dots, 
the upper with very minute scales ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, sub- 
ascending, prominent, inter-arching - 2 in. within the margin; length 
of blade 5 to 8 in. ; breadth l - 75 to 2 - 75 in. ; petiole '3 to "9 in. 
Male flowers much smaller than the female (only about "4 in. in diarn.), 
in fascicles of 8 to 16 from minutely bracteolate woody tubercles from 
the branches and trunk, pedicellate ; the pedicels slender, ebracteolate, 
tomentose, from - 5 to '75 in. long. Sepals coriaceous, triangular, spread- 
ing. Petals much longer than the sepals, oblong, sub-acute, warted, 
pubescent inside : anthers with obtuse terminal, dilated, 2-lobed apical 
appendages from the connective ; ovaries 0. Female flowers three times 
as huge as the males, and on similar pedicels; calyx not persistent ; corolla 
as in the male. Ovaries numerous, on an ovoid-conic torus, oval or 
obovate, the outer surface compressed, the inner with a vertical ridge 
and adpressed, pale hairs ; Btigma sessile, minutely lobed. Fruit on stout 
peduncles 2 to 3 in. long, thickened upwards. Pipe carpels few, shortly 
stalked, globose, obovate, about 1'5 in*, long, and 1'25 in. in diam. ; when 
young puberulous, verrucosa, afterwards nearly smooth ; pericarji pulpy, 
coriaceous externally. Seeds 4 to 6, large, oval, sub-compressed, sub- 
rugose. Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 47. Uvaria Burahol, Blume Bijdr. 14; 
Florae Java? Anon. 48, t. 23, and 25 C. ; Scheff. in Nat. Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. 
XXXI, 5. 

Singapore ; Lobb. Distrib. Java. 

There is sometimes a remarkable difference in the length of the 
petioles in this species, some of those on the same specimen being three 
times as long as others. 

2. Sageraea, Dalz. 

Trees. Leaves shining, and branches glabrous. Floivers small, 

axillary or fascicled on woody tubercles, 1-2-sexual. Sepals orbicular 

or ovate, imbricate. Petals 6, imbricate in 2 series, nearly equal, usually 

orbicular, very concave. Stamens 6-21, imbricate iu 2 or more series, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 7 

broadly oblong, thick, fleshy ; anther-cells dorsal, oblong ; connective 
produced. Ovaries 3-6 ; style short, stigma obtuse or capitate ; ovules 
6 to 8, on the ventral suture. Ripe carpels globose or ovoid, stalked. — 
Distrib. Species 6, tropical Asiatic. 

A genus closely allied to Bocagea, St. Hilaire, but differing from 
that in having its sepals and petals much imbricate instead of valvate ; 
in bearing more ovules, and more seeds in its ripe carpels ; in its 
anther-cells being more lateral and not so entirely dorsal as in Bocagea, 
and in the apical process of the connective being truncate. The flowers 
of Sageraea are small and the sepals and petals are very concave ; and 
in these respects, as well in the comparative fewness of the seeds in 
their ripe carpels, they diverge from those of typical TJvariai. Hooker 
filius and Thomson (in their Flora Indica), Bentham and Hooker (in 
their Genera Plantarum), and Baillon (in his Histoire des Plantes, Vol. 
I, 202, 281) retain Sageraea as a genus, — an example which I would have 
followed without any hesitation had not Sir Joseph Hooker united it 
with Bocagea in his Flora of British India. The extreme imbrication 
both of the sepals and petals appears to me however, in spite of Sir 
Joseph Hooker's more recent view, so insurmountable an argument 
against its reduction to a genus in which both these sets of organs are 
veiy distinctly valvate, that I adhere to the earlier view that Sageraea 
should remain distinct and be put in the tribe Uvarios. 

1. Sageraea elliptica, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 93. A laro-e 
tree ; all parts glabrous except the ciliate petals ; young branches rather 
stout, angled. Leaves coriaceous, narrowly oblong, acute (obtuse, when 
very old) ; the base narrowed, obtuse or minutely cordate, oblique : both 
surfaces shining; main nerves 14 to 16 pairs, spreading, faint; length 8 to 12 
in., breadth 2-25 to 35 in. ; petiole *15 in., very thick. Floivers monoe- 
cious, solitary and axillary, or fascicled on tubercles on the laro-er 
branches, small, red : pedicels "25 in. long, with several basal and medial 
bracts. Sepals small, semi-orbicular, glabrous, ciliate. Petals thick 
ovate-orbicular, concave, tubercular outside, glabrous, the edges ciliats 
•25 in. long ; the inner smaller than the outer. Stamens 12 to 18 the 
connective sub-quadrate at the apex ; anthers extrorse. Ovaries in female 
flower about 3, glabrous ; ovules about 8. Pipe carpels sub-sessile, glo- 
bose, glabrous, 1 in. in diam., seeds several. Sageraea Hooker i, Pierre Flore 
Forest. Coch-Chine t. 15. Bocagea elliptica, H. f. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. I 
92 ; Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 50. Uvaria elliptica, A. DC. in Mem. Soc 
Genev. v. 27 ; Wall. Cat. 6470, 7421. Biospyros? frondosa, Wall. Cat! 
4125. 

Burmah to Penang. 

An imperfectly known species, badly represented in collections. 



8 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

3. Cyathostemma, Griffith. 
Scandent shrabs. Flowers subglobose in di- or tri-chotomous pendu- 
lous cymes from the old wood (flowers dimorphous in sp. 3.) Sepals 3, 
connate, hirsute. Petals 6, 2-sei'iate, short, sub-equal, their bases fleshy, 
all valvate at the base, the tips imbricate. Torus flat, margin convex. 
Stamens many, linear ; anthers sub-introrse ; process of connective ob- 
lique, incurved. Ovaries many; style cylindric, glabrous, notched ; ovules 
many. Ripe carpels oblong-ovoid, many-seeded. 

The petals in this genus are so unmistakeably imbricate in estiva- 
tion, that I remove it from the tribe Unonece to TJvariai. The ripe carpels 
moreover much resemble those of some species of JJvaria. Of the five 
species described below, three are quite new. The first (0. viridiflorum) 
is the plant upon which Griffith founded the genus ; while the fourth has 
been hitherto referred to JJvaria under the specific name U. parviflora. 
Flowers uniform and hermaphrodite. 

Flowers in more or less elongated pendent 
cymes 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate ; 

inner petals contracted at the base ... 1. C. viridiflorum. 
Leaves obovate-elliptic to obovate-oblong ; 

petals not contracted at the base ... 2. G. Scortechinii. 
Flowers in stem-fascicles of 10 to 14, or in 
axillary pairs ; leaves with pubescent 
midribs ... ... ... 3. G. Wraiji. 

Flowers in 2- or 3-flowered extra-axillary 
or leaf- opposed fascicles or cymes : 
leaves quite glabrous ... ... 4. C. Hooheri. 

Flowers dimorphous, the females with a few abor- 
tive anthers ... ... ... 5. (7. acuminatum. 

1. Cyatiiostemma viridiflorum, Griff. Notulse TV, 707: Ic. PI. 
IV, t. 650. Scandent (?) the young branches thin, glabrous, dark-col- 
oured when di'y. Leaces coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 
apiculate ; the base slightly narrowed, minutely cordate : both sur- 
faces rather dull ; the upper glabrous except the minutely tomentose 
midrib ; the lower darker, puberulous on the midrib and 8 to 10 pairs 
of rather prominent spreading main nerves ; length 4 - 5 to 7'5 in., 
breadth To to 2 in., petiole '2 in. Cymes dJchotomous, on peduncles 
several inches long from warty tubercles on the older roughly striate 
branches, few-flowered, corymbose, minutely rusty-tomentose, with an 
oblong bract at each bifurcation and another about the middle of each 
pedicel. Flowers "5 in. in diam. Sepals broadly cordate, spreading or 
sub-reflexed. Petals acute, the base contracted especially in those of 



1892.1 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 9 

the inner row, coriaceous, tomenfcose. Ovaries toraentose. Ripe carpels 
stalked, 1 to 1*5 in. long", oblong-ovoid, blunt, glabrous ; stalk "75 in. 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 57 ; Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I, 33. 

Eastern Peninsula; Griffith. Penan g ; Maingay (Kew Distrib.) 
No 36. 

A species known by only a few imperfect specimens. According 
to Griffith, the wood of this species resembles that of a Menisperm. 
Kurz gives this as a native of the Andamans ; but I have seen no speci- 
men from those islands. 

2. Cyathostemma Scortechinii, n. sp, King. A climber 50 to 70 
feet long : branches of all ages, except the very youngest, dark- coloured, 
glabrous ; the very youngest slender and rufous-pubescent. Leaves 
coriaceous, obovate-elliptic to obovate-oblong, shortly apiculate, slightly 
narrowed to the sub-cuneate, not cordate, base ; upper surface rather 
dull, glabrous except the minutely pubescent midrib; lower glabrous, 
the midrib slightly muricuiate, the reticulations fine, distinct : main nerves 
8 to 11 pairs, prominent beneath : length 6 to 10 in., breadth 2'5 to 4 in., 
petiole "25 in. Cymes di- or tri-chotomous, on pedicels 2 to 12 in. long 
from the older branches ; minutely rnfous-tomentose, bracteate in the 
upper half ; the bracts numerous, ovate to rotund, concave. Flowers "5 
in. in diam. Sepals sub-rotund, united into an obscurely 3-angled 
flattish cup. Petals equal, not much longer than, the stamens, sub- 
rotund, puberulous, coriaceous. Connective of stamens produced at the 
apex, obliquely truncate. Ovaries numerous, cylindric, pubescent : 
stigmas truncate : ovules numerous. Ripe carpels oblong', slightly oblique, 
apiculate, trans versly furrowed, glabrous, shortly stalked, 125 to L'5 in. 
long ; pericarp thin. Seeds 8 to 10, flattened, ovoid, smooth. 

Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector, No. 5857. Singapore : 
Ridley. 

The specimens collected by the late Father Scortechini wei'e 
referred by him to Cyathostemma viridiflorum, Griff., from which species 
however, this differs by its larger, more obovate, more glabrous, leaves ; 
flat calyx-cup formed by the entirely connate sepals ; more rotund petals, 
not contracted at the base ; and narrower shorter-stalked fruit. 

3. Cyathostemma Wrayi, King n. sp. A creeper 20 to 60 feet 
long : young branches rufous-puberulous, ultimately glabrous and 
darkly cinerous. Leaves membi'anous, broadly oblanceolate, shortly and 
rather obtusely acuminate, narrowed below the middle to the rounded 
base ; both surfaces finely reticulate, the upper dull when dry, glabrous ; 
the midrib minutely pubescent ; lower surface shining, glabrous except 
the sparsely puberulous midrib ; main nerves 8 to 9 pairs, obliqre, 
forming double arches inside the margin, impressed on the upper, pro- 
2 



10 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

rninent on the lower surface ; length 7 to 9 in., breadth 2'5 to 3 in. ; 
petiole "2 in. Flowers in fascicles of 10 to 14 from tubercles on the 
older branches, or in pairs from the axils of the leaves, sub-globular, 
about "5 in. in diam. ; pedicels '25 to '4 in. long, granular, sparsely 
pubescent and with a small ovate bracteole near the base. Sepals broad- 
ly ovate, spreading, rufous-puberulous and granular outside, glabrous 
inside, '1 in. long. Petals concave, cartilaginous, slightly imbricate, 
minutely puberulous especially towards the edges ; the outer row ovate- 
orbicular, sub-acute, '35 in. long ; the inner row smaller, thicker, blunter 
and more imbricate than the outer. Stamens numerous ; the connective 
with a rather thick truncate, 4- or 5-sided apical process concealing the 
apices of the linear dorsal anthers. Ovaries numerous, obliquely oblong, 
curved, glabrous, pubescent at the base, 1 to 2-ovuled, with a conical, 
narrow, inflexed stigma. Ripe carpels reddish, ovoid, "4 to "6 in. long, 
glabrous, with a single ovoid or 2 plano-convex shining pale brown seeds : 
stalks about as long as the carpels, slender. 

Perak ; Scortechini, Wray, King's Collector. 

4. Cyathostemma Hookeki, King n. sp. A climber 40 to 80 feet 
long ; all parts, except the inflorescence, quite glabrous. Leaves mem- 
branous, broadly oblanceolate to oblong or ovate-elliptic, acute or very 
shortly and obtusely acuminate, the base rounded or sub-cuneate ; both 
surfaces shining, glabrous, minutely reticulate ; main nerves 9 or 10 
pairs, spreading or ascending, curving, inter-arching within the edge ; 
length 5'5 to 7 in., breadth 2'25 to 2*75 in., petiole "3 in. Floivers '25 
in. in diam., sub-globose, in extra-axillary or leaf-opposed fascicles or 
C) T mes of 2 or 3 ; pedicels slender, puberulous, "3 to '4 in long with 1 or 2 
bracteoles. Sepals spreading, broadly and obliquely ovate, sub-acute, 
slightly thickened at the base, '1 in. long. Petals concave ; the outer 
row slightly longer than the sepals but narrower, obovate, contracted 
into a pseudo-claw at the base, sparsely puberulous outside ; the inner 
row naiTOwer, thicker, and more concave, oblique. Stamens numerous, 
short, with a thick incurved apical process from the connective ; anther 
cells dorsal. Ovaries numerous, oblong, thickened upwards, puberulous ; 
the stigma large, sub-quadrate, slightly 2-lobed. Ripe carpels numer- 
ous, oblong to ovoid, blunt at each end, glabrescent, '75 to 1*75 in. long 
and 'G to 9 in. in diam. ; stalk 1*5 to 2 in. stout. Seeds 6 in a single 
row, compressed, oblong, pale brown, shining. Uvaria parviflora, Hook. 
fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 103 ; Fl. Br. Ind. I, 51. 

Penaug ; Phillips, Curtis. Perak ; Scortechini, Wray, King's Col- 
lector. 

For upwards of seventy years this plant had been known only by 
Phillips' scanty specimens from Penang. In 1887 Mr. Curtis sent 



1892.] G. King 1 — Materials for a Flora of the Malay "Peninsula. 11 

flowering specimens of it, together with a single ripe carpel from the 
same island ; while copious flowering and fruiting specimens were, about 
the same time, received from Perak. In all its parts the plant is essen- 
tially a Cyathostemma. 

5. Cya'ihostemma acuminatum, n. sp. King. A climber; branches 
pale brownish, the youngest slender, dark-coloured, rufous-puberulous. 
Leaves membranous, oblanceolate-oblong, caudate-acuminate, the base 
acute ; both surfaces glabrous shining and minutely reticulate ; the 
midrib depressed above and puberulous, beneath prominent and minutely 
muriculate : main nerves LO to 11 pairs, spreading, curved, sub-ascending, 
prominent beneath, depressed above : length 8 to 9 in. ; breadth 2*2 
to 2"5 in. ; petiole '15 in., tomentose. Cymes of hermaphrodite flowers 
rufous-pubescent, 4 to 6 in. long ; pedicel about as long as the branches, 
the latter with numerous distichous, oblong, nervose bracts. Flowers 4 
to 5 in. in diam., on short pedicels. Sepals triangular, blunt, spread- 
ing. Petals as in C. Scortechinii ; connective of stamens forming at the 
apex a thick incurving point. (Dearies as in 0. Scortechinii but with 
conical stigma. Cymes of female jloiuers much shorter than those of the 
hermaphrodite, dichotomous, few-flowered, about 1"5 in. long (of which 
the peduncle is 1 in.) ; slightly rufous-pubescent; bracts few, lanceolate. 
Flowers about "4 in. in diam. when open, buds conical. Segals broadly 
triangular, cordate, acute, spreading, pubescent. Petals coriaceous, 
granular-pubescent, concave ; the outer broadly ovate- triangular, the 
apex sub-acute, incurved in bud ; the inner row smaller, narrower, 
erect, connivent. Stamens absent. Ovaries as in the hermaphrodite, 
but the stig-ma larger, and not conical. 
Upper Perak ; Wray No. 3468. 

A remarkable species of which I have seen only Wray's incomplete 
specimens. These specimens are accompanied by some loose young- 
carpels, ovate-globular, oblique, with persistent recurved styles, and a 
single or at most two seeds. If these carpels really belong to the speci- 
men, the definition of the genus will have to be modified. The structure 
of both the hermapnrodite and pistillate flowers agrees perfectly with 
that of the other species above described. 

4. Uvaria, Linn. 
Scandent or sarmentose shrubs, usually stellately pubescent. Flow- 
ers terminal or leaf-opposed, rarely axillary, cymose, fascicled or solitary, 
yellow, purple or brown. Sepals 3, often connate below, valvate. Petals 6, 
orbicular, oval or oblong, imbricate in 2 rows, sometimes connate at the 
base. Stamens indefinite; top of connective ovoid-oblong, truncate or 
subfoliaceous Torus depressed, pubescent or tomentose. Ovaries in- 



12 



G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 



definite, linear-oblong; style short, thick ; ovules many, 2-seriate, rai'ely 
few or 1-seriate. Ripe carpels many, dry or berried, few- or many- 
seeded. — Distrib. About HO species — many tropical Asiatic, a few 
African species, and come Australian. 

A genus characterised by the usually large showy flowers with 
imbricate Rosaceous corolla : — allied to the American genus Guatteria 
Ruiz and Pavon (Gananga, Aubl.) and distinguished from it chiefly by 
its multi-ovulate ovaries. 
Flowers more than o in. in diam. 

Connective of anthers slightly produced at the 
apex, compressed, oblique. 

Carpels stalked, oblong, rugulose 
Carpels ovoid to sub-globular. 

Carpels 1*5 to 12 25 in. long, not tuber- 

culate, very pulpj r , tomentose 
Carpels not more than 1 in. long, tuber- 
cular, with little pulp. 

Carpels ovoid, oblique ; leaves woolly- 

tomentose beneath, even when old 
Carpels globular or globular-ovoid, 
haves glabrous when adult 
Connective produced beyond the apex to about 
half the length of the anther, flattened, ob- 
liquely truncace; flower 1*5 in. in diam. 

nectives produced, those of the inner an- 
thers truncate, those of the outer flattened 
and oblique : flower 2 to 3 in. in diam. ; 
leaves conspicuously stellate-tomeutose be- 
th 
tnectives of anthers slightly, or not at all, 
produced at the truncate apex. 

Whole plant Btiffly hairy... 
Whole plant softly hairy... 
( loni ■ i es of anthers produced into a broad 
flattened sub-quadrate process; the outer 
anthers changed into staminodes 
Anthers oblong-cuneate, the connectives pro- 
duced at the apex and always truncate. 
Leaves pubescent beneath. 

Flowers in terminal umbellate ra- 



1. JJ. Larep. 



2. JJ. Hamiltoni. 



JJ. dulcis. 



JJ. Lobbiana. 



5. JJ. macrophylla. 



6. JJ. purpurea. 



7. 



JJ. hirsuta. 
JJ. Gurtisii. 



9. JJ. Iiidleyi. 



cemes 
Flow 



10. JJ. pauci-ovulata. 



in terminal umbels or in 



1892.] G. King — Materials fur a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 



1 o 



11. JJ. Scortechinii. 



12. JJ. micrantha. 



12. JJ. micrantha. 



13. 


JJ. andamanica. 


14. 


JJ. excelsa. 


15. 


JJ. astrosticta. 


16. 


JJ. sub-repanda. 



many-flowered lateral narrow 
panicles... 
Leaves glabrous except the midrib, 2'5 to 
5 in. long ; flowers less than '5 in. in 
diain. 
Flowers small (less than "5 in. in diam.) 
Leaves glabrous except the midrib 
Leaves pubescent. 

Leaves on under-surface stellate rufous- 
pubescent ; young branches and flow- 
ers outside with scurfy rufous tomen- 
tum 
Leaves on under surface and young 
branches minutely tawny-tomentose .. 
Species of doubtful position. 

Probably near JJ. Lobbiana ... 
With axillary flowers 

1. Uvaria Larep, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 370. A climber 20 
to 40 feet long : youngest branches and petioles sparsely covered with 
minute scaly stellate hairs ; the older cinereous, lenticellate, glabi'escent. 
Leaves membranous, elliptic or sub-obovate-elliptic, shortly acuminate, 
slightly narrowed in the lower fourth to the rounded sub-emarginate, 
not cordate, base : upper surface glabrous, shining, the midrib minutely 
tomentose ; lower surface with a few short spreading hairs on the midrib 
and some of the nerves, otherwise almost glabrous ; main nerves 10 to 
12 pairs, spreading, interarching within the edge, bold in the lower, im- 
pressed on the upper, surface; length of blade 5 to 8 in., breadth 2 to 
3 in., petiole "2 to 3 in. Peduncles from half-way between the leaves, 
•1 in. long, I- to 2-flowered (one of the flowers often abortive), warted 
and yellowish-pubescent ; pedicels '75 in. long, with 1 or 2 reniform 
bracts : flowers 1*5 to 1'75 in. in diam. Sepals small, ("2 in. long) reniform, 
united at the base, reflexed, pubescent. Petals oblong-oblanceolate, sub- 
acute, about "75 in. long, sub-coriaceous, puberulous. Anthers sessile in 
very few rows, flattened ; the connective slightly produced, flattened, 
oblique. Ovaries numerous, angled, puberulous, with a few long pi'o- 
jecting hairs near the apex. Torus of the fruit small, sub-globular, 
pubescent. Ripe carpels numerous, stalked, cylindric-oblong, oblique, 
curved, slightly apiculate, rugulose, minutely rufous-pubescent, 125 to 
15 in. long, and "5 in. in diam. Seeds about 10, in 2 rows, compressed, 
shining. Stalks 125 to 1'5 in. long, rufous-tomentose. 

Perak: King's Collector, No. 4011, Wray No. 1826. 

2. Uvaria Hamiltoni, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 96. A 



14 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

powerful climber : young- branches slender, softly rufous-tomentose, be- 
coming glabrous. Leaves membranous, elliptic-oblong to elliptic, some- 
times slightly obovate, acuminate ; the base narrowed or rounded, some- 
times slightly unequal, never cordate ; upper surface adpressed-pubescent, 
almost glabrous when old, the midrib minutely rufous-tomentose ; lower 
surface softly stellate-tomentose ; main nerves 14 to 17 pairs, spreading, 
rather prominent beneath ; length of blade 4 to 8 in., breadth 2' 25 to 35 
in., petiole *15 to '2 in. Peduncles solitary or 2 to 3 together, "75 to 1/75 
in. long, extra-axillary, 1-flowered ; flowers 1 *5 to 25 in. in diam. : bract 
single, sub-orbicular, rufous-tomentose outside, shortly hispid, inside : 
buds turbinate, tomentose. Sepals broadly triangular, ultimately re- 
flexed, membranous. Petals much longer than the sepals, coriaceous, 
obovate, the apices obtuse and incurved, minutely tomentose on both 
surfaces, brick-red. Anthers sub-sessile, equal, obliquely truncate at the 
apex, "15 to 2 in. long. Ovaries slightly shorter than the stamens, 
compressed, pubescent. Torus hemispheric, tomentose, pitted when 
adult. Pipe carpels on long slender stalks, ovoid to sub-globular, about 
1*5 in. long, and 1 in. in diam. when fresh, tomentose, scarlet; when 
dry slightly constricted between the seeds; stalks slender, tomentose, 
1 to 1*5 in. long. Se< Is about 6, flat, shining. Hook til. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
48. U. grandijlura, Wall. Cat. 6485 E 

In the Forests at the base of the Eastern Himalaya ; Madhopore 
Forest in E. Bengal : Assam ; Khasia ; Shan Hills (Prazer). 

Var. Kurzii, King. Leaves with broader bases often minutely cor- 
date ; fewer nerves (12 to 14 pairs ; smaller flowers (1'3 in in diam.) 
on shorter pedicels (1 to 1*25 in.) ; petals yellowish, ovate-oblong. 

South Andaman : Kurz, Kings' Collector. 

This was referred by Kurz who first collected it, to U. macrophylla, 
Roxb , then to U. purpurea, Bl. : but was finally considered by him as 
"altogether doubtful." The fuller materials recently received show it 
to be, in my opinion, a very distinct variety of U. Hamiltoni, allied no 
doubt to U. purpurea, Bl., but a much larger plant with smaller flowers 
and more globular fruit. 

o. Uvakia dulcis, Dunal Anon. 90, t. 13. A powerful creeper 
often 80 to 100 feet long; youngest branches softly cinereous-tomeutose ; 
the older sub-glabrous or glabrous, dark-coloured, rather rough. Leaves 
coriaceous, elliptic or oval, sometimes unequal-sided, acute or sub-acute; 
the base broad, rounded, or sub-truncate, minutely cordate ; upper 
surface sparsely adpressed-stellate-pubescent. The midrib ferruginous- 
tomentose ; lower surface densely sub-ferrugineous or cinereous woolly- 
tomentose : main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, spreading, slightly curving, pro- 
minent beneath: leugth of blade 4-3 to 7 in., breadth 2*5 to 3*5 in., 



1892.] G. King - — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 15 

petiole '2 in., stout. Peduncles '5 in. long, lateral, not axillary, 1-flowered, 
solitary or 2 to 3 together, each hearing a small ovate deciduous bract ; 
buds ovoid-globose, tomentose ; flowers 1"25 to I "5 in. in diam. Sepals 
broadly triangular, sub-acute, slightly reflexed, fleshy, tomentose on 
both surfaces. Petals much longer than the sepals, sub-coriaceous, 
broadly ovate, sub-acute, sub-reflexed, minutely tomentose on the outer 
surface; pubescent on the inner. Stamens and pistils forming a compact 
hemispheric mass; anthers sub-sessile, '1 in. long, the connective much 
produced at the apex, compressed, oblique. Ovaries numerous, densely 
crowded, slightly shorter than the stamens, tomentose. Torus depressed- 
hemispheric, stellate-tomentose, pitted when adult. Ripe carpels numer- 
ous, stalked, ovoid, oblique, blunt, much and unequally tuberculate, 
densely and loosely ferruginous stellate-tomentose as are the 1 in. long 
stalks. DO. Prod. I, 88 ; Hook. fil. and Th. Fl. Ind. 98; Miq. Fl. Tnd. 
Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 24 ; Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 8. TJ. javana, Dunal 
Anon. 91, t. 14 ; Blume Bijdr. 12; Fl. Javse t. 3 and 13 B. ; DC. Prod. 
I, 88 ? TJ. aurita Blume Fl. Javse t. 3. 

Malacca, Griffith ; Maingay (Kew Destrib.), No 25. Perak, King's 
Collector. Penang, Curtis, No. 1414. 

As regards the size of its leaves and the colour of its flowers (which 
appear to vary from green though yellow to purple) this is rather a 
variable species. One of its forms, barely distinguishable from the type, 
was named TJ. javana by Dunal who also gave a figure of it. Blume, 
who again figured TJ. javana, distinguished it from TJ dulcis by the 
stellate (not simple) hairs on the upper surface of its leaves. But, as 
Hook. fil. and Th. point out (Fl. Ind. 98), both kinds of hairs occur on 
the same leaf. In all the specimens named TJ. javana, received from the 
Dutch Botanists, the leaves are much smaller and less denselly woolly 
below than those collected in the Malay Peninsula. Miquel suggests 
that TJ. aurita, Bl. is only a form of this. By neither figuring nor 
describing the fruit of what he understood as TJ. dulcis, aurita and 
javana, Blume neglected one of the best characters in this rather per- 
plexing genus ; and it may be that when fruit of the small-leaved Java 
species issued from the Herbarium of Buitenzorg shall be forthcoming, the 
reductions above made will have to be cancelled. 

4. Uvaria. Lobbiana, H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 100. A powerful clim- 
ber, often reaching 100 to 150 feet in length : young branches pubescent, 
ultimately glabrous and dark-coloured. Leaves sub-coriaceous, oblong 
or oblong-oblanceolate, acute or very shortly acuminate, rarely obtuse, 
narrowed to the rounded or sub-cordate base ; both surfaces when very 
young stellate furfuraceous, speedily becoming glabrous except the puber- 
ulous midrib ; the upper (when dry) pale green, the lower browu : main 



16 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

nerves 13 to 16 pairs, curving slightly, spreading below, suberect above, 
thin but prominent beneath ; length of blade 4 to 7 in., breadth l - 5 to 
2'25 in., petiole "25 in. Peduncles only '25 in. long or even less, termi- 
nal or leaf-opposed, 2-or 3-flowered, tomentose, each flower with a large 
rotund amplexicaul bract ; buds depressed-globose, tomentose : flower 
1 to 1'2 in. in diam. Sepals conjoined into a wavy cup, tomentose out- 
side, minutely pubescent inside. Petals coriaceous, often 7 or 8, slightly 
unequal, broadly oval, obovate, blunt ; slightly warted on both sur- 
faces, minutely tomentose on the outer, pubescent on the inner. Anthers 
sessile, flattened, '1 in. long, the connectives produced at the apices, 
compressed, obliquely truncate, the outer row sterile. Ovaries 4-angled, 
pubescent except the truncate lobulate stigma Ripe carpels numerous, 
stalked, globular or globular-ovoid, slightly oblique, boldly tubercled, 
pubescent, *5 to "75 in. in diam., and sometimes 1 in. long; pericarp 
thin ; stalks slender, 1'5 to 2 in. long, glabrescent. Seeds 4 to 10, large, 
plano-convex, smooth. Miq. Fl. Ind. Hat. I, Pt. 2, 34: Hook. fil. Fl. 
Br. Ind. I, 49. 

Malacca; Griffith, Mamgay (Kew Distrib.), Nos. 27 and 30. Singa- 
pore and Perak ; King's Collector. Penang ; Curtis. Sumatra ; Forbes, 
No. 3059. 

5. Uvaria MACROPHYLLA, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 663. Scandent usually 
to the extent of 15 to 20 feet, but sometimes reaching 50 or 60 feet ; 
young branches and petioles rusty-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic- 
oblong, rarely elliptic-rotund, sometimes slightly obovate, obtuse or 
shortly and abruptly acuminate, very slightly narrowed to the rounded 
or minutely cordate hase; upper surface (when adult) glabrescent or 
glabrous except the tomentose midrib and nerves ; lower with lax, 
sometimes stellate, rusty tomentnm, especially along the midrib and 11 
to 18 2>airs of prominent spreading oi oblique nerves : length of blade 4"5 
to 10 in., breadth 2'5 to 4 or (in some Burmese specimens) even 6 in. ; 
petiole '25 in. Peduncles extra-axillary or terminal, densely rusty- 
tomentose, 3-to 5-flowered, each pedicel with an oval or rounded bract; 
buds globose : flowers i'5 in. in diam. Sepals connate into a cup with 
wavy obscurely 3-toothed edge. Petals much larger than the calyx, sub- 
rotund, blunt, coriaceous, purple, tomentose outside, pubescent inside ; 
anthers sessile, "3 in. long : the connective produced at the apex to 
nearly half the length of anther, compressed, obliquely truncate. Ovaries 
narrow, compressed, tomentose, the stigmas truncate, Torus of fruit 
woody, hemispheric, 1 in. in diam. sparsely pubescent, pitted. Ripe car- 
pels stalked, oblong, blunt at each end, glabrous, 75 to 1*25 in. long, peri- 
carp thin ; stalks o to 1 in. long : seeds numerous, oval, compressed, 
shining. Wall. PI. As. Rar. t. 122 ; Cat. 6487 (excl. F. in fruit) Hk. f. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 17 

and Th. FL Ind. 97 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 49 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I 
Pt. 2, p. 23 ; Thwaites Enum. Pt. Ceyl. 6 ; Knrz Fl. Burm. I, p. 28 ; Bed- 
dome Tc. PL Ind. Or. t. 81. U. rufescens, DC. Mem. Anon. 26. U. cor- 
data, Wall. Cat. 6486. Guatteria cor data, Dunal Anon. 129 t. 30 ; DC. 
Prod. I, 93. 

Silhet, Chittagong, Burmah, Malayan Peninsula, Java, Ceylon. 

One of the most widely distributed species of the genus and 
closely allied to U. ovalifolia, Bl. I reduce to this species the Uvaria 
cordata of Wall. Cat., No. 6486 ; but not without some hesitation, as 
both Miquel and Kurz referred it to U. ovalifolia, Bl. 

6. Uvaria purpurea, Blume Bijdr. 11 : Fl. Jav. 13, t. 1 andt. 13 A. 
A sarmentose shrub, often climbing to 20 or 30 feet : young parts softly 
stellate-rufous-pubescent or tomentose. Leaves thickly membranous, 
oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, sometimes slightly obovate, acute or 
acuminate, the base rounded or slightly cordate, shortly petiolate ; 
upper surface, when adult, shining, glabrous or glabrescent, the midrib 
and sometimes the nerves tomentose ; under surface rather sparsely 
but softly stellate-tomentose ; main nerves 14 to 17 pairs, rather 
straight, prominent beneath, the lower spi^eading, the upper sub-erect ; 
length 4*5 to 9 or even Jl in., breadth 2'5 to 3 - 75 in. ; petiole 15 to 
"25 in. Peduncles 1 to 1*5 in. long, extra-axillary or terminal, usually 
1- sometimes 2-flowered ; flowers 2 to 3 in. diam. ; bracts 2, large, un- 
equal, leafy ; buds turbinate. Sepals broadly triangular, sub-concave, 
membranous, fulvous-tomentose on the outer, glabrescent on the inner 
surface. Petals longer than the sepals, coriaceous, oblong to obovate, 
obtuse, coriaceous, dark purple, the inner 3 slightly smaller. Anthers 
sub-sessile, very numerous, equal, about "3 in. long; the connective much 
produced at the apex, rhomboid in the inner, compressed and oblique in 
the outer anthers. Ovaries numerous, densely crowded, slightly shorter 
than the stamens, tomentose; ovules numerous. Torus depressed-hemi- 
spheric, pubescent, pitted when ripe. Ripe carpels numerous, stalked, ob- 
long-cylindric, blunt at each end with 2, more or less obscure, ridges and 
grooves, minutely rufous-tomentose, sub-tuberculate, 15 to 2 in. long 
and about - 5 in. in diam. ; stalks '5 to 1 in. long, rufous-tomentose. Seeds 
numerous, flat. Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 95 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, I, 
Pt. 2, 22 ; Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 6 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 47 ; 
Benth. Fl. Hong Kong, 9 ; Vidal y Soler, Revis. Fl. Filipina.s, 39; Scheffer 
Obs. Phyt. I, 4, 26, 65; Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. II, 1. U. grandifiora, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 665 ; Wall. PI. As. Rar. II t. 121 ; Wall. Cat. 6485. A. 
to D. and H. ; Wight and Arn. Prod. 9. U. platypetala, Champ, in Kew 
Journ. Bot. Ill, 257. U. rhodantha, Hance in Walp. Ann. II, 19. Unona 
grandifiora, DC. Prod. I, 90. 
3 



18 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

In all the provinces. Distrib : Malayan Archipelago, S. China, 
Phillipines. 

Var. tuberctdata ; fruits prominently tuberculate. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Nos. 960, 4786. 

A plant collected in the island of Bangka, closely resembling this 
in leaves, but -with larger flowers with yellow petals, has been described 
by Messrs. Teysmann and Binnendyk under the uame of TJ.flava (Nat. 
Tijds. Ned. Ind. XXIX, 419). It has also been figured by Miquel 
(Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 6, t. 1). I fear it is merely a form of Z7. 
purpurea ; but not having seen fruiting specimens, I hesitate to reduce 
it here. 

7. Uvapja hirsuta, Jack Mai. Misc. (Hook. Bot. Misc. II, 87.) 
A sarmentose shrub but often climbing to the length of from 15 to 50 
feet : young branches and petioles with numerous rather stiff reddish- 
brown hairs. Leaves thinly coriaceous, narrowly elliptic to elliptic- 

•!g, rarely obovate-oblong, acute or sub-acute, the base rounded or 
minutely cordate ; upper surface with scattered sub-adpressed, stiff, 
mostly simple hairs, the midrib tomentose ; lower surface with more 
numerous stellate and simple hairs: main nerves 9 to 14 pairs, spread- 
ing, depressed on the upper surface (when dry) but prominent on the 
lower ; length 4 to 7 in., breadth 225 to 325 in., petiole '2 in. Peduncles 
1 to 2 in. long, lateral or terminal, not axillary, 1- rarely 2-flowered ; 
flowers i'25 to 1'5 in. in diam. ; bract solitary (rarely 2 or 3), lanceolate, 
deciduous : buds ovoid-globose, stiffly hairy. Sepals membranous, broad- 
ly ovate, acute, connate, pilose outside, reflexed. Petals red, larger than 
the sepals, broadly ovate, acute; outside tomentose with stiff hairs inter- 
mixed, inside sub-glabrous ; anthers "15 in. long, sub-sessile, the connec- 
tive at the apex often Blightly produced and obtuse. Ovaries 4-angled, 
truncate, rufous-tomentose, shorter than the anthers. Ripe carpels 
nnmi rous, stalked, cylindric, blunt, 15 to 2 in. long, covered (as are the 
stalks and torus) with dense darkly ferruginous tomentum mixed with 
stiff hairs : stalks 1 to 125 in. long : torus hemispheric : seeds numer- 
ous, ovoid, plano-convex. Blume Fl. Javae, Anon. 22, t. 5 ; Wall. Cat. 
(excl. C.) ; Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 99; Hook fil. Fl. Br. 
Ind, I, 48 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, I, Pt. 2, p. 24 ; Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 8 ; 

BE. in Nat. Tijdsch. XXXI, 2 ; Zoll. in Linnasa XXIX, 304 ; Kurz 
Flora Burm. I, 28 ; Scheff. Observ. Phyt. I, 2. U. triclwmalla, Bl. Fl. 
Jav. Anon. 42, t. 18. U. velutina, Blume (not of Roxb.) Bijdr. 13. U. 
pilosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 665. 

In all the provinces. Distrib. Malayan Archipelago and Burmah. 

There is some difference amongst individuals as to the breadth of 
the leaves, and on one of the forms with comparatively short but broad 
leaves Blume founded his species U. trichomalla. 



1892.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 19 

8. TJvaria Curtisii, King n. sp. A large climber : young branches 
densely rusty-tomentose, slender. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, sometimes 
slightly oblanceolate, acuminate, slightly narrowed to the rounded base; 
upper surface glabrous except the strong rusty-tomentose midrib and 
the nerves ; under surface stellate-rufous-tomentose, especially on the 
midrib, reticulations, and 7 to 12 pairs of ascending, curving, bold main 
nerves : length 4 to 9 in., breadth 1*7 to 3'25 in. ; petiole "15 to "2 in., 
stout. Flowers 1 to 1*25 in. in diam., solitary or in pairs, axillary : 
pedicels 1 to 1"75 in., densely tomentose like the outer surface of the 
sepals, and with an ovate supra-median bracteole. Sepals broadly ovate, 
concave, spreading, puberulous within, '35 in. long. Petals thinly 
leathery, white, subequal, ovate-oblong, obtuse ; the outer rather broader 
than the inner, *5 in. long, puberulous on both surfaces but especially on 
the outer. Stamens numerous, all perfect ; connective truncate at the 
apex, not prolonged into a process ; the anthers linear, lateral. Ovaries 
numerous, crowded, elongate, 3-angled, tomentose, with 12 ovules in 
2 rows : stigma sessile, large, sub-capitate, corrugated, glabrous. Ripe 
carpels unknown. 

Perak; on Ulu Bubong, King's Collector, No. 8543. Penang; elev. 
2,000 feet. Curtis No 1415. 

9. TJvaria Ridleti, King n. sp. A strong climber ; young branches 
slender, stellate-rufous-tomentose, ultimately dark-coloured, striate ; 
sparsely lenticellate. Leaves sub-coriaceous, elliptic-oblong*, acuminate, 
slightly narrowed to the rounded base ; both surfaces with short, stellate, 
rather pale hairs, scabrid on the upper, soft on the lower surface ; the 
midrib and 10 to 15 pairs of spreading curving slightly prominent main 
nerves softly rufous-stellate-tomentose on both surfaces ; length 3 to 5 in., 
breadth 1*3 to 2 in.; petiole '15 in., stellate-tomentose. Flowers '75 to 
1*2 in. in diam., 2 or 3 together in short supra-axillary cymes; pedicels 
stellate-tomentose like the outer surface of the calyx, "3 or "4 in. long, 
with a lai'ge orbicular amplexicaul bracteole. Sepals orbicular, connate 
into an obscurely 3- toothed spreading cup "4 in. in diam., glabrescent 
inside. Petals spreading, sub-orbicular to broadly oblong, very blunt, 
subequal, rather thin, minutely pubescent on both surfaces but especial- 
ly on the outer, dark reddish-brown. Stamens numerous (the outer row 
converted into sub-quadrate staminodes) compressed, broad, without fila- 
ments ; the apical process of the connective broad and flat : anther-cells 
on the edges of the connective, linear. Ovaries numerous, crowded, 
elongate, narrow, compressed, ridged, minutely stellate-tomentose, the 
ovules numerous ; stigma sessile, short and broad, fleshy, obliquely 
truncate. Ripe carpels ovoid or obovoid, blunt at both ends, minutely 
pubescent, 1"2 to 1*5 in. long : stalks nearly 1 in., stellate-tomentose. 



20 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Seeds numerous in two rows, horizontal, oval, compressed, pale brown, 
shining. 

Pahang : Ridley. Perak : Scortechini. 

10. Uvaria pauciovulata, H. f. and T. in Hoolc. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 51. A sub-scandent shrub : young branches densely stellate rufous- 
tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, rigid, narrowly elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 
obtuse or obtusely acuminate, the base rounded or cordate ; upper surface 
(in adult leaves) shining, quite glabrous ; the lower dull, sparsely pubes- 
cent ; main nerves 10 to 14 pairs, sub-ascending, curving, prominent 
beneath and impi'essed above : length of blade 2"5 to 6 in., breadth l - 25 
to 3 in., petiole "2 in. Racemes terminal, umbellate, few-flowered, 1*5 to 
2'5 in. long, scurfily rufous-tomentose ; bracts numerous and imbricate 
towards the apex, rotund to ovate, tomentose : buds ovoid-globose : 
flowers 1'5 in. in diam. Sepals small, ('3 in. long) orbicular, sub-acute, 
connate to the middle and densely tomentose outside, densely and minute- 
ly puberulous inside. Petals very much larger than the sepals, sub- 
connivent, coriaceous, ovate-rotund, obtuse, the inner 3 narrower; all 
scaly-tomentose externally, densely and minutely pubescent and veined 
internally ; authors sub-sessile, cuneate ; connective slightly produced at 
the apex, truncate; ovaries longer than the stamens, flattened, stellate- 
hairy ; stigma truncate, ovules 1 to 3. Ripe carpels numerous, stalked, 
sub-globose, mucronate, densely and minutely falvous-tomentose, "35 to 
-."> in. in diam., 1- to 2-seeded ; stalk '5 to *75 in., rather slender. Seeds 
compressed, shining. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 104. Penang : Curtis, No. 
825 : at elevations of 500 to 600 feet. 

11. Uvatua ScORTECniNU, King n. sp. A sarmentose, flexuose 
shrub ; young branches and petioles densely covered with rusty, floccose, 
rufous bomentum. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-rotund, obtuse, 
very slightly or not at all narrowed to the rounded or minutely cordate 
base : upper surface shining, q'labrescent or glabrous, the deeply impressed 
midrib and nerves tomentose, transverse veins depressed when dry ; 
under surface minutely and softly rufous, pubescent especially on the 
midrib nerves and reticulations which are all bold and prominent : main 
nerves 10 to 12 pairs, spreading below, sub-ascending above, forming 
double arches within the edge : length of blade 4 to 7 in., breadth 25 
to 4 in., petiole '2 to '4 in. Flowers 1'5 in. in diam., either terminal in 
umbels of 2 or 3, or in many-flowered lateral panicles 4 in. in length : 
peduncles '5 to •To in. long ; bracts numerous, but chiefly towards the 
apices of the peduncles, ovate-orbicular, covered with short rufous 
flocculent tomentum as are the branches and axes of the panicles. 
Sepals fleshy, triangular, sub-acute, connate in the lower third, concave, 



1892.] G-. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula, 21 

spreading, minutely pubescent. Petals fleshy, about 1 in. long, con- 
nivent ; the outer 3 ovate-rotund, very obtuse, tomentose-pubescent on 
both surfaces, the outer surface with some small superficial scales, the 
inner with a round glabrous spot at the base : inner 3 petals obovate, 
clawed, pubescent outside, glabrous inside except a broad pubescent 
band near the apex. Anthers sessile, angled, the connective projecting 
beyond the apex, broadly truncate, almost peltate. Ovaries (fide 
Scortechini) " several, with few stellate hairs, 2-3 ovuled : style cylin- 
dric, curved, glabrous." Fruit unknown. 

Perak : Scortechini, No. 1990. 

Scortechini's are the only specimens I have seen, and they have 
flowers only. 

12. Uvaria micrantha, H. f. and Th Fl. Ind. 103. A large clim- 
ber ; young branches slender, softly rufous-tomentose, afterwards glab- 
rous, striate, and dark-coloured with pale warts. Leaves thinly coriace- 
ous, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the base rounded or slightly cuneate ; 
both surfaces glabrous except the rufous-pubescent midrib : main nerves 
scarcely visible (even when dry), 12 to 15 pairs, spreading ; length of 
blade 25 to 55 in., breadth "8 to 1*4 in., petiole '15 in, Peduncles ter- 
minal or extra-axillary, very short, 2-to 4-flowered, softly rufous-tomen- 
tose, bracts more or less orbicular; buds globose, slightly pointed, - 15 in. 
in diam. ; flowers '4 in. in diam. Sepals sub-rotund, densely pubescent 
outside, sub-glabrous inside. Petals broadly ovate, sub-obtuse, granular 
and minutely tomentose outside, pubescent inside. Ripe carpels numer- 
ous, stalked, ovoid-globose, rounded at each end, glabrous, 2- to4-seeded. 
Seeds plano-convex, smooth ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 1, 51 ; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. I, 22; Miq Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 26 ; Uvaria sumatrana, Kurz 
Andam. Report, 29; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I. 51. ? Uvaria elegans, "Wall. 
Cat. 6474 B. Guatteria micrantha, A. DC. Mem. 42 ; Wall. Cat. 6449. 
Polyalthia fruticans, A. DC. 1 c. 42 ; Wall. Cat. 6430. Anaxagorea 
sumatrana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 382. 

Burmah, Malacca, Penang. Distrib. Sumatra. 

As regai'ds leaves, this closely resembles Popowia nitida, King — a 
plant of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands ; and there is reason to 
believe that some specimens of that Popowia from those islands have 
been issued from the Calcutta Herbarium as Uvaria micrantha. I am 
also of opinion that Uvaria sumatrana, Kurz Andaman Report, 29, 
and of Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. B. Ind. I, 51, is possibly Popowia nitida, 
King. 

13. Uvaria andamanica, King n. sp. Scandent : young branches 
rather stout, scurfily stellate-tomentose. Leaves obloug-oblanceolate, 
shortly acuminate, much narrowed to the rounded, unequal, or minutely 



22 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1 

cordate base ; upper sui'face glabrous, the midrib and sometimes the 
nerves coarsely puberulous ; under-surface reticulate, stellate-rufous- 
pubescent on the midrib and 18 to 22 pairs of spreading curving nerves ; 
length 5 - 5 to 9 in., breadth T75 to 4 in.; petiole '3 in., tubercular. 
Flowers small, in short terminal or axillary cymes, rarely solitary : 
pedicels 3 in. long, densely covered like the outside of the sepals with 
sub-deciduous coarse, rusty, stellate tomentum ; bracteole solitary, orbi- 
cular, ovate, close to the flower. Sepals valvate, orbicular, partly con- 
nate, glabrous inside. Petals imbricate, orbicular, fleshy, more or less 
puberulous outside, glabrous within ; the inner rather smaller than the 
outer but both under (in the young state) "25 in. in diam. Stamens 
numerous, narrowly elongate, the apex truncate more or less obliquely ; 
anther-cells lateral. Ovaries absent in the staminiferous flower. Pipe 
carpels oblong, blunt (almost truncate) at each end, slightly tuber- 
culate and densely covered with loose, sub-deciduous, rusty-stellate 
tomentum : pericarp rather thick. Seeds about 8 in 2 rows, plano-con- 
vex. 

South Andaman ; King's Collector. 

Tin's has been collected only on two occasions, once with undeve- 
loped male flowers and once with immature fruit. The full size attained 
by the flowers is not known, and the measurements of sepals and petals 
above given are taken from buds. By its leaves and peculiar deciduous 
rusty stelkite tomentum, the species is however readily recognisable. 

14. Uvauia EXCEL8A, Wall. Cat. Gl-77. A creeper 30 to 100 feet 
long: young parts stellate-pubescent ; the branchlets tawny-tomentose, 
speedily becoming glabrous dark-coloured and furrowed. Leaves cori- 
aceous, oblanceolate, obovate-oblong to elliptic, the apex acuminate 
(sometimes very shortly), acute, rarely obtuse, slightly narrowed to the 
minutely cordate base : upper surface shining, glabrous except the 
puberulous depressed midrib ; lower surface minutely tawny, tomentose ; 
main nerves 10 to 12 pairs spreading, slender; length 3 - 5 to 7 - 5 in., 
breadth 1"5 to 4 in. ; petiole "3 to '5 in. pubescent. Flowers white, \35 to 
•4 in. in diam., in contracted cymes from the branches below the leaves, 
or axillary; pedicels only about '2 in. long, rufous-tomentose with a 
large bract close to the flower. Sepals semi-orbicular, sub-acute, val- 
vate, concave, spreading, tomentose outside, glabrous within. Petals in 
bud imbricate only at their apices, sub-equal, thick, concave, densely 
and minutely pubescent on both surfaces : the outer broadly ovate, 
acute, a little larger than the sepals : inner petals ovate, about as large 
as the sepals. Anthers numerous, narrow, the cells linear, lateral ; the 
apical process of the connective thick, sub-quadrate, obliquely truncate, 
minutely pubescent. Ovuries narrow, elongate, grooved, pubescent ; the 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 23 

stigma thick, sub-capitate, sub-truncate ; ovules numerous, in two rows. 
Ripe carpels sub-globular, slightly obovoid, blunt at each end, densely 
and minutely tomentose, 1*1 in. long and '9 in. in diam. Seeds about 
14 in two rows, horizontal, half-oval, flat, smooth, brown. Mitrephora ex- 
celsa, H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 114 : Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 77; Miq. Fl. 
lnd. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 31. 

Penang : Wallich, Curtis. Perak : King's Collector. Scortechini. 
Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 36 in part. 

This plant was originally issued as a JJvaria by Wallich. His 
specimens of it, however, bore no mature flowers ; and Sir Joseph Hooker 
and Dr. Thomson referred them doubtfully to Mitrephora. The excellent 
specimens recently collected by Mr. Curtis and by the Calcutta Garden 
Collector show the petals to be sub-equal and concave, imbricate at the 
apex only, the sepals being quite valvate. This of course is not the 
typical flower of a JJvaria, in which the petals are much imbricate. But 
the stamens, ovaries and ripe fruit are more those of JJvaria than of any 
other genus. 

15. Uvaria astrosticta, Miq Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 370. A climber ? 
Young branches deciduously rufous-stellate-tomentose with simple hairs 
intermixed, ultimately glabrous striate and dark-coloured. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, sometimes slightly oblanceolate, acuminate, 
the base rounded or minutely cordate ; upper surface minutely scaberul- 
ous, the midrib and sometimes the nerves softly rufous-pubescent ; 
lower surface at first densely aud softly tomentose, ultimately sparsely 
stellate-pubescent, sub-scaberulous ; main nerves 12 to 16 pairs, spread- 
ing, rather prominent on the lower surface : length of blade 4 to 6 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 1'8 in., petiole "2 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, very short 
(only *3 in.), 2-to 3-flowered, rufous-stellate-tomentose as are the 2 or 
3 sub-rotund bracts ; buds sub-globular ; flowers - 6 in. in diam. Sepals 
reniform, sub-acute, united half way. Petals nearly three times as long 
as the sepals, sub-coriaceous, broadly oval, slightly obovate, sub-acute, 
minutely pubescent. Anthers sub-sessile, the connective produced 
beyond the apices, flattened and truncate, 3 outer anthers barren : torus 
hispidulous. Fruit unknown ; Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II. 8. 

Perak; Scortechini, No. 121. Distrib. E. Sumatra. 

The Perak specimens of this plant agree perfectly with those from 
Sumatra on which the species was founded. It is allied to JJ. heterocarpa 
Bl., to JJ. rufa Bl., and also to JJ. timoriensis. I have never seen the 
fruit, and Miquel's entire description of it consists of the two words 
" carpella velutina." 

Doubtful Species. 

16. Uvabia sub-repanda, Wall. Cat. 6483. A climber : young 



24 



Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 



branches very slender, rather sparsely scurfy-pubescent. Leaves mem- 
branous, oblong or obovate-oblong, acute, the base rounded : upper sur- 
face shining, glabrous except the pubescent midrib ; under-surface pale, 
yellowish-brown when dry, dull, at first puberulous, ultimately quite 
glabrous including the midrib, the reticulations distinct ; main nerves 
10 to 14 pairs, spreading, thin but rather prominent beneath : length 
of blade 5 to 7'5 in., breadth 2 to 225 in. ; petiole '15 to "25 in., densely 
scaly-pubescent. Peduncles axillary, ruf ous-stellate-tomentose, 1-flowered ; 
bracts cucullate, sub-orbiculai\ Petals narrowly oblong. Pipe carpels 
unknown. Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 101 : Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I. 50. 

Singapore, Wallich. 

A very imperfectly known species, the only specimens being Wal- 
lich's which are not good and which are in flower only. The only other 
specimen which agrees with Wallich's specimens as to leaves and 
branches is from Penan ^ (Curtis No. 1408) : but this has a short 
2-flowered, extra-axillary peduncle, and I hesitate to identify it with TJ. 
sub-repanda. 

5. Ellipeia, H. f. and T. 
Characters of Uvaria, but with solitary, ventral or sub-basal ovule and 
1-seeded carpels, the style sometimes elongate. 
Distrib. Malaya: species 10 or 11. 
Flowers all hermaphrodite. 
Flowers in groups. 

Leaves oblong or narrowly obovate-oblong, 
acuminate, pubescent, puberulous or 
glaberulous beneath : flowers in short 
panicles ... ... ... 1. E. cuneifolia. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, softly tomen- 

tose beneath, peduncles 3- or 4-flowered 2. E. leptopoda. 
Leaves oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute, gla- 
brous, cymes 3-to 5-flowered ... 3. E. glabra. 
Flowers solitary. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, minutely granular above 
when dry ... ... ... 4. E. costata. 

Flowers unisexual or polygamous, solitary or in 
pairs. 

Leaves shortly acuminate, both surfaces minute- 
ly grauular when dry, not reticulate : stalks 
of carpels 15 in. long ... ... 5. E.pumila. 



1892.] G-. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 25 

Leaves acute, rarely acuminate, not granular, 
reticulations transverse and very distinct; 
stalks of carpels "75 to 1 in. long ... 6. E. nervosa. 

1. Ellipeia cuneifolia, H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 104. A climber 20 
to 100 feet long : young branches at first shortly and densely rufous- 
tomentose, ultimately sub-glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong or 
narrowly obovate-oblong, the apex broadly abruptly and shortly acumi- 
nate, the base rounded or sub-cordate : upper surface glabrous, shining, 
the midrib and often the main nerves tomentose ; lower minutely rufous- 
tomentose to pubescent, very often glaberulous : main nerves 16 to 19 
pairs, spreading to sub-ascending, prominent beneath : length of blade 
4 to 7 in., breadth l - 5 to 3 in. ; petiole *15 to '2 in., tomentose. Flowers 
•75 to 1 in. in diam., in short few-flowered pedunculate rufous-tomentose 
panicles ; bracts at the bases of the pedicels ovate, that at the base of 
the flower rotund: pedicels "25 to '4 in. long: buds ovoid-conic. Sepals 
small, fleshy ; sub-orbicular, slightly united below, spreading, coriaceous, 
tomentose. Petals fleshy, connivent ; outer 3 much larger than the 
sepals, rotund, densely pubescent on both surfaces ; inner 3 not much 
larger than the sepals, rotund, pubescent externally, glabrous internally. 
Anthers sessile; short, the cells on the outer surface ; the apex with a broad, 
round, oblique, truncate appendage from the connective ; pistils oblong, 
tapering to each end, pubescent. Torus small, sub-globose. Ripe carpels 
numerous, on long stalks, ovoid, oblique, blunt, with a faint partial ridge 
and a short lateral, conical process, minutely yellowish-tomentose. Seed 
smooth, ovoid. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 1025 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 52. 

Malacca : Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 31. Perak, very 
common. 

In the Perak specimens the tomentum on the under-surface of the 
leaves is usually less dense than in specimens from Malacca : moreover 
the flowers are smaller in the Perak specimens, and the floral bract is not 
close to the calyx but a little way under it. In other respects, however, 
they agree. 

2. Ellipeia leptopoda, King, n. sp. A climber, 50 to 70 feet long : 
young branches and petioles densely covered with scurfy cinereous 
tomentum. Leaves coriaceous, obovate-oblong, rarely elliptic, obtuse, or 
with a very short blunt apiculus, narrowed in the lower half to the 
minutely cordate, rarely entire, base : upper surface pale-green when 
dry, sparsely and minutely stellate-pubescent when young, afterwards 
glabrous except the pubescent midrib : lower surface densely covered 
with soft, short, dense, pale brown tomentum ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, 
spreading, obsolete on the upper, slightly prominent on the lower, sur- 
face : length of blade 3'5 to 5 in., breadth 225 to 2'5 in., petiole *2 to 
4 



26 Or. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay "Peninsula. [No. 1, 

•25 in. Peduncles extra- axillary, about "5 in. long ; the flowers 3 or 4 
on short pedicels, each subtended by a rotund-obovate, cucullate bract ; 
the whole inflorescence and calyx rather sparsely stellate-tomentose : 
buds depressed-globose : flower '75 in. in diara. Sepals often 4 in num- 
ber, semi- orbicular, very obtuse, slightly united below, spreading. Petals 
coriaceous, three times as long as the sepals, ovate-rotund, obtuse, 
recurved, minutely pubescent on both surfaces, dark crimson. Anthers 
sessile, very small, the connective produced beyond the apex, flattened, 
oblique. Ovaries about as long as the anthers ; the stigmas truncate, 
hairy. Torus hemispheric. Carpels numerous, on long slender stalks, 
ovate-rotund, '5 in. long, slightly oblique with a slight lateral beak, 
minutely cinereous-pubescent. Stalks slightly thickened and ridged 
towards the apex, 1*5 to 2 - 5 in. long. Seed ovoid, flattened on one side, 
smooth. 

Perak ; at low elevations, King's Collector. Singapore, Ridley. 
A species in its leaves resembling JJvaria heterocarpa, Bl. but with 
different fruit : also like U. timorensis, Miq., but with much more obovate 
leaves. 

3. Ellipeia glabra, H. f. and T. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 52. A tree: 
young branches and inflorescence brown-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, 
oblong or elliptic-oblong; the base rounded or acute; both surfaces 
glabrous, not shining, the upper rigid, the lower paler and reticulate : main 
nerves about 9 pairs, curved, sub-ascending, prominent beneath ; length 
4 to 55 in., breadth l - 5 to 2 in., petiole "25 in. Cymes shortly peduncu- 
late, axillary, 3- to 5-flowered, I to 15 in. long. Floicers 1'5 in. in diam. ; 
bracteole oblong, sub-amplexicaul, recurved. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
acute, recurved, "25 in. long. Outer petals obovate-lanceolate, sub-acute, 
flat, without claws, 1 in. long ; the inner shorter, obovate, obtuse. 
Ovaries glabrous below, strigose above ; ovule 1, erect (Maingay). 
Pipe carpels sub-globose, '65 in. long ; pedicels slender, '75 to 1'25 in. 
long : pericarp thin. Seed oblong, pale, with a deep longitudinal furrow. 
Malacca; Maingay No. 66 (Kew Distribution). 
Except Maingay's I have seen no specimens of this. 
4. Ellipeia costata, King. A shrub about 10 feet high : young 
branches pale, rusty-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, the base cuneate : upper surface glabrous 
but rather rough ; lower pale, softly and laxly pubescent, sub-glabrescent 
when old ; main nerves 8 to 9 pairs, bold, sub-ascending, rather straight : 
length 4 to 6'5 in., breadth 2 to 2 5 in. ; petiole '25 in., tomentose. 
Flowers solitary, extra-axillary, '75 to 1 in. in diam. : pedicels woody, 
tomentose, '15 in. long, with 3 ovate acute bracts at their bases. Sepals 
ovate, obtuse, half as long as the petals and, like them, sericeous exter- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 27 

nally and glabrous or sub-glabrous internally. Petals subequal, oblong, 
obtuse, "35 to - 45 in. long. Ripe carpels ovoid-cylindric, slightly apiculate 
and shortly stalked, glabrous, '8 in. long and '35 in. in diam. ; pericarp 
thin. 

Burmah ; on Moolyet at 5,000 ft. Gallatly. 

I have seen no entire fruit of this species but only some loose 
carpels. When ripe they are said^by Mr. Gallatly to be red. 

Ellipeia pumila, King, n. sp. A shrub 2 to 8 feet high : young 
branches with minute pale rufous tomentum ; when older dark-coloured, 
glabrous and furrowed. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to ellijDtic- 
lanceolate, tapering from the middle to the shortly acuminate apex 
and acute base ; both surfaces minutely granular when dry, the upper 
glabrous ; the lower sparsely adpressed-pubescent ; the midrib rufous- 
pubescent ; main nerves about 9 pairs, oblique, rather straight, faint on 
the lower surface, obsolete on the upper ; length 4"5 to 7 in., breadth 1*5 
to 2 25 in. ; petiole "25 to '35 in., pubescent. Floivers solitary, or in 
pairs, extra-axillary, sub-sessile, "75 in. in diam. when expanded, the 
buds globose ; pedicels *1 in. long, coarsely hirsute, bracteate. Sepals 
much shorter than the petals, broadly ovate, sub-acute, strigose-pubes- 
cent outside and sub-glabrous inside as are the petals. Petals imbricate, 
spreading, lanceolate or oblanceolate-oblong, the outer at first much 
shorter than, but ultimately sub-equal to, the inner. Male-flower : 
stamens numerous, with transversely elongate, truncate, heads ; pistils 0. 
Female flower like the male but with fewer stamens ; pistils about 10, 
pubescent, 1-ovuled ; stigma short, flat, pubescent. Carpels 4 to 5, sub- 
cylindric, tapering to each end, "75 in. long and "25 in. diam., minutely 
granular and strigose ; stalks tomentose, "15 in. long ; torus very small. 
Seed solitary, oblong, pale. 

In leaves and in general'facies this is very like Popowia nervifolia, 
Maing., but its petals are distinctly imbricate. 

Perak on Ulu Bubong ^.King's Collector, Scortechini. 
6. Ellipeia nervosa, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 52. A 
tree 40 feet high ; young branches glabrous, dark-coloured, slightly 
ridged. Leaves coriaceous with pellucid dots, elliptic-oblong, or lanceo- 
late-oblong, acute or rarely shortly acuminate, the base acute ; upper 
surface glabrous ; the lower sparsely strigose, the reticulations transverse 
and very distinct ; main nerves 10 or 11 pairs, oblique, rather straight ; 
length 8 to 11 in., breadth 2 to 3 5; petiole '35 to "5 in. glabrous. 
Flowers polygamous, solitary, extra-axillary, rarely in pairs, 75 in. in 
diam., globose; pedicels stout, "1 to "2 in. long, rufous- pilose, bracteate. 
Sepals broadly ovate, acute, pubescent, much smaller than the petals. 
Petals white, spreading, imbricate ; the outer broadly ovate-oblong, ob- 



28 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

tuse ; the inner rather shorter and narrower, oblong ; all pubescent 
especially externally. Stamens in the male flowers numerous, with 
roundish flat heads. Ovaries in the female flower many, curved. Carpels 
rather numerous, ovoid, slightly apiculate, narrowed into the stalk, rose- 
red when ripe (Wray), about 1 in. long and '5 in. in diam., glabrous ; 
their stalks '75 to 1 in. long. 

Malacca ; Maingay, (Kew Distrib.), No. 47. Perak ; common at 
low elevations. Penang ; Curtis. 

In the texture and nervation of its leaves this species has a strong 
resemblance to Popowia nervifolia, Maing. and other species in its 
neighbourhood. But the petals are not those of a Popowia, both rows 
being distinctly imbricate. The fruit moreover is larger than that'of 
Popowia, and the albumen is much more cellular in structure being, in 
this respect, like that of Ellipeia cuneifolia, H. f. & Th. 

6. Ctathocaltx, Champion. 
Trees. Leaves glabrous. Flowers fascicled, terminal or leaf-opposed. 
Sepals free or united into a 3-lobed cup. Petals 6, 2-seriate, valvate in 
bud, subequal, bases concave conniving, blade flat spreading. Stamens 
indefinite, long-cuneate, truncate; anther-cells linear, dorsal. Ovaries 
solitary or 2-6, on a concave torus ; stigma large, grooved ; ovules many. 
Ripe car-pels berried. — Distrib. Tropical India and Malaya ; species 8. 
Ripe carpels ovoid ... ... ... 1 G. virgatus. 

Ripe carpels globular ... ... ... 2 C. Maingayi. 

In its petals this genus resembles Artabotrys to some extent, but 
Polyalthia still more. The ovaries in the first two species are usually soli- 
tary ; in the third they are 3 in number : the ripe carpels of all three being 
large succulent and many-seeded. Baillon admits the genus as it was 
established by Champion and accepted by Hooker filius & Thomson. 
In the above diagnosis I have however modified the definition so as to 
provide for the species with more than one ovary. 

1. Ctathocaltx virgatus, King. A tree 40 to 60 feet high : young 
branches slender, pale, glabrous, the tips alone pubescent. Leaves mem- 
branous, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, shortly and obtusely acumi- 
nate, the base cuneate or sometimes rounded ; both surfaces shining, 
the lower rather darker when dry ; the upper glabrous, the lower 
pubescent on the 8 or 9 pairs of sub-ascending rather prominent nerves : 
length 4 to 65 in., breadth P25 to 2'75 in.; petiole *25 to "35 in., pu- 
bescent. Flowers in axillary, sub-sessile fascicles of 2 or 3, about "75 
in. long. Sepals united at the base, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, spreading, 
tomentose, shorter than the inner petals. Petals tomentose-sericeous ; 
the outer row much longer than the inner, lanceolate, much acuminate, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 29 

about, '75 in. long. ; inner* row with orbicular concave base and much 
acuminate apex, *5 in. loug. Connective of stamens slightly produced 
at apex and obliquely truncate. Ovaries 4 to 6, hirsute ; ovules many, 
2-seriate ; stigma thick, discoid, sessile ; torus conic, truncate, pubescent. 
Ripe carpels solitary, or in pairs and divergent, oblong-ovoid, blunt at 
each end, minutely tomentose, 2 to 3 in. long, and 1 to 1'5 in. in diam, ; 
pericarp thick ; seeds 8 to 10, compressed, elongate and narrowly sub- 
reniform, transversely substriate. Unona virgata, Blume Bijdr. 14 ; Fl. 
Java3 Anon. 43 t. 19 and 25B. ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat., I. Pt. 2, p. 42. 
Meiogyne virgata, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II., 12. Cananga virgata, 
Hook fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 57. 

Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib,), No. 92. Perak ; King's col- 
lection. Distrib. Java. 

Blume describes the carpels as from 3 to 5 ; but I have never found 
more than two, and it is difficult to understand how more can come to 
perfection on the comparatively small torus. In Java this is said often 
to be a bush from 6 to 8 feet high : in Perak it is a tall tree. 

2. Cyathocalyx Maingati, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
53. A tree 50 or 60 feet high : young branches rather stout, puberu- 
lous, speedily glabrous and dark-coloured. Leaves elliptic to oblong, 
thinly coriaceous, slightly obovate, shortly caudate-acuminate, the base 
rounded or slightly cuneate ; upper surface shining, quite glabrous ; 
the lower puberulous when young, ultimately glabrous ; the main nerves 
13 to 15 pairs, bold and prominent, spreading, interarching near the 
edge: length 5"8 to 8'8 in., breadth 2 - 75 to 3 - 75 in., petiole "3 in. 
Flowers 2 to 3 in. in diam., solitary or in short, 2- to 3-flowered racemes, 
axillary or extra-axillary : pedicels '5 to "75 in. long with a lai'ge stem- 
clasping bracteole near the apex. Sepals spreading or sub-i'eflexed, 
ovate, sub-acute, slightly connate at the base, puberulous on both sur- 
faces, '4 in. long. Petals thinly coriaceous, subequal, puberulous, obo- 
vate or broadly obovate- lanceolate, blunt, the base with a short claw, 
pale greenish with a blotch of reddish yellow at the base, all (but 
especially the inner row) more or less convex, the inner row slightly 
concave and glabrous at the base inside. Stamens numerous, cuneate, 
short ; the connective produced into a broad, flat, orbicular, oblique expan- 
sion which over-hangs the dorsal linear anthers. Ovaries 3, narrowly 
ovoid, pubescent, ovules about 10 in 2 rows : style short, lateral : stigma 
large, lobed, villous. Ripe carpels 1 or 2, globular, 1'5 to T75 in. in diam., 
slightly tubercular when dry and minutely pubescent. Seeds 10 in 
2 rows, elongated, compressed. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 94. Singapore : Ridley. 
Perak : King's Collector. 



30 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

This species is doubtfully referred to Gyathocalyx by its authors, and 
chiefly on the ground that the petals, although valvate at the base, are 
slightly imbricate above. An examination of the large number of 
specimens sent from Perak by the Calcutta Botanic Garden Collector 
enables me to state that in bud the petals are truly valvate, but that as 
they develope they undoubtedly overlap. The anthers, ovaries and 
and ripe fruit appear to me to be those of Gyathocalyx ; and in habit 
and general appearance of its leaves this plant agrees with the other 
species above described. In addition to the species above described, there 
are, in the Calcutta Herbarium, fruiting specimens from Perak of a small 
tree which is apparently a fourth species of Gyathocalyx. The leaves 
of this are oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, 8- to 10-nerved, glabrous 
above and puberulous beneath; and the ripe carpels are in pairs, ovoid, 
puberulous, about 1*5 in. long. None of the specimens has any trace of 
flower. 

7. Artabotrys, R. Brown. 
Sarmentose or scaudent shrubs. Leaves shining. Floivers solitary 
or fascicled, generally on woody, usually hooked, recurved branches (pe- 
duncles). Sepals 3, valvate. Petals 6, 2-seriate, bases concave connivent ; 
limb spreading, flat, sub-terete or clavate. Stamens oblong or cuneate ; 
connective truncate or produced; auther-cells dorsal. Torus flat or con- 
vex. Ovaries few or many ; style oblong or columnar ; ovules 2, erect, 
collateral. Ripe carpels berried. — Distrib. Tropical Africa and Eastern 
Asia ; described species about 32. 

This genus is at once distinguished by the curious hooked flower- 
peduncles. The petals are thick and mostly narrow, concave and closely 
connivent at the base, while the limb is spreading. The habit of all is 
scindent. Besides those described below, there are in the Calcutta 
Herbarium imperfect materials of five uudescribed species from Perak, 
and of oue from the Andaman Islands. 
Petals lanceolate to elliptic. 

Flowers less than 1 in. long. 

Petals very fleshy, broadly elliptic, blunt 1. A. grandifolius. 
,, coriaceous, broadly lanceolate, acu- 
minate ... ... ... 2. A. Scortechinii. 

,, slightly fleshy, elliptic-oblong, ob- 
tuse ... ... ... 3. A. pleurocarpua 

Flowers about 1 in. long. 

Outer petals ovate-lanceolate ; the inner 

lanceolate or linear ... ... 4. A. venustus. 

Flowers more than 1 in. long. 



5. 


A. 


crassifolius, 


6. 


A. 


oblongus. 


7. 


A. 


Lowianus. 



9. 


A. 


speciosus. 


10. 


A. 


Maingayi. 


11. 


A, 


gracilis. 


12. 


A 


suaveolens, 


13. 


A. 


costatus. 


14. 


A. 


Wrayi. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 31 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, obtuse or shortly 

and bluntly mucronate, coriaceous 
Leaves oblong, acuminate, coriaceous 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate. 

Leaves shortly caudate-acuminate, 

flower nearly 2 in. long 
Leaves shortly acuminate ; flower l - 5 
to 1*75 in. long ; ripe carpels nar- 
rowly elliptic, tapering to both ends, 
glabrous ... ... ... 8. A. oxycarpus. 

Limb of petals linear, sub-triquetrous, cylindric, or 
sub-clavate. 

Petals thickly coriaceous, linear, blunt, ad- 

pressed-pubescent 
Petals linear-oblong, obtuse, (glabrous ?) 
Petals fleshy, the outer 3 flattened ; the 

inner 3 obtusely triquetrous 
Petals fleshy, the limb cylindric to clavate 

Imperfectly known species 
* # * 

1. Artabotrys grandifolius, n. sp. King. A powerful creeper 60 
to 80 feet long ; young branches stout, pale, striate, glabrous. Leaves 
thinly coi'iaceous, large, minutely pellucid-punctate, pale yellowish-green 
■when dry, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-obovate ; the apex broad, obtuse or 
abruptly sub-acute ; the base cuneate : both surfaces glabrous, distinctly 
reticulate, the upper shining, the lower duller : main nerves 10 to 12 
pairs, oblique, inter-arching boldly '25 in. from the edge ; length of 
blade 8 to 14 in., breadth 3 to 5 in. : petiole "4 in., stout. Petals very 
fleshy, densely and minutely tomentose, unequal ; the outer 3 broadly 
elliptic, sub-acute or blunt, slightly concave, "75 in. long and "4 in. broad : 
inner 3 obovoid, spreading but with incurved apices, slightly shorter 
than the outer. Peduncles (in fruit) nearly 3 in. long, stout : torus 
hemispheric. 1 in.indiam. Ripe carpels numerous, glabrous, lenticellate, 
elliptic-obovoid, the apex mammillate, narrowed at the base into a short 
stout pseudo-stalk nearly "5 in. long ; length of ripe carpel about 1*5 in., 
diam. 1 in. : pericarp hard, about - 1 in. thick. Seed solitary, narrowly 
ellipsoid, blunt, 1*1 in. long, and 6 in. in. diam. ; the testa pale, rugulose. 
A. macrophylhis, King MSS. (not of Hook. fil). 

Perak ; at Goping, elevation 500 to 800 feet, King's Collector, No. 
4477 ; Scortechini No. 1068. 

Some specimens of this were unfortunately distributed from the 
Calcutta Herbarium under the MSS. name of A. macrophyllus, — a name 



32 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

pre-occupied by an African species described by Sir J. D. Hooker (Niger 
Flora, 207). 

2. Artabotrys Scortechinii, n. sp. King. A climber. All parts 
except the flower and possibly the fruit glabrous : young branches 
slender, dark-coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, short- 
ly acuminate, the base cuneate ; upper surface shining ; the lower dull 
when young, very minutely scaly, afterwards glabrous ; main nerves 9 to 
11 pairs, spreading, inter-arching # 1 in. from the edge, slender but rather 
prominent beneath : length of blade 2'25 to 3'25 in., breadth - 9 to 1*3 
in., petiole 2 in. Peduncle rather slender, 3-to 4-flowered ; pedicels *5 
in. long, thickened upwards, puberulous, with a small ovate bracteole at 
the very base. Flowers '6 to '8 in. long. Sepals very coriaceous, tri- 
angular, acuminate, the apices slightly reflexed, conjoined at the base 
only, rugulose and adpressed-pubescent externally, "25 in long. Petals 
coriaceous, broadly-lanceolate acuminate, tomentose on both surfaces, 
the inner three smaller than the outer 3. Anthers with broad connec- 
tival apical appendages. Torus rather flat, sericeous : ovaries glabrous. 
Fruit unknown. 

Perak, Scortechini. 

A species near A. poh/gynus, Miq., but with glabrous leaves and 
different flowers from that species. 

3. Artabotrys pleurocarpus, Maingay in Hook, fil Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
54. A large climber ; all parts except the flowers glabrous ; young branches 
lenticellate, striate, dark-coloured. Leaves coriaceous, oblanceolate- 
oblong, the apex abruptly and shortly acuminate, the base much nar- 
rowed : both surfaces shining and reticulate, the upper paler ; main 
nerves about 10 pairs, spreading, slender: length of blade 4 to 65 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 225 in. ; petiole '15 in., thick. Peduncles flat, stout, much 
hooked, beariug several ebracteolate pedicels, "5 in. long, densely pubes- 
cent. Flowers 1*5 in. long. Sepals broadly ovate, obtuse. Petals sub- 
equal, flat, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, the outer 
1 to 135 in. long, the inner smaller. Anthers with apiculate connectives. 
Ovaries many, slender. Ripe carpels broadly elliptic, mammillate, ob- 
scurely grooved, narrowed into the short stout stalk, "75 in. long. Seeds 2, 
with hard testa. 

Malacca; Maingay. Perak, Scortechini, No. 331. 

4. Artabotrys vencstds, n. sp., King. A large climber, 30 to 80 
feet long ; young branches at first puberulous, afterwards glabrous, 
dark coloured, striate. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 
abruptly and shortly acumiuate, the base rounded or very slightly nar- 
rowed : both surfaces glabrous, the upper shining, the lower dull, adult 
leaves pale brown (when dry) : main nerves 7 to JO pairs, spreading 



1892.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 33 

or sub-ascending, curved, inter-arching freely '1 to 2 in. from the edge, 
prominent on the lower, less so on the upper, surface ; length of blade 35 
to 6 in., breadth 2 to 3 in. ; petiole "2 to '25 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, 
rather slender in flower, (stout in fruit), minutely tomentose, bearing 3 or 
4 flowers, "75 to 1 in. long. ; pedicels slender, pubescent or glabrescent., 
from "5 to 1 in. long, ebracteate. Sepals coriaceous, broadly triangular, 
sub-acute, slightly conjoined at the base, sub-i'eflexed, puberulous exter- 
nally, glabrous within, *15 in. long. Petals coriaceous, minutely tomentose, 
subequal ; the outer 3 with small claw, glabrous inside, ovate-lanceolate 
sub-acute ; the inner 3 shorter than the outer, lanceolate or linear. 
Anthers short, slightly compressed ; the apex orbicular, flat. Ovaries 
about 10, oblong, granular. Garpels about 6, sessile, narrowly obovoid, 
apiculate, slightly narrowed to the base, at first puberulous, ultimately 
glabrous, 1*5 in long and "8 in. in diam. ; pericarp thin. Seeds 2, 
oblong, plano-convex, about 1 in. long and "6 in. broad, smooth. 

Perak ; at elevations up to 1,000 feet, King's Collector, Nos. 3725, 
4392, 6499, 696S, King's Collector. 

5. Artabotrys crassifolius, H. f. and T. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 54. A large climber ; young branches minutely rusty-tomentose. 
Leaves very coriaceous when adult, elliptic to oblong, obtuse or shortly 
and bluntly mucronate, the base acute or rounded : upper surface glabrous, 
shining : the lower dull, paler in colour when young, sparsely adpressed- 
pilose, afterwards glabrous ; main nerves 9 or 10 pairs, oblique, when 
dry faintly impressed on the upper and slightly prominent on the lower 
surface; length of blade 6 to 65 in., breadth 1"75 to 2 - 75 in. ; petiole 
'3 to '4 in., stout. Peduncles flat, much hooked, stout : each with several 
stout rusty-tomentose pedicels *3 to '4 in. long ; bracts few, ovate. 
Flowers T25 in. long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, sub-obtuse, softly rusty- 
pubescent outside, pubescent within. Petals coriaceous, oblong- lanceo- 
late, sub-ovate, densely tomentose on both surfaces ; the inner 3 smaller 
than the outer 3. Fruiting pedicel very stout ; the torus sub-globose. 
Ripe carpels about 8, sessile, sub-obovoid to ovoid, glabrous, slightly 
rugose, 1*25 to 1*65 in. long and - 75 to 115 in. in diam. ; pericarp thick, 
pulpy. Seeds 2, collateral, oblong, compressed, grooved along the edge, 
"9 in. long and "6 in. broad. Kurz For. Flora Burma, 1, 30. 

Burmah ; Martaban, King, Brandis. Perak ; King's Collector, No. 
8384. 

6. Artabotrys oblongus, n. sp., King. A climber 50 to 70 feet 
long, ultimately all parts except the inflorescence glabrous ; young 
branches slender, rufous-pubescent ; the bark dark-coloured when very 
young, afterwards rather pale, striate. Leaves when adult coriaceous, 
oblong, shortly acuminate, the base acute, when adult both surfaces 

5 



34 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

glabrous, the upper shining, the lower dull and when young sparsely 
pubescent along the midrib ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, inconspicuous 
on the upper, slightly prominent in the lower surface, spreading, form- 
ing 2 or 3 series of arches within the margin ; length of blade 6 - 5 to 
9 in., breadth 2*5 to 3 in., petiole "A in. Peduncles stout, pubescent 
when young, bearing 3 or 4 pedicels ; flowers 135 in. long ; pedicels 
about 1 in., pubescent, slightly thickened upwards. Sepals coriaceous, 
triangular, acute, concave, spreading rufous-pilose on both surfaces, 
slightly conjoined at the base, "25 in. long. Petals coriaceous, the por- 
tion above the saccate base lanceolate, subacute, strigosely tomentose on 
both surfaces, the claw partly glabrous and partly covered with minute 
white hair. Anthers conqn-essed, with oblong, obliquely truncate, flatten- 
ed heads. Ovaries few, oblong, glabrous ; the stigma broad, oblique. 
Fruit unknown. 

Perak ; King's Collector, No. 6524. 

7. Artabotrys Lowianus, n. sp., Scortechini MSS. A stout 
climber ; all ftarts except the flowers glabrous ; young branches slender, 
dark-coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, shortly 
caudate-aouniiuate, the base cuneate : both surfaces shining, minutely 
reticulate ; main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, spreading, inter-arching "2 in. 
from the margin, faint ; length of blade 35 to 6 in., breadth 1'25 to 
175 in., petiole "25 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, 2- to 3-flowered, glab- 
l-ous ; pedicels thickened upwards, "5 to 75 in. long, glabrous. Sepals 
triangular, acute, glabrous, '25 in. long, enlarging a little with the fruit. 
Petals fleshy, adpressed-puberulous, elliptic-lanceolate above the concave 
base, obtuse ; the outer three 175 in. long, the inner tln-ee smaller. 
Anthers with a rounded apical process from the connective. Ovaries 
many, glabrous. Carpels (quite young) sessile, ovoid, apiculate ; ripe 
carpels unknown. 

Perak; Scortechini; No. 2012. 

This species is near A. pleurogynus, Miq , but is perfectly gla- 
brous, not sub-strigose pubescent ; its ripe fruit is unknown. 

8. Artabotrys oxycarpus, n. sp., King. A stout climber, GO to 80 
feet long ; all parts except the flower glabrous ; young branches slender, 
black when dry. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, the base 
cuneate, both surfaces shining, reticulate ; main nerves 6 to 8 pairs, 
spreading, slender ; length of blade 3 to 5 - 5 in., breadth 1*25 to 1"5 in. 
Peduncles short (*75 in. long), glabrous, bearing about 2 minutely brac- 
teolate pedicels "75 in. long. Flowers 1'5 to 175 in. long. Sepals 
coriaceous, small, broadly ovate, acute, *2 in. long, conjoined at the base, 
spreading. Petals coriaceous, very much longer than the sepals, lanceo- 
late, obtuse ; the inner 3 smaller; all adpressed-pubescent, and the 



1892.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 35 

saccate base small in all. Torus small, sericeous. Ovaries glabrous. 
Ripe carpels numerous, sessile, glabrous, narrowly elliptic, tapering to 
each end, the apex caudate, 1 to 1*2 in. long and '4 in. in diam. ; pericarp 
thin. Seeds 2, plano-convex, compressed, blunt, "25 in. long. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Nos. 5150 and 5605 ; Wray No. 3286. 

This species comes near the Bornean A. polygynus, Miq. (Ann. Mus. 
Lugd. Bat. II, 4). But this species has more pointed and perfectly smooth 
ripe carpels ; while those of A. polygynus are more ovoid, with shorter 
terminal point and have many vertical ridges. A. polygynus moreover 
is sub-strigosely pubescent, this is glabrous. 

9. Artabotets speciosus, Kurz in Hook. fil. FL Br, Ind. I, 55. 
A large climber : young branches slender, dark-coloured, sparsely ad- 
pressed-pilose, afterwards glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, rarely oblanceolate, shortly and obtusely acuminate, the base 
acute ; both surfaces glabrous, shining : main nerves 7 to 10 pairs, 
spreading, inter-arching at some distance from the edge, slender: length 
of blade 6 to 8 in., breadth 2 to 2'5 in., petiole "25 iu. Peduncles extra- 
axillary, flattened, short and not much hooked, puberulous, each bearing 
several short puberulous 1-flowered ebi acteolate flower-pedicels : flowers 
from l - 25 to nearly 2 in. long, yellow. Sepals '2 in. long, broadly ovate, 
acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Petals thickly coriaceous, 
adpressed-pubescent, linear above the concave base, rather blunt ; the 
inner smaller than the outer ; torus pilose : fruit unknown. Kurz For. 
Flora, Burm. I, 32. 

Andaman Islands ; along Middle Straits, Kurz. S. Andaman ; at 
Caddellgunge, King's Collector. 

10. Artabotrys Maingayi, H. f. and T. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
55. A powerful creeper, 40 to 80 feet long : all parts glabrous except 
the flowers ; the young branches slender, dark-coloured. Leaves thin, 
elliptic, acuminate at base and apex : both surfaces shining, finely reti- 
culate : main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, spi'eading, faint : length of blade 3 5 
to 6 in., breadth 135 to 2 in., petiole '25 to "5 in. Peduncles flat, much 
curved, glabrous. Flowers 1 in. in diam., fascicled, peduncle "5 to 
1*5 in, hoary-pubescent. Sepals small, obtuse, '2 in. long. Petals: the 
outer linear-oblong, obtuse, concave the saccate base small aud sub- 
orbicular, 1 to 1'25 in. long and - 25 to '35 broad; the inner smaller and 
narrower and much curved. Ovaries 3 or 4 ovoid, glabrous. Pipe 
carpels sessile, elliptic-globose, mammillate, yellow, glabrous, when ripe 
2*5 in., long and l - 5 in. iu diam. Seeds 2, plano-convex, testa stony. 

Malacca ; Maingay. 

11. Artabotrys gracilis, n sp. King. A slender woody climber, 
60 to 80 feet long : young branches dark-coloured : all parts quite 



36 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. I, 

glabrous except the petals. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceo- 
late, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces glabrous and 
shining, the upper when dry tinged with green : main nerves 7 or 8 pairs, 
spreading, inter-arching inside the edge, very faint on both surfaces, 
reticulations rather distinct : length of blade 2'5 to 3 in., breadth 1 to 
l - 75 in., petiole 15 to "2 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, short, much 
hooked, glabrous, usually 4- to 6-flowered ; pedicels "35 in. long, thick- 
ened upwards, ebracteolate, glabrous : flower '3 to "4 in. long. Sepals 
very coriaceous, semi-orbicular, slightly pointed at the apex, very little 
conjoined at the base, concave, spreading Petals fleshy, sub-equal, 
curved, spreading, densely tomentose, the outer 3 flattened; the inner 
obtusely 3-angled, tumid at the base, smaller than the outer 3. Anthers 
with broad apical connectival processes. Ovaries 3 or 4, oblong, with 
large discoid lobed stigmas, torus villous. Ripe carpels 3 or 4, sessile, 
obovoid, with several vertical ridges, the base contracted, glabrous, "8 
in. long and '7 in. in diam. Seeds 2, compressed-ovoid, obtuse at each 
end, shining. 

Perak : at low elevations, King's Collectoi*, Nos. 3746, 4987 and 
7543. 

Allied to A. suaveolens, Bl. ; but with differently shaped petals, pistils 
and carpels. 

12. Artabotrys sdaveolens, Blume Fl. Javae Anon. 62, t. 30, 31D. 
A climber 20 to 30 feet long ; the petals always tomentose, the other 
parts mostly glabrous, but sometimes the young branches, peduncles, and 
under surfaces of the midribs of the leaves adpressed-puberulous. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, oblong -lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or shortly 
acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces shining, the reticulations rather 
distinct, the upper often deeply tinged with green when dry. Peduncles 
extra -axillary, thin at first, but becoming stout and flat with age, glabrous 
or puberulous, bearing from 5 to 15 flowers ; pedicels "3 to "45 in. long, 
thickened upwards, sparsely adpressed-pubescent, with a small narrowly 
ovate bract at the base ; flowers about "4 in. long. Sepals broadly ovate, 
the apex pointed, thinly coriaceous, sparsely adpressed-pubescent ex- 
ternally, very slightly conjoined at the base, spreading, "1 in. long. 
Petals fleshy, adpressed-tomentose, dilated and thin at the base, the limb 
cylindric to clavate, sub erect, slightly spreading, sometimes with the 
apex incurved. Anthers short, with a very broad oblique flattened apical 
appendage from the connective ; torus slightly pubescent. Ovaries 
broadly ovoid, sub-compressed, the stigma small. Ripe carpels few, ellip- 
soid, the apex blunt, the base slightly contracted, smooth, glabrous, "4 to 
5 in. long and 25 in. in diam. ; pericarp thin, fleshy. Seed single, ellip- 
soid, blunt at each end, the testa granular. Wall. Cat. 6416 ; H. f. & T. 



1892.] G. King; — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 37 

PL Ind, 129 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 55 ; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I. Pt. 2, 39 
Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 43 ; Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I ; Artabotrys 
parviflora, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, Supp., 375. Unona suaveolens, Blame 
Bijdr. 17. 

In all the Malayan Provinces at low elevations : common. Sylhet 
to Malacca in British India. 

This species varies somewhat as to size of flowers and texture of 
leaf. The form named A. parviflora by Miq. in his Sumatra Sup- 
plement was, by himself, subsequently reduced to a variety of this 
species (Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 38). 

13. Artabotrys costatus, n. sp. King. A climber from 15 to 80 
feet long : young branches slender, dark-coloured, scantily tawny-pu- 
berulous when young, afterwards glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, 
elliptic-oblong, slightly oblanceolate, abruptly and shortly acuminate, 
the base cuneate ; upper surface shining, glabrous except the lower part 
of the midrib which is tomentose ; lower surface paler, dull, sparsely 
puberulous towai'ds the base when young, afterwards glabrous ; main 
nerves 12 to 14 pairs, spreading, forming one series of very bold arches 
•3 in. from the margin, with a series of smaller arches outside it, very stout 
and prominent on the lower, slightly so on the upper, surface, reticula- 
tions distinct on both : length of blade 7 to 9 in., breadth 2'5 to 3'25 in., 
petiole '2 in. Peduncles rather small, much hooked. Flowers unknown. 
Carpels (unripe) 2 to 5, sessile, ellipsoid, blunt at each end, about 1 in. long 
and - 6 in. in diam, (unripe), glabrous : pericarp thin ; seeds 2, elliptic. 

Perak ; on Ulu Bubong at elevations of from 500 to 800 feet, King's 
Collector, Nos. 4291 and 10184. 

I have ventured to describe this although its flowers are unknown, 
and the only fruit collected is unripe. By its oblong costate leaves it 
differs from every other described Aitabotrys except A. macrophyllus, 
mi hi. 

14. Artabotrys Wrayi, King. A climber: young branches rather 
stout, softly pale rusty-tomentose ; ultimately glabrous pale and fur- 
rowed. Leaves thinly coriaceous, large, oblong-elliptic to elliptic, shortly 
acuminate, the base rounded ; both surfaces boldly reticulate ; the upper 
glabrous and shining, sub-bullate when dry ; the lower shortly and 
rather softly cinereous-pubescent ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, oblique, 
curving, inter-arching freely within the edge, depressed above and bold 
and prominent beneath like the midrib; length 8 to 11 in., breadth 2"75 
to 5 in., petiole - 35 in., stout, tomentose when young, glabrescent when 
old. Peduncles extra-axillary, rather short, very thick in fruit, some- 
times straight when young and curving only when in fruit, few-flowered, 
glabrous ; pedicels 1 in. long, stout, softly tawny-tomeutose with several 



38 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

bracteoles at the base. Flowers 1 in. long. Sepals broadly ovate at the 
base, tapering rapidly upwards, acuminate, about -5 in. long, densely 
sericeous-tomentose outside, sub-glabrous inside especially at the base. 
Petals thick, sub-equal, ovate-oblong, sub-acute, slightly contracted 
above the claw, softly adpressed-sericeous except on the glabrous con- 
cavity of the claw inside. Ovaries numerous. Ripe carpels obovoid, 
tapering much to the base, the apex mucronate, densely tawny-tomentose, 
sessile ; nearly 1 in long. 

Perak ; Wray, King's Collector. 

Next to A. grand if olitis, this has the largest leaves of any of the 
Asiatic species of the genus, but from that species it differs in having 
them pubescent beneath. Only a single flower has hitherto been col- 
lected. 

8. Drepananthds, Maingay MSS. 

Trees. Leaves large, pubescent beneath. Racemes very short, 
fascicled on woody truncal tubercles. Sepals 3, nearly free. Petals 6, 
valvate, 2-seriate, subequal ; bases concave, connivent ; limb erect or 
spreading, broad or narrow. Stamens many, cuneate, truncate ; anthers 
linear, cells lateral ; connective very slightly produced. Ovaries 4-12 ; 
stigma sub-sessile ; ovules 4 or more, 2-seriate. Ripe carpels globose, 
several-seeded. Two species. 

This genus differs from Artabotrys in its members being trees, not 
climbers ; and in having 4 or more ovules in its ovaries. Dr. Scheffer (Ann. 
Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II, G) proposed to make it a section of Cyathocalyx. 

Petals of both rows with more or less ovate limb 1. Pp. pruniferus. 
5) ,, with narrowly evlindric limb 2. D. ramuliflorus. 

1. Drepananthus pruniferds, Maing. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 56. 
A tree 40 to 50 feet high ; branches stout, rufous-pubescent at first, 
finally glabrescent. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acute 
or obtuse, the base rounded or sub-cordate, often unequal ; upper sur- 
face glabrous, except the depressed tomentose midrib and main nerves ; 
lower surface shortly rufous-pubescent when young, glabrescent when 
adult ; main nerves 14 to 16 pairs, prominent beneath ; intermediate 
nerves stout, parallel, oblique ; length 7"5 to 14 in., breadth 3 to 6*5 
in. ; petiole '5 to 1"5 in. stout, channelled. Racemes 6- to 8-flowered, 
crowded ; flowers '75 in. long, their pedicels rufous-tomentose, "5 to "75 
in. lono - , each with a large oblanceolate bract. Sepals and petals subequal, 
very coriaceous, densely covered (except the inside of the claws of the 
petals) with a layer of minute whitish tomentum ; sepals united by 
their base, ovate-oblong, spreading ; petals of outer row broadly ovate, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 39 

sub-acute, slightly constricted above the claw ; those of the inner row 
closely connivent, much constricted above the claw, their apices broad 
and emarginate. Ovaries oblong, sericeous-tomentose. Ripe carpels 6 
to 8, sessile, sub-globose, minutely pubescent to glabrescent, 1 to P25 
in. in diam. Seeds numerous, oblong, flat, shining. 

Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 90. Perak ; King's Collector, 
Scortechini. Penang, Curtis No. 1417. 

2. Drepananthds ramuliflorus, Maing. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
56. A tall tree, the young branches as in D. pruniferus. Leaves as in D. 
pruniferus, but slightly broader at the apex and narrowed at the base. 
Flowers - 4 to '5 in long, much crowded in very short fascicles from 
tubercles on the branches below the leaves : pedicels about "3 in. long 
stout, rufous-tomentose as is the single sub-orbicular bracteole. Sepals 
much shorter than the petals, broadly triangular, acuminate, spreading, 
rufous-tomentose especially outside. Petals with concave, connivent, 
tomentose claw and fleshy, sub-cylindric, spreading, much curved, ad- 
pressed-pubescent limbs. Ovaries about 5, sessile, oblong. Carpels 
(young) ovoid, slightly oblique, deusely rufous-tomentose ; walls of peri- 
carp very thick : seeds few : ripe fruit unknown. 

Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 91. Distrib. Sumatra; 
Forbes, No. 2913. 

9. Canangium, Baill. (Cananga, Rumph.) 
Tall trees. Leaves large Flowers large, yellow, solitary or fascicled 
on short axillary peduncles. Sepals 3, ovate or triangular, valvate. 
Petals 6, 2-seriate, subequal or inner smaller, long, flat, valvate. Stamens 
linear, anther-cells approximate, extrorse ; connective produced into a 
lanceolate acute process. Ovaries many ; style oblong (or ?) ; stigmas 
sub-capitate ; ovules numerous, 2-seriate. Ripe carpels many, berried, 
stalked or sessile. Seeds many, testa crustaceous, pitted, sending spinous 
processes into the albumen. — Two species. 

The tree known as Cananga odorata H. f. and T. was by Rumphius 
(who wrote an account of it in Herb. Amb. II, 195, published in 1750) 
named Cananga (Latinice) and Bonga Cananga (Malaice). Rumphius' de- 
scription is of the usual pre-Linna3an sort, there being no differentiation 
of generic and specific characters and his name of course is not binomial. 
In the chapter of his book following that in which Cananga proper is 
treated of (I. c. p. 197), Rumphius proceeds to describe the wild Canangas 
as distinguished from the Cananga pioper, which was in his time, (as it is 
still) much cultivated by the Malays on account of the fragrance of its 
flowers. These wild Canangas Rumphius calls Cananga? sylvestres and 
of them he distinguishes three sorts. 



40 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

1. Gananga sylvestris prima sive trifoliata (Malaice Oetan). 

2. Gananga sglvestris secunda sive angustifolia. 

3. Gananga sylvestris tertia sive latifolia. 

Of the first two Rumphius gives figures on t. 66 of the same volume ; 
and judging from these figures, the plants fall into the modei'n genus 
Polyalthia. 

Linnaeus' Species Plantarum was published in 1753, therefore 
Rumphius' names are in point of time, as they are in point of form, pre- 
Linnasan. Linnaeus does not accept Gananga aa a genus and he refers 
to the Gananga of Rumphius only in a note under TJvaria Zeylauica. 
And the first botanists to adopt the Gananga of Rumphius as a genus 
are Hook. fil. and Thomson (in ¥1. Ind. 130). But in 1775 Aublet (in 
his Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Francaise,) published, in regular 
Linnaean fashion, the genus Gananga for the reception of a single species 
named G. ouregow of which he gave a figui'e (t. 244). Nineteen years 
later (1794) Ruiz and Pa von, (in their Prodromus Flora} Peruviana} 
et Chilensis,) published under the name of Guatteria a genus with 
exactly the same characters as Aublet's Gananga. Unless therefore 
Hook f . and Thomson are right in making a special case in establishing, 
as a genus in the Liunaean sense, the Gananga of Rumphius, Aublet's 
genus Gananga must stand, and to it must be relegated all the American 
species referred to Ruiz and Pavon's genus Guatteria. Authorities vary 
in their treatment of the Gananga of Rumphius. Dunal (in his Mono- 
graphie de la famille des Anonacees) pronounces for the suppression of 
Aublet's Gananga in favour of that of Rumphius who, he incorrectly 
says, assigned two species to it ; the fact being as already shown, that 
Rumphius divided Cananga into (a) cultivated (with one sort) and 
(b) wild (sylvestres) with three sorts. Dunal (and I think wrongby) 
refers all the Gananga of Rumphius to Unona. In their Genera Planta- 
rum, Mr. Bentham and Sir J. D. Hooker retain the Gananga of Rum- 
phius and reduce Gananga of Aublet to Guatteria. Baillon, on the other 
hand, retains the Gananga of Aublet as a genus, and to it refers all the 
S. American species of Guatteria. He reduces Gananga odorata H. f. 
and Th. to Unona and, altering the termination of its generic name, he 
makes it a section of Unona under the sectional title of Ganangium. 
The grounds for separating Gananga from Unona as a genus are thus 
stated by the authors of the Flora Indica. " In habit and general appear- 
ance this genus closely resembles Unona ; but the indefinite ovules pre- 
vent its being referred to that genus. The peculiar stamen (with a 
lono- conical apical point) and the seeds are themselves, we think, suffi- 
cient to justify us in distinguishing it as a genus." The simplest 
solution of the synonymic knot, and one for which there is some justi- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 41 

fication on the ground of structure, appears to lie in the acceptance of 
Baillon's suggested name, giving up that of the authors of the Flora 
Indica. 

The synonymy of Gtiatteria is further complicated by the fact that 
a large number of species with valvate aBstivation were referred to it 
by Wallich and others. These, however, were separated by Hook fil. and 
Thorns, by whom the genus Polyalthia was formed for their recep- 
tion. Sir Joseph Hooker* refers to Cananga, not only the species C. 
odorata, but another named G. virgata. The latter plant appears to me, 
in the light of full material recently received, to be a typical Cyathocalyx, 
and to that genus I have ventured to remove it. A third species doubt- 
fully referred to the genus Cananga under the specific name monospermy 
appears to me from the description (I have seen no good specimen) to 
be so doubtful that I exclude it altogether. The seeds both of this 
species and of G. Odoratum are peculiar ; I quote the following excel- 
lent description of those of G. odoratum from Hooker fil. and Thomson's 
Flora Indica, page 130. " The seeds are pitted like those of the section 
Kentia of Melodorum, and of some Gucnrbitacece ; and the inner surface 
of the brownish-yellow, brittle testa is covered with sharp tubercles, 
which penetrate into the albumen, taking the place of the fiat plates 
which are found in the rest of the order." 

Flowers 2 or 3 in. long ... ... 1 C. odoratum. 

,, 1 to 1*25 in. long ... ... 2 G. Scortechinii. 

I. Canangium odoratum, Baill. Hist, des Plantes, I, 213 (in note). 
A tree 30 to 60 feet high ; young branches rather slender, sub-striate, 
at first puberulous, slightly lenticellate, dark ashy-coloured when dry. 
Leaves membranous, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes broad- 
ly elliptic, acute, shortly acuminate or sub-obtuse ; the base rounded or 
sub-cuneate, unequal; quite glabrous, the midrib and nerves puberulous ; 
main nerves about 8 pairs, ascending, rather straight and slender : length 
3'5 to 8 in., breadth W5 to 3 in., petiole 5 in. Flmoers 2 to 3 in. long, 
drooping, in 2- to 3-flowered shortly pedunculate racemes : pedicels 
slender, 1*5 to 2 in. long, recurved, puberulous, with one median and 
several basal, small, often deciduous bracts. Sepals free or joined at the 
base only, about "35 in. long, triangular, tapering to a blunt point, 
reflexed. Petals linear-lanceolate, 3 to 3*25 in. long and '3 in. wide, 
adpressed-sericeous when young. Ovaries sessile, narrowly oblong : 
stigma hemispheric. Pipe carpels from 10 to 12, pedicellate, oblong- 
obovoid, glabrous, blunt, - 65 to - 9 in. long, nearly black when ripe, 
pulpy : stalks from -5 to '75 in. long. Seeds 6 to 12, flattened, sub-ovate. 
Cananga odorata, H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind. 130 ; Fl. Br. Ind. I, 56 ; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 40. Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I, 3. Uvaria odorata, 
6 



42 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Lamb. Ill t. 495, f. 1 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 661 ; Wall. Cat. 6457 ; W. & A. 
Prodr. 8 ; Blume Bijdr. 14, Fl. Jav. Anon. t. 9. Pierre Flore For. Coch. 
Chine, Anon. t. 18 ; Griff. Notul. iv. 712. U. fracta, Wall. Cat. 6460. 
TJ. axillaris, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 667. TJnona odorata and 77. leptopetala, 
Dunal Anon. 108 and 114; DG. Prodr. i. 90 and 91 ; Deless. Ic. Sel. 
t. 88. 

In all the provinces, planted. Indigenous in Tenasserim, Java, and 
the Philippines. 

2. Canangiuh Scortechinii, King n. sp. A tree 30 to 40 feet high : 
young branches puberulous but speedily glabrous, dark-coloured and 
lenticellate. Leaves membranous, broadly ovate, sub-acuminate, the 
base broad rounded, slightly oblique ; both surfaces pubescent when very 
young, ultimately glabrescent, the midrib and 6 or 7 pairs of nerves ad- 
pressed-pubescent, glandular-dotted ; length 2 - 5 in., breadth 1*5 in. (fide 
Scortechini ; length 3 to 7 in., breadth 2 to 3 in.) Cymes short, from the 
axils of leaves or of fallen leaves, few-flowered, shortly pedunculate. 
Floivers 1 to 1*25 in. long ; pedicels under 1 in., pale-pubescent with a 
narrow, ovate, obtuse, mesial bracteole *25 in. long. Sepals ovate, sub- 
acute, recurved, minutely yellowish-pubescent, '35 in. long. Petals 
subequal, linear-obtuse, 1'25 in. long ; the claw short, thickened, pubescent 
on both surfaces like the sepals. Stamens numerous ; the connective 
with an apical process, bulbous at the base, suddenly tapering into a 
sharp point. Ovaries numerous, oblong, glabrous except at the pubes- 
cent base, with 6 or 8 ovules in two rows ; stigma sessile, truncate. 
Ripe carpels unknown. 

Perak : Scortechini. 

Scortechini's specimens are in bud only and none of them has any 
fruit. The foregoing description has been prepared partly from his notes 
and partly from his specimens. The species differs from G. odoratum in 
having smaller leaves, a different inflorescence, with smaller, quite in- 
odorous, flowers. It is also a smaller tree. 

Doubtful Species. 
Cananga ? monosperma H. f. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 57. Of this I 
have seen only leaf-specimens. 

10. Unona, Linn. 
Trees or shrubs, erect or climbing. Flowers often solitary, axillary 
terminal or leaf-opposed. Sepals 3, valvate. Petals 6, valvate or open 
in testivation, 2-seriate ; 3 inner sometimes absent. Torus flat or slightly 
concave. Stamens cuneate ; anther-cells linear, extrorse, top of connec- 
tive sub-globose or truncate. Ovaries numerous ; style ovoid or oblong, 
recurved, grooved ; ovules 2-8, 1-seriate (rarely sub-2-seriate). Ripe 



1S92.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 43 

carpels many, elongate and constricted between the seeds or baccate. 
Seeds few or many. — Distrib. Tropical Asia and Africa ; species about 50, 
Sect. I. Desmos, H. f. and T. Petals 6, in two rows, ripe carpels jointed. 
Flowers solitary and always axillary : leaves 

elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate ... 1. U. Dunalii. 

Flowers solitary, and extra-axillary, terminal 
or leaf-opposed. 

Flower-peduncles 4 to 6 in. long, slender 2. U. Desmos. 
Flower-peduncles 1 to 2 in. long. 

Lower surfaces of leaves glaucous ; 
petals glabrous or at most sparsely 
adpressed-sericeous ... ... 3. Z7. discolor. 

Flower-peduncles from 5 to 1 in. long. 

Leaves more or less oblong or ovate or 
lanceolate, rufous-pubescent or to- 
mentose beneath ... ... 4. Z7. dumosa. 

Sect. II. Dasymaschalon. Petals 3, or sometimes only 2 : the inner 
row always absent ; ripe carpels jointed. 

Flowers 3"5 to 6 in. long ; petals linear-lanceo- 
late, caudate-acuminate, not constricted be- 
tween claw and limb ... ... 5. U. longiflora. 

Flowers 15 to 3'5 in. long ; petals from ovate 
to lanceolate, more or less constricted above 
the claw ... ... ... 6. U. Dasymaschala 

Sect. III. Stenopetalon. Petals 6 in two rows, usually very narrow : 
carpels baccate, not jointed. 

Flowers solitary ... ... ... 7. U. Wrayi. 

Flowers in fascicles from the larger branches 
or stem. 

Petals linear-oblong, 1 to 1'5 in. long; ripe 
carpels globose, glabrous, their stalks 1 
to 1*5 in. long ... ... ... 8. TJ. desmantha. 

Petals narrowly linear, 3 to 35 in. long : 
ripe carpels globose, densely rufous- 
velvetty, shortly stalked ... ... 9. t7". crinita. 

Petals narrowly linear, 1*25 to 3 in. long : 
ripe carpels sub-globular or bluntly ovate, 
softly tomentose, ultimately sub-glabrous, 
sub-sessile ... ... ... 10. U. stenopetala. 

1. Unona Dunalii, Wall. Cat. 6425. A climber 60 to 100 feet 
long ; young branches slender, rather pale, sub-rugose, lenticellate, 
glabrous. Leaves thickly membranous, pale when dry, elliptic-oblong 



44 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [TSTo. 1,, 

to oblong-lanceolate, acute or shortly acuminate, the base rounded, the 
upper surface glabrous, shining, the lower slightly glaucous, some- 
times with a few scattered hairs on the midrib ; main nerves 10 to 12 
pairs, spreading, not prominent ; length 3 to 4 in., breadth 1"2 to 1*75 
in., petiole '2 in. Flowers axillary, solitary, 1*25 to 1"4 in. long ; pedicels 
•35 to "5 in long, slender, pubescent, with a minute bracteole about the 
middle. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, puberulous, reflexed, '25 to "3 in, 
long. Petals narrowly oblong-lanceolate, sub-acute, puberulous to 
glabrous, 1 to 1"25 in. long, the inner row smaller. Ripe carpels numer- 
ous, stalked, glabrous, constricted between the 3 to 5 ovoid joints, 1*25 to 
175 in. long; the stalks about 1 inch. Hook. fil. and Th. Fl. Ind. 131, 
(exel. the Concan plant) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat., L Ft. 2, 41 ; Hook, fik 
Fl. Br. Ind. I, 58. 

Penang ; Wallich. Perak ; King's Collector. 

2. Unona Desmos, Dunal Anon., 112. A spreading shrub, often 
climbing ; young branches slender, striate, ad pressed, rufous-pubescent, 
often lanceolate. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong, acute or acuminate, 
the base rounded ; upper surface glabrous or nearly so, the midrib 
sparsely pubescent ; under-surfaee paler in colour, puberulous or pubes- 
cent ; main nerves 12 to 14 pairs, spreading, rather prominent beneath ; 
length 4*8 to 88 in., breadth 1'65 to 325 in., petiole '35 in. Flowers 
solitary, extra-axillary, 135 to 1'75 in. long ; peduncle slender, 4 to 6 in. 
long, glabrous ; bracts few, lanceolate, minute, deciduous. Sepals 
ovate-acuminate, spreading, adpressed-pubescent, "3 in. long. Petals 
coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, adpressed-pubescent, nerved; the outer 2 
in. long by about - 85 in. broad ; the inner smaller. Ripe carpels numerous, 
stalked, - 5 to "75 in. long, glabrous, constricted between the 2 to 3 oval 
joints. H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 134 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 42 : Hook, 
fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 59 ; Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I 34. TJ. cochin- chinensis 
A. DCProd. 1, 91 ; TJ- pednnculosa, A. DG Mem. Anon 28 ; TJ. pedunculosa 
Wall. Cat. 6422. TJ. fnlva, Wall. Cat. G427. Desmos cochin-chinensis 
Lour. Fl. Coch. Ch. I, 352. TJ. discolor, Wall, (not of Roxb.) Cat. 6420 
D and E. 

From Assam to Singapore. Distrib. Cochin-China. 

3. Unona discolor, Vahl Symb. II, 63, t. 36. A spreading 
shrub, often also climbing ; young branches slender, sub-rugose, pubes- 
cent towards the tips. Leaves membranous, oblong or oblong- lanceolate, 
acute, the base rounded ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower 
glaucous, glabrous or pubescent ; main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, sub-ascend- 
ing, slightly prominent beneath ; length 3 to 75 in., breadth 1 to 2 in., 
petiole about '25 in. Floivers solitary, extra-axillary, 2 to 25 in. long ; 
peduncles 1 to 2 in. long, rather slender, pubescent, with a minute linear 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 45 

bracteole below the middle, thickening when in fruit and lenticellate. 
Sepals ovate-lanceolate, spreading, nearly glabrous, *4 to *6 in. long. 
Petals coriaceous, narrowly lanceolate, 2 to 2'5 in. long, glabrous or 
sparsely adpressed-sericeous. Ovaries oblong, hairy. Stigma laterally 
grooved. Bijoe carpels numerous, stalked, - 75 to 15 in. long, glabrous or 
pubescent, the constrictions between the 2 to 5 oval joints pubescent ; 
stalks -25 in. long. Dunal Anon. Ill ; DC. Prodr. i. 91 ; Wall. Gat. 
6-120 (partly) ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 669 ;¥.n, Prodr. 9 ; H. f. & T. 
Fl. Ind. 133 ; Miq. Fl. Ind Bat. I, Pt. 2, 41 ; Beddome Ic. PI. Ind Or. 
t. 51 ; Bl. Fl. Java? Anon. 53 ; A. DC. Mem. 28 ; W. and A. Prod. 9 ; 
Thwaites Enum. 9 ; Kurz For. Fl. Ind. Burm. I. 34 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Ind. 
I, 59. Scheff. Obs. Phyt. Anon. 5. Nat. Tidsch. Ned. Ind. XXXI, 5. 
JJ. cordifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 602 ? JJ. Dunalii, H. f. & T. Fl. Ind. 
131 (the Concan plant); Dalz. & Gibs. Fl. Bomb. 3 (not of Wallich). 
JJ. Amherstiana, A. DC. Mem. 28. JJ. biglandulosa, Bl. Bijdr. 16. JJ. 
Pvoxburghiana, Wall. Cat. 6423 B. JJ. Lesseriiana, Dunal Anon. 107. 
t. 26 ; DC. Prod. I, 90. Desmos chinensis Lour. Fl. Coch. Ch. 1, 352. 

Of this variable and abundant species, Sir Joseph Hooker distin- 
guishes four varieties as follows : — 

Var. 1, pubijlora ; leaves 5-7 in., oblong acute, base often cordate, 
flowers silky. 

Var. 2, laevigata ; leaves 3-4 in., oblong or lanceolate, acute, base 
rounded, flowers almost glabrous. — JJ. chinensis, DC. Prodr. i. 90. JJ. 
undulata, Wall. PL As. Rar. iii. and 42. JJ. discolor, Dalz and Gibs, 
Fl. Bomb. 3. t. 265 ; Wall. Cat. 6428.— Perhaps cultivated only in India, 
common in the Archipelago and China. 

Var. 3, pubescens ; leaves as in 1, but densely pubescent beneath. 

Var. 4, latifolia ; leaves 3-5 by 2-2| in , broad-oval, acute, flowers 
silky. JJ. discolor and var. b, bracteata Bl. Fl. Jav. Anon. 53, t. 26 
and 31A. 

From the base of the eastern Himalaya through the Assam range 
to Burmah and the Malayan Peninsula ; in tropical forests. Distrib. 
The Malayan Archipelago, Chinese Mountains. 

4. Unona dumosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 670. A large bushy climber: 
young branches slender, softly rufous-tomentose. Leaves membranous, 
broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, obovate to oblanceolate-oblong, obtuse, 
sub-acute or broadly mucronate, the base rounded or sub-cordate, or 
sub-cuneate ; when young rufous-tomentose on both surfaces ; the upper 
except the midrib glabrescent when old : main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, 
sub-ascending, rather straight ; length 2 to 5"25 in., breadth 125 to 
2*5 in. ; petiole "15 in., to 3 in., rufous-tomentose. Floivers solitary, leaf- 
opposed or extra-axillary, 2 to 2*5 in. long; pedicels "5 to '75 in. long, 



46 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

rufous- tomentose, with a single ovate bract near the base. Sepals coria- 
ceous, cordate or ovate, sub-acute or acute, spreading, rufous-tomentose, 
"4 in. long. Petals obovate-spathulate to broadly ovate-lanceolate, taper- 
ing to each end, vertically nerved, densely pubescent at first, less so 
when old ; the inner row smaller. Ripe carpels numerous, stalked, gla- 
brous, '75 to 14 in. long, much constricted between the 2 to 3 ovoid 
joints. Seeds shining, the albumen with transverse fibres. Wall. Cat. 
6429. H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind. 131 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 59. 

Malacca : Maingay, Nos. 42 and 43 (Kew Distrib.). Perak ; King's 

Collector, L. Wray Junior. Sylhet ; Roxburgh, Wallich. Assam ; Simons. 

The form which occurs in the Malayan Peninsula has narrower 

petals than that which is found in Assam and Silhet, and its leaves are 

more oblong and less ovate. 

5. Unona longiflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 668. A glabrous shrub 
or small tree, the leaf-buds silky ; young branches slender. Leaves 
membranous, narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, more or less acumi- 
nate, the base rounded or slightly cuueate ; upper surface shining, the 
lower glaucous : main nerves 12 to 16 pairs, oblique, rather prominent 
beneath : length 65 to 11 in., breadth P75 to 325 in., petiole '4 in. 
Flowers solitary, pedunculate, axillary, pendulous, 3'5 to 6 in. long ; the 
peduncles minutely bracteolate and jointed near the base, slender, from 
1"25 to 8 in. long, still longer in fruit. Sepals veiy small, broadly tri- 
angular, spreading, mucronate, rufous-pubescent externally. Petals linear- 
lanceolate, much acuminate, cohering by their margins, the base slight- 
ly expanded, no constriction between the limb and claw, adpressed- 
sericeous when young but afterwards glabrous, yellowish ; the inner 
row absent. Stamens with the connective produced and truncate at the 
apex. Ovaries 10 to 20, sessile, hairy ; ovules few : stigmas large, re- 
curved. Ripe carpels about 10, stalked, moniliform, 3- to 4-joiuted, all the 
joints except the lowest often falling off : individual joints elongated- 
ovoid, '5 in. long, glabrous. Seeds with thin smooth testa, the albumen 
intersected by numerous horizontal fibrous processes. Wall. Cat. 6419 ; 
Hook. fil. and Th. Fl. Ind. 134; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 61 ; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. I, 35. 

Perak ; in forests under 3,000 feet. E Himalaya ; Assam ; Khasia 
Hills, Chittagong. 

Most of the specimens which I have seen from Assam, the Khasia 
Hills, and Chittagong have flower-pedicels under 2 inches long, and 
petals quite 6 inches long. Specimens from Perak, on the other hand, 
have shorter flowers (3 to 4 in. long) ; and much longer (5 or 6 in.) and 
more slender peduncles : otherwise the two sets agree. In many of 
the flowers from both sets of localities there are only two petals. 



1892.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 47 

6. Unona Dastmaschala, Blume Fl. Jav. Anon. 55, t. 27. An 
erect or sarmentose shrub : young branches sometimes glabrous from 
the beginning, but usually at first softly rufous-pubescent and sometimes 
permanently so. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, oblong, or 
oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, acute or shortly acuminate, the base 
rounded or narrowed ; upper surface glabrous ; the lower sub-glaucous, 
glabrous or sometimes puberulous on the midrib and nerves ; length 4"5 
to 8 - 5 in., breadth 15 to 3 in., petiole about "1 in. Flowers pedunculate, 
solitary, axillary, pendulous, l - 5 to 3 in. long; peduncles 1 "25 to 1" 75 
in. (longer in fruit), minutely bracteolate at the very base. Sepals 
fleshy, very short, broadly triangular, pubescent, reflexed. Petals fleshy, 
varying from ovate-acute to lanceolate-acuminate, concave and (in the 
narrower forms) expanded at the base, with a constriction between the 
claw and limb ; the edges united when young, adpressed-puberulous but 
ultimately glabrous. Anthers with the connective expanded at the apex 
and oblique. Ovaries densely villous ; the stigma narrow, glabrous. 
Pipe carpels numerous, shortly stalked, moniliform, pubescent to glabrous, 
the joints oval, about "35 long. Seeds oval, smooth, the albumen with 
fibrous processes. A. DC. Mem. Anon. 28; Wall. Cat. 6421; Hook. fil. 
and Thorns. PL Ind. 135 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 42 ; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. I, 36 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 61. Scheff. Obs. Phyt. Anon. 6 ; 
Nat. Tidsch. Ned. Ind. XXXI, 6. 

From Burmah to Singpore; the Andaman Islands. Distrib.— 
Sumatra, Java. 

Var. Blumei, Hook. fil. ; branches glabrous ; leaves pale-yellowish 
or grey beneath, glabrous or nearly so. Wall. Cat. 6420 B. {U. discolor.) 

Var. Wallichi, Hook. fil. ; branches brown-tomentose ; lower surfaces 
of leaves glaucous and tinged with purple. 

This species, in the absence of the inner row of petals and in other 
respects, resembles M. longiflora, Roxb. ; but the outer petals are neither 
so long nor so narrow, and there appear always to be three of them, and 
not often only two as in M. longiflora. The peduncles are moreover 
shorter. The two species, however, are closely allied. In open, exposed 
situations this is a non-scandent bush ; but under the shade of trees, it 
often developes into a climber, — a habit which it shares with many species 
of this family. Blume's figure of this plant (quoted above) is inaccurate 
as respects the flowers and fruit. 

7. Unona Wrayi, Hemsl. in Hook. Ic. Plant t. 1553. A tree : 
young branches slender, tawny-tomentose. Leaves thickly membran- 
ous, elliptic-oblong, shortly acuminate, often obtuse (from the breaking 
off of the acumen), slightly narrowed to the rounded base ; upper 
surface glabrous except the puberulous midrib ; lower much reticulate, 



48 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

puberulous, the midrib pubescent : main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, rather pro- 
minent beneath, spreading, and forming two sets of intra- marginal arches : 
length 5'5 to 7'5 in., breadth 2 to 2'65 in. ; petiole '2 in., tomentose. 
Flowers 3 to 3"5 in. long, solitary or in fascicles from tubercles on the 
larger branches : pedicels *75 to "9 in., slender. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
sub-acute, about '3 in. long, puberulous. Petals white changing to 
deep claret, subequal, rather coriaceous, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
about 3 in. long, sparsely puberulous outside : breadth about "3 in. 
Ovaries numerous, pubescent, with about 4 ovules. Ripe carpels red when 
ripe, stalked, slightly pulpy, ovoid or oblong, obtuse, glabrous, 1 to 1'25 
in. long: stalks "5 to "75 in. long. Seeds about 3, oval, compressed, rugu- 
lose, aromatic, '6 in. long. 

Singapore ; Maingay (Kew Distrib.,), No. 51. Perak ; Wray, No. 
560 ; King's Collector. Distrib. — Java. 

8. Unona desmantha, H. f. and T. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 61. 
A small tree : youngest branches with soft yellowish-brown pubescence, 
the older with smooth, shining, yellowish-brown bark. Leaves coriaceous, 
elliptic-oblong, or elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, shortly and acutely 
or obtusely acuminate, the base acute ; upper surface glabrous except 
the pubescent midrib ; under-surface paler, puberulous especially on the 
midrib and nerves : main nerves 8 to 11 pairs, rather prominent beneath 
when dry, oblique. Flowers 25 in. diam., pale red, densely crowded on 
1 to 2 in. broad flat tubercles on the older branches : peduncles "75 in., 
puberulous, ebracteolate. Sepals ovate, acute, "3 in. long. Petals un- 
equal, linear-oblong, tapering to the apex, the base not dilated, sparsely 
pubescent, 1 to 1'5 in. long; the inner rather narrower. Torus and 
ovaries as in U. pycnantha, but ovules 3 to 5, superposed. Ripe carpels 
stalked, globose, dark-coloured, glabrous, nearly 1 in. in diam. : stalk 1 
to 1*5 in. 

Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 48. 

9. Unona ceinita, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 61. A 
tree ? young branches slender ; their bark pale, rugose ; the youngest 
densely rufous-tomentose. Leaves membranous, oblong, elliptic-oblong 
or oblanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate ; the base rounded ; upper 
surface quite glabrous, the lower pubescent especially on the nerves 
and veins : the midrib tomentose on both surfaces ; main nerves 10 to 
12 pairs, slender, but slightly prominent beneath : length 3 to 8 in., 
breadth l - 25 to 25 in ; petiole 15 in., tomentose. Flowers 3 to 5 in. 
long, pedicellate, in dense crowded fascicles from very broad (1 to 2 in. 
in diam.) tubercles on the larger branches ; pedicels '15 to '25 in. long, 
rusty-tomentose ; bracteole linear, or absent. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
much acuminate, spreading, 5 in. to '75 in. Petals subequal in length, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 49 

narrowly linear, unequal in breadth, "15 in. broad at the base, and at the 
middle, narrower between and from the middle upwards ; 1-nerved ; 
finely pubescent ; the inner slightly shorter and narrower. Torus 
columnar, truncate. Ovaries strigose : ovules 3 to 5, 1-seriate : stigma 
punctiform. Pipe carpels globose, densely rufous-velvetty, shortly stalked. 
Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.), No. 41. 

10. Unona stenopetala, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 136. A 
tree 20 to 35 feet high : young branches softly rufous-tomentose ; the 
older dark-coloured, glabrous, striate. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong- 
obovate or oblanceolate, more or less acuminate, narrowed below to the 
slightly cordate and oblique base : both surfaces glabrous, the midrib 
more or less pubescent on the lower ; under- surface faintly reticulate 
when dry ; main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, curving upwards, anastomosing 
doubly at some distance from the edge, thin but slightly prominent : 
length 4 to 7 in., breadth 1*25 to 3 in. ; petiole "1 to "25 in., rufous- 
tomentose. Flowers 1*5 to 2 in. long, almost sessile or shortly pedicelled, 
in fascicles of 2 to 4 on minutely bi'acteate extra-axillary tubercles from 
both branches and stem. Sepals united at the base, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, the bases broad, ribbed, spreading, pubescent externally, - 4 to "5 
in. long. Petals sub-equal, narrowly linear, concave, slightly wider at 
the base, keeled, sparsely pubescent, 1'25 to 3 in. long. Stamens numer- 
ous, short with broad flat apices hiding the lateral anthers. Ovaries 4 
to 7, villous, 4- or 5-ovuled. Pipe carpels few, sub-globular or bluntly 
ovate, softly tomentose at first, ultimately sub-glabrous ; the pericarp 
thick, - 5 to '65 in. long and "5 in. in diam. Seeds 1 to 3, thickly discoid, 
bi-concave with grooved edge, rugulose. Hook. fil. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 60 : Miquel Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 43 : Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 35. 

Singapore : Lobb, Ridley. Penang : King's Collector, Scortechini ; 
common. ? Burmah, (in Tenasserim) : Lobb. 

This is a rare plant in Burmah, if indeed it occui's there at all. The 
leaves of some of the Perak specimens have petioles '5 in. long : but 
usually they are as above described. 

11. POLYALTRTA, Blume. 

Trees or shrubs with the habit of JJnona. Sepals 3, valvate or 
sub-imbricate. Petals 6, 2-seriate, ovate or elongated, flat or the inner 
slightly vaulted. Torus convex. Stamens cuneate ; anther-cells extrorse, 
remote. Ovaries indefinite ; style usually oblong ; ovules 1-2, basal and 
erect, or sub-basal and ascending. Pipe carpels 1-seeded, berried. — 
Distrib. Tropical Asiatic sp. about 45 ; African sp. 3 ; Australasian 
species 2. 
7 



50 



G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 



Sect. I. Monoon. Ovule solitary, usually basal, erect. 
Flowers from the axils of the leaves or of fallen 
leaves, not from the trunk. 
Flowers solitary. 

Leaves under 5 in. in length (7 in. in P. 
Sumatrana), more or less lanceolate. 
Leaves not glaucous beneath ; petals 

ovate, acute 
Leaves very glaucous beneath ; petals 
linear-oblong, obtuse. 
Ripe carpels smooth 
Ripe carpels vertically ridged ... 
Leaves over 5 in. in length, not glaucous. 
Floweis axillary. 

Petals more or less narrowly lan- 
ceolate. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, gla- 
brous ; ripe carpels oblong, 
blunt at each end 
Leaves oblong to obovate-ob- 
long, more or less pubescent ; 
ripe carpels elliptic, mu- 
cronate 
Petals oblong-elliptic, slightly 
obovate, 13 to 225 in. long ... 
Flowers terminal ; petals ovate-elliptic, 
1 to 1'25 in. long 
Flowers solitary or in pairs ; ripe carpels little 
more than '25 in. long. 

Flowers "4 in. in diam. ; petals broadly 

oblong-ovate, obtuse ... 
Petals 1*5 to 2 in. long, lanceolate-ob- 
long ; leaves narrowly lanceolate- 
oblong or elliptic- oblong 
Petals - 85 to 15 in. long, bi'oadly 
lanceolate or oblanceolate ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate to ovate-elliptic... 
Flowers in pairs ; petals obovate-oblong, 1 in. 

long: ripe carpels ovoid; - 65 in. long 
Flowers always in fascicles or cymes, axillary 

or from the branches below the leaves 
Flowers in fascicles from the young branches 



1. P. dumosa. 



2. P. hypoleuca. 

3. P. sumatrana. 



4. P. andamanica. 

5. P.magnoliaeflora. 

6. P. macrantha. 

7. P ptdchra. 

8. P. Kunstleri. 

9. P. Scortechinii. 

10. P. JenJcinsii. 

11. P. Hooheriana. 

12. P. simiarum. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 51 

below the leaves, or from the larger branches ; 
never axillary. 

Leaves 8 to 15 in. long with 12 to 16 
pairs of prominent oblique or spread- 
ing nerves .. ... ... 13. P. lateriflora. 

Leaves 6 to 8 in. long with 10 to 12 

pairs of slender, spreading nerves... 14i. P. sclerophylla. 
Flowers in fascicles froin tubercles on the main 
stem, often near its base ; never axillary, and 
probably never from the branches. 
Inflorescence aerial. 

Leaves under 8 in. in length. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate ; 
nerves 8 or 9 pairs ; torus 
of ripe fruit 1'25 in. in 
diam. : stalks of ripe carpels 
"75 in. long ... ... 15. P. macropoda. 

Leaves oblong ; nerves 7 

pairs ; torus of ripe fruit *5 

in. in diam ; stalks of ripe 

carpels 1*5 in. long ... 16. P. clavigera. 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, 

slightly oblique ... 17. P. glomerata. 

Leaves 9 to 16 in. long ; oblong- 
elliptic ... ... 18. P. congregata. 

Inflorescence sub-hypogseal ... 19. P. hypogcea. 

Sec. II. Ecpolyalthia. Ovules 2 (3 in P. Korinti), superposed. 
Flowers solitary. 

Leaves under 5 in. long, not cordate at the 
base. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate. 
Petals oblong 

Petals broadly ovate or ovate- 
orbicular, leaves glaucous 
Leaves upwards of 5 in. long, cordate at 
the base. 

Petals narrowly linear 
Petals oblong. 

Flowers 1 in. diam.... 

Flowers 1'25 to 175 in. in diam. 
Flowers in fascicles from the older branches. 
Petals linear-oblong, 1 to 15 in. long : ripe 



20. 


P. 


obliqua. 


21. 


P. 


aberrans. 


22. 


P. 


bidlata. 


23. 


P. 


subcorrlatct. 


24. 


P. 


oblonga. 



52 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

carpels '35 in. long, their stalks "6 to "75 

in. long ... ... ... 25. P. Beccarii. 

Petals linear-oblong, 2 to 3 in. long ; ripe 

carpels '75 to 1 in. long, sub-sessile ... 26. P. cinnamomea. 
Petals oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, "9 
to 1*5 in. long ; ripe carpels W5 in. long, 
their stalks "25 in. long ... ... 27. P. pachyphylla. 

Petals linear, obtuse, '5 to '75 in. long ... 28. P. pycnantka. 
1. Polyalthia dumosa, King n. sp. A shrub ; young branches 
slender, glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, lanceolate or oblong-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, the base rounded ; both surfaces dull, glabrous, very 
minutely lepidote ; main nerves 8 or 9 pairs, spreading, faint, inter-arch- 
ing far from the margin ; length 2'5 to 3 - 25 in., breadth '5 to "9 in., 
petiole less than 1 in. Flowers solitary, leaf -opposed, '3 to "35 in. long ; 
pedicels slender, glabrous, '3 to *4 in. long with a small lanceolate brac- 
teole about the middle. Sepals thick, spreading, broadly ovate, acute 
or acuminate, 1 in. long, glabrescent outside, quite glabrous inside. 
Petals leathery, subequal, narrowly oblong, acuminate, not widened at 
the base, sub-corrugated and glabrous outside, puberulous inside, 3 in. 
long. Stamens numerous, short ; the apical process very broad, rhomboid, 
truncate, projecting much over the apices of the short dorsal anther-cells. 
Ovaries very few, oblong, pubescent ; stigma broad, sessile, hairy. Pipe 
carpels one or two, ovoid-globose, glabrous, cherry-red when ripe, "25 to 
"3 in. long. 

Perak ; elevat. about 1,200 feet ; Wray, Scortechini. 
Near P. suberosa, H. f. and Th. but with differeut venation, fewer 
carpels, and without hypertrophied bark. 

2. Polyalthia hypoleuca, Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 63. A tree 50 to 80 feet high ; young branches slender, rather pale, 
striate ; all parts glabrous except the (lowers. Leaves coriaceous, oblong- 
lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, the base acute, the 
edges slightly recurved when dry, upper surface shining, the lower dull, 
pale : main nerves many pairs, invisible on either surface except in 
some occasional leaves when dry : length 2"5 to 5 in., breadth "75 to 
1*75 in., petiole "2 to "3 in. Flowers sub-erect, small (only "3 to *4 in. 
long) pedicelled, solitary or sub-fascicled, mostly from the axils of fallen 
leaves : pedicel stout, about "15 in. long, tomentose and with about two 
cucullate bracts near the base. Sepals very small, triangular, pubescent, 
deciduous. Petals linear-oblong, obtuse, not dilated at the base, grey- 
pubescent on both surfaces. Pipe carpels few, often solitary, stalked, 
elliptic-oblong, obtuse, glabrous, "8 in. long : stalks '1 to - 25 in. Seed 
ovoid-elliptic, blunt, dark- coloured, transversely striate. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 53 

Singapore: Maingay, No. 50, (Kew Distrib.) Perak ; King's 
Collector. 

This approaches Guatteria sumatrana, Miq. in its leaves : but that 
species has much larger flowers. But this is still more allied to Guatteria 
hypoglauca, Miq., from which it differs by its much larger fruit. The 
plant named P. hypoleuca by Kurz in his Forest Flora of Burmah is, as 
he himself informed Sir Joseph Hooker in a letter, really P. sumatrana. 
Neither species, however, appears to me to occur either in the Andamans 
or Burmah. 

3. Polyalthia sumatrana, King (not of Kurz.) A tree 30 to 60 
feet high : young branches pale, the older much furrowed : all parts 
glabrous except the flowers. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, the base acute ; upper surface shining, the lower dull glaucous, 
both pale (when dry) ; main nerves 15 to 20 pairs, very slender and 
little more prominent than the secondary ; length 4"5 to 6"5 in., breadth 
125 to 1*75 in., petiole "25 in. Flowers 1*4 to P75 in. long, solitary or 
in fascicles of 2 or 3 from the ) ounger branches below the leaves, or 
axillary ; their pedicels 6 to 9 in. long, minutely bracteolate near the 
base, glabrous. Sepals very small, half-orbicular-ovate. Petals narrow- 
ly linear-oblong, sub-acute or obtuse, puberulous, pale green to yellowish, 
the outer slightly longer than the inner, P35 to I 75 in. long and '15 to 
*2 in. broad. Ovaries glabrous, sub-cylindric, with a single ovule : stigma 
hairy. Carpels ovoid, tapering to each end, ridged (when dry), pubes- 
cent or glabrous, about 1 in. long and '6 in. in diam. ; their stalks "5 to 
*6 in. long. Guatteria sumatrana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 380. Monoon 
sumatranum, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 19. 

Perak ; at elevations up to 2,500 feet, common. Distrib. : Sumatra, 
Korthals, Beccari P. S., No. 613. Borneo, Korthals. 

This is allied to P. hypoleuca, H. f. and Th. ; but has larger leaves, 
much larger flowers, and slightly different carpels. 

4. Polyalthia andamanica, Kurz Andam. Report (1870) p. 29. 
A shi'ub : young branches slender, tomentose. Leaves membranous, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute ; the base broad and rounded, slightly unequal ; 
some of the larger nerves underneath and the midrib on both surfaces 
pubescent near the base, otherwise glabrous and shining ; main nerves 
6 or 7 pairs, distant, spreading and forming bold arches far from the 
margin : reticulations minute, distinct : length 4 - 5 to 6 in., breadth 2 to 
2*4 in. ; petiole "2 in., pubescent. Flowers axillary or extra-axillary, 
solitary, 2 in. in diam. ; the pedicel '4 to • 75 in. long, sub-pubescent, 
minutely bracteolate. Sepals minute ("1 in. long), broadly triangular, 
pubescent. Petals thinly coriaceous, sub-equal, oblong, blunt, 1 in. long. 
Ripe carpels 6 to 8, oblong, smooth, glabrous, slightly apiculate, *5 or 6 in 



54 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. I, 

long and "15 to 2 in. in diam., their stalks nearly as long. P. Jenkinsii, 
Benth. and Hook. fil. iu Hook fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 64 (in part) ; Kurz 
Flora Burm. I, 38. 

S. Andaman : Kurz, Man, King's Collector. 

Allied to P. Jenkinsii, H. f. and T. ; but with much smaller flowers, 
and leaves with broader bases. 

5. Polyalthia magnoli^flora, Maing. MSS. Hook fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 64. A tree 30 to 40 feet high ; young branches rusty-tomentose. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong to obovate-oblong, obtuse or acuminate, 
the base rounded or minutely cordate ; upper surface glabrous, the 
nerves and midrib minutely tomentose ; under surface at first pubescent, 
ultimately glabrous or glabrescent : main nerves 15 to 20 pairs, rather 
straight, oblique, prominent beneath, the ti'ansverse veins almost 
straight, distinct ; length 8 to 12 in., breadth 2'5 to 3"5 in. ; petiole '25 
in. stout, tomentose. Flowers large, shortly pedunculate, solitary, axil- 
lary, 2'5 to 3 in. long; peduncle "3 in. long, tomentose, with 2 large 
ovate bracts. Sepals coriaceous, short, broadly ovate, acute, spreading, 
tomentose. Petals coriaceous, white, linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
sub-acute, tomentose. Torus conical. Ovaries hirsute. Carpels (un- 
ripe) stalked, oblong-ovoid, blunt at either end, the apex mucronate, 
pubescent. Seed with smooth shining testa. 

Malacca: Maingay. Perak ; King's Collector, No. 10039. 

Evidently a rare species. I have seen only Maingay's imperfect 
specimens from Malacca, and two collected on Ulu Bubong by the late 
Mr. H. H. Kunstler, Collector for the Bot. Garden, Calcutta. Sir J. D. 
Hooker states (F. B. Ind. 1. c.) on Maingay's authority that the flowers 
have the colour and odour of those of a Magnolia. 

6. Polyalthia macrantha, King n. sp. A tree 20 to 70 feet high ; 
young branches rather slender, glabrous. Leaves large, thinly coriace- 
ous, oblong to elliptic-oblong, acute, slightly narrowed below the middle 
to the rounded or minutely cordate base ; upper surface shining, 
glabrous except the depressed slightly puberulous midrib ; lower surfaco 
paler when dry, glabrous, very minutely lepidote ; main nerves 20 to 24 
pairs, spreading, thin but prominent beneath ; length 12 to 18 in., 
breadth 4'5 to 7"5 in., petiole "4 in., stout. Flowers solitary, axillary or 
slightly supra-axillary, 2 - 5 to 45 in. in diam. ; pedicels 15 to 2 in. 
long (longer in fruit) glabrescent, with a sub-orbicular bracteole about 
the middle ; the buds conical when young. Sepals thick, sub-orbicular, 
spreading, connate by their edges and forming a cup - 75 in. in diam., 
puberulous on both surfaces, corrugated outside. Petals much larger 
than the sepals, white, thick, fleshy, flattish, oblong-elliptic, widest above 
the middle, blunt, puberulous on both surfaces except at the glabrescent 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 55 

bases, nerved inside; the outer row 1*3 to 2'5 in. long, the inner smaller. 
Stamens numerous, compressed ; apical process of connective truncate. 
Ovaries few, oblong, puberulous ; stigmas large, capitate-truncate, pubes- 
cent. Ripe carpels elliptic-ovoid, sometimes oblique, blunt at each end, 
the apex mucronate, glabrous, 1 to 1'25 in. long, and "75 in. in 
diam. Seed ovoid, solitary, the testa corrugated. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Scortechini. 

A remarkable species with handsome white flowers, allied in many- 
ways to P. congregata ; but at once distinguished from it by its axillary, 
solitary flowers and glabrous ripe carpels. 

7. POLYALTHiA PULCHRA, King. A small tree, glabrous except the 
inflorescence. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate or 
oblong-oblanceolate, acute or acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces 
minutely muriculate, the lower paler and dull ; length 4'5 to 6 in., 
breadth 2'5 in. (only 175 in. in var. angustifolia), petiole "25 in. Flowers 
large, solitary, terminal, 2 in. or more in diam. when expanded (often 
35 in. in diam. in var. angustifolia) : pedicels 1*4 to 1'75 in. long, puber- 
ulous, with a lanceolate foliaceous bracteole at the base. Sepals ovate, 
acute or sub-acute, nerved, glabrous, '6 to - 75 in. long. Petals coriaceous, 
sub-equal, ovate-elliptic, sub-acute, the base slightly cordate (narrowly 
oblong-lanceolate in var. angustifolia) greenish-yellow with a triangular 
blotch of dark purple at the base. Stamens numerous ; apical process 
of connective broad, truncate, sub- orbicular, projecting over the apex of 
the linear anther-cells, pubescent. Ovaries oblong, adpressed-pubescent, 
1-ovuled ; style short, cylindric, thick, crowned by the convex, terminal, 
pubescent stigma. Ripe carpels numerous, elliptic-ovoid, blunt, slightly 
contracted at the base, sparsely pubescent but becoming almost glabrous, 
purple when ripe ; pericarp sub-succulent : stalks thick, crimson when 
ripe, 1*5 in. long. Seed solitary, elliptic. 

Perak : at Weld's Rest, Scortechini. 

Var. angustifolia, King. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ob- 
lanceolate, scarcely muriculate ; petals lanceolate or narrowly oblong- 
lanceolate, often 175 in. long ; sepals often -75 in. long. 

Perak ; on Gunong Bubu ; elevat. 5,000 feet, Wray. 

8. Polyalthia Kunstleri, King n. sp. A shrub or small tree ; young 
branches puberulous, speedily glabrous. Leaves oblong- lanceolate rarely 
elliptic-lanceolate, shortly and rather bluntly acuminate, the base nar- 
rowed and sub-acute or rounded ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the 
lower paler, dull, puberulous on the midrib and nerves ; main nerves 6 
to 12 pairs, rather prominent beneath, ascending, inter-arching *1 to '2 
in. from the margin ; length 4'5 to 8 in., breadth 1'5 to 235 in. ; petiole 
•2 in., pubescent. Flowers - 4 in. in diam., axillary or extra-axillary, 



56 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

solitary or in pairs ; peduncles "25 in. long, each with two rather large 
unequal, bi^oadly ovate bi^acts above the base. Sepals broadly triangular- 
ovate, obtuse, nearly as long as the petals and, like them, minutely tomen- 
tose. Petals sub-equal, broadly oblong-ovate, obtuse. Ovule solitary. 
Fruit 2 in. in diam. ; individual carpels numerous, ovoid-globular, apicu- 
late, '3 in. long ; stalks slender, "5 in. long, adpressed rufous-pubescent 
like the carpels. Ellipeia parviflora, Scortechini MSS. 

Perak : King's Collector, Scortechini, Wray. 

This much resembles P. Jenkinsii and P. andamanica in its leaves 
and fruit : but its flowers are totally different. 

9. Polyaltiiia. Scortechinii, n. sp. King. A small tree 15 to 20 
feet high ; young branches minutely rufous-tomentose, but speedily 
glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong or oblong-elliptic, acute or 
shortly acuminate, the base rounded or sub-acute ; upper surface glab- 
rous, shining, the midrib pubescent ; the lower dull, very minutely dotted, 
the midrib and sometimes nerves puberulous ; main nerves 8 to 11 pairs, 
bold and prominent on the lower surface, oblique, inter-arching close to 
the edge: length 4 to 8 in , breadth 1*15 to 2 - 25. ; petiole '25 in., pubes- 
cent. Flowers pedicelled, solitary or in pairs, from the axils of leaves 
or of fallen leaves : pedicels "5 to 75 in. long, rufous-tomentose, with a 
rather large bract about the middle. Sepals small, triangular, pubescent. 
Petals fleshy, sub-equal, greenish-yellow changing into dark dull yellow, 
oblong-lanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, acute or rather blunt, the edges 
wavy, both surfaces minutely pubescent, 1'5 to 2 in. long. Ovaries 
nanowl}' elongate-adpressed, pubescent, each crowned by large fleshy 
glabrous stigma. Ovule solitary, basal. Fruit shortly stalked ; ripe 
carpels numerous pedicelled, ovoid, crowned by the remains of the 
stigma, sparsely pubescent, '3 in. long; pedicel slender, pubescent, -75 
in. long. Seed with pale smooth testa. P. Jenkinsii, H. f. and T. (in 
part). Ellipeia undulata, Scortechini MSS. 

Malacca: Griffith, No. 413. Perak, King's Collector, Scortechini. 
Distrib. : — Sumatra, Beccari, Nos. 935, 976. 

10. Polyalthia Jenkinsii, Benth. and Hook. fil. Gen. PI. I, 25. 
A tree : young shoots sparsely rufous-pubescent. Leaves membranous, 
oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-ovate, acute or shortly acuminate, slightly 
narrowed to the acute or rounded sub-oblique base ; both surfaces 
glabrous, minutely reticulate, the upper shining and the midrib puberul- 
ous ; main nerves about 7 pairs, slender, slightly prominent beneath, 
inter-arching at some distance from the edge : length 4 to 7 in., breadth 
1*35 to 3 in., petiole 2 to 3 in. Flmoers large (1"75 to 3 in. in diam.), 
pedicelled, solitary, rarely in pail's, axillary : pedicels - 6 to - 75 in. long, 
pubescent, and with several small rounded bracts near the base. Sepals 



1892. J Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 57 

very small, sub-orbicular, puberulous. Petals sub-coriaceous, spreading, 
greenish changing to yellow, broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate, sub- 
acute or obtuse, the base much narrowed, puberulous or glabrous. 
Ripe carpels numerous, stalked, oblong, slightly apiculate, glabrous, 
"4 in. long : stalk slender, '6 in. long. Seed smooth. Hook. fil. Fl. 
Br. Ind, Ind. I, 64 {in part) ; Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I, 375 {in part) ; 
Guatteria Jen7cinsii, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 141 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 46. Guatteria Parveana Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Vol. I, Pt. 
2, p. 48, and Suppl. 378. Uvaria canangioides, Reichb. fil. et Zoll. MSS. 
Monoon canangioides. Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 18. 

Malacca ; Griffith ; Maingay, No. 46 (and 45 in part) (Kew Dis- 
trib.). Perak ; King's Collector, No. 3910. Assam and Silhet. 

Specimens from Perak have larger flowers than those from Assam ; 
but otherwise they agree fairly well, and both appear to be specifically 
identical with the Sumatra plant named Guatteria or Monoon canangi- 
oides by Miquel. The Andaman plant Avhich Kurz originally (Andam. 
Report (1870) p. 29) named Polyalthia andamanica, but which Sir 
Joseph Hooker (dealing with imperfect materials) reduced (with Kurz's 
assent) to this species, I have restored to specific rank. Recently 
received specimens show its flowers to be different from those of true P. 
Jenkinsii (the petals being shorter and narrower), while the carpels are 
larger. 

11. Polyalthia Hookeriana, King n. sp. A tree 20 to 70 feet 
high : young branches softly tawny-pubescent, ultimately glabrous and 
darkly cinereous. Leaves membranous, obovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, 
shortly acuminate, narrowed from above the middle to the sub-cuneate 
base; both surfaces reticulate, the upper glabrous except the pubescent 
midrib and nerves : lower glabrous, the midrib and nerves adpressed- 
pubescent : main nerves 10 or 1 1 pairs, oblique, forming imperfect 
arches close to the edge, prominent beneath ; length 5 to 7 in., breadth 
225 to 3'25 in. ; petiole "15 to "2 in., tomentose. Flowers in pairs from 
peduncles with several aborted flowers near their bases, extra-axillary : 
pedicels '5 to '75 in. long, lengthening in fruit, stout, pubescent, with 
1 or 2 small ovate bracteoles at the middle or below it. Sepals broadly 
ovate, concave, free or connate only at the base, pubescent outside, 
glabrous within, '2 in. long. Petals coriaceous, yellowish, subequal, ovate 
or obovate-oblong, sub-acute, puberulous except at the base inside, 
only slightly contracted at the base, nearly 1 in. long. Stamens numer- 
ous, very short, cuneate ; the apical process of the connective thick with 
a truncate orbicular top hiding the linear dorsal anthers. Ovaries short, 
oblong, puberulous, with 1 ovule: stigma sessile, large, oboA^ate with 
sub-truncate lobed apex. Ripe carpels numerous, ovoid, slightly apicu- 



58 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

late at the top and somewhat narrowed at the base, *65 in. long, stalks 
1*2 in. long. Seed solitary, ovoid, smooth, with a vertical furrow. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.). No. 96. Perak ; King's Col- 
lector ; Wray. 

This is a common tree in Perak. In Malacca, however, it appears 
to be rare ; for it is so very imperfectly represented in Maingay's great 
Malayan collection (of which the best set is at Kew), that Sir Joseph 
Hooker, while recognising it as a Polyalthia, had not sufficient material 
to enable him to describe it in his Flora of British India. 

12. Polyalthia simiardm, Benth. and Hook. til. Gen. PI. I, 25 ; 
Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 63. A tree 50 to 80 feet high ; all parts glab- 
rous except the puberulous leaf buds, under surface of nerves of leaves 
and inflorescence; young branches pale brown, striate, sparsely lenticel- 
late. Leaves sab-coriaceous, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acute 
or shortly acuminate, the base rounded or sub-acute ; upper surface 
shining; lower dull, sometimes puberulous on the midrib and nerves ; 
main nerves 12 to 16 pairs, oblique, prominent beneath ; length 5 to 
11 in., breadth 2 to 45 in., petiole "25 in. Flowers pedicelled, in 
few-flowered sessile fascicles from the axils of fallen leaves or from 
tubercles on the larger branches : pedicels minutely pubescent, with a 
small bract below the middle, 1 to l - 25 in. long. Sepals small, bluntly 
triangular, recurved, pubescent outside. Petals spreading, linear, sub- 
acute or acute, greenish-yellow to purplish, puberulous outside, glabrous 
inside, 1 to 1*25 in. long, the inner rather the longer. Ripe carpels stalk- 
ed, ovoid-elliptic, slightly mammillate, contracted towards the base, 
glabrous and orange-red to bluish-black when ripe, P25 to 1*5 in. long : 
stalk from 1 to P75 in. Seed ovoid, grooved, transversely striate. 
Kurz For. PI. Bnrm. I, 37; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 63. Guatteria 
simiarum, Ham., Wall. Cat. 6440; Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 142. 
G. fasciculata, Wall. MSS. ex Voigt Hort. Sub. Calc. 16. Polyalthia 
lateriflora, Kurz (not of King), Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Pt. 2, (for 1874) 
52. Unona simiarum, H. Bn., Pierre Fl. Forest. Coch-Chine, t. 23. 

Audamans, Bot. Garden Collectors. Perak, King's Collector. For- 
ests at the base of the Eastern Himalaya, the Assam range, Chittagong, 
Burmah. 

Var. parvifolia, King : leaves smaller than in typical form (3"5 to 
6 in. long and T25 to 2 25 in. broad) puberulous beneath. 

Perak ; at elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Distrib. Sumatra : on 
Goenong Trang, Lampongs. (Forbes, No. 1536). 

13. Polyalthia lateriflora, King. A tree 50 to 70 feet high : 
young branches lenticellate and striate ; all parts except the inflores- 
cence quite glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblong 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of tlic Malay Pcnivsula. 59 

abruptly acute or shortly acuminate, slightly narrowed to the rounded 
rarely sub-cordate and unequal base : upper surface shining, the lower 
paler, rather dull : main nerves 12 to J 6 pairs, rather prominent, oblique 
spreading, evanescent at the tips : length 8 to 15 in., breadth 25 to 
7 in. ; petiole *3 in. stout. Floivers in fascicles from tubercles on the 
stem and larger branches, pedicelled, 1*25 to 2 in. long; pedicels slender, 
thickened upwards, pubescent, with 2 bracteoles about the middle, 125 
to I" 75 in. long. Sepals coriaceous, ovate-orbicular, very short, densely 
and minutely tomentose outside. Petals coriaceous, greenish-yellow, dull 
crimson at the base, oblong-lanceolate, gradually tapering to the sub- 
acute apex, the outer rather shorter than the inner, minutely pubescent 
especially on the outer surface. Ripe carpels ovoid-elliptic, blunt, slightly 
narrowed to the base, glabrous, P25 in. long and "7 in. in diam. ; the 
pericarp thin, fleshy : the stalks stout, glabrous, sub-asperulous, 1*25 to 
2 in. long. Guatteria lateriflora, Bl. Bijdr. 20 : Fl. Jav. p. 100, t. 50 
and 52 D. : Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2 p. 47. Monoon laleriflorum, 
Miq. Ann. Mas. Lugd. Bat. II, 19. 

Perak ; at low elevations, Wray, King's Collector. Distrib : Java. 

This is closely allied to P. simiarum, Benth. and Hook. fil. : but 
has smaller flowers which are often borne on the smaller branches ; 
smaller leaves ; and shorter stalked carpels. Moreover the leaves and 
young branches of this are invariably glabrous. The leaves of old trees 
are very markedly smaller than those on young specimens. Specimens 
in young fruit of a plant which may belong to this species have been 
recently received from the Andamans from the Collectors of the Bot- 
Garden, Calcutta : but, until the receipt of fuller material, I hesitate to 
include these islands in the geographical area of the species. 

14. Polyalthia sclerophylla, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 65. A glabrous tree : young branches pale. Leaves coriaceous, 
oblong, ovate or linear-oblong, acute or obtusely acuminate, the base 
broadly cuneate, shining on both surfaces and with the reticulations 
distinct; main nerves about 10 to 12 pairs, spreading, slender: length 
6 to 8 in. : breadth T5 to 2"6 in., petiole "5 in. Floivers pedunculate, in 
fascicles from small tubercles on the trunk, 2 in. in diam , greenish : 
tubercles *5 to 1 in. in diam. : peduncles 1 to 1*5 in. long, stout, rusty- 
pubescent, becoming glabrous ; bracts small, orbicular, from about the 
middle of the peduncle. Sepals ovate, obtuse, short. Petals linear- 
oblong, obtuse, the base slightly concave, puberulous on both surfaces, 
16 in. long, the inner rather smaller. Torus broad, flat, the edge 
raised. Ovaries pilose, shorter than the cylindric style. Ripe carpels 
elliptic-oblong, slightly narrowed at either end, 1 to 1*5 in. long, 
glabrous, the pericarp thin: stalks 1 to 15 in. long. Seed oblong, the 
I esta shining, pale. 



60 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Malacca ; Maingay (Kew Destrib), No. 101. 

I have seen only Maingay's Malacca specimens of this plant. 

15. Polyalthia macro poda, King ii. sp. A tree 50 to 60 feet 
high ; young branches rather pale, pubescent but speedily glabrous. 
Leaves membranous, oblong-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, the base 
acute ; the edge slightly re volute ; upper surface shining, glabrous 
except the puberulous sulcate midrib ; the lower paler when dry, 
minutely lepidote, sparsely strigose on the midrib and 8 or 9 pairs of 
curving rather prominent nerves ; length 3"5 to 5" 5 in., breadth 1*4 to 
21 in., petiole *25 in. Flowers nearly 1 in. long, in fascicles on short 
broad rugose woody tubercles from the stem close to its base : pedicels 
about 1 in. long, woody in fruit and 2 in. or more in length, glabrous ; 
bracteoles (if any) deciduous. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, spreading, 
corrugated and glabrescent outside, glabrous inside, connate at the base 
to form a cup "65 in. in diam. Petals elliptic, blunt, sliglitly constricted 
about the middle, sub-equal, puberulous, coriaceous. Stamens numer- 
ous, compressed especially the outer rows ; apical process of connec- 
tive transversely elongated, truncate Ovaries numerous, oblong-ovoid. 
Ripe fruit with large woody sub-globular torus 1'25 in. in diam. ; ripe 
carpels numerous, oblong-ovoid, tapering to the apex, the base gradually 
narrowed into a stalk, 2*5 to 3'5 in. Ling (including the stalk) ; pericarp 
rather fleshy, glabrous. Seed solitary, elongated-ovoid, grooved verti- 
cally. 

Perak : King's Collector, Singapore, Ridley. 

A species remarkable for its large ripe carpels borne on the stem 
near the ground. It is possible that Mr. Ridley's plant, collected in 
Singapore, may really belong to a distinct species, the only specimen of 
it which I have seen being very imperfect. This comes very near P. 
clavigera King. 

16. Polyalthia clavigera, King n. sp. A tree 30 to 40 feet high ; 
voting branches slender, at first puberulous but speedily glabrous and 
pale. Leav( s thinly coriaceous, oblong, tapering to each end, acuminate ; 
both surfaces reticulate; the upper shining, glabrous except the puberul- 
ous sulcate midrib ; lower surface slightly puberulous at first but ulti- 
mately quite glabrous : main nerves 7 pairs, ascending, curved, not 
inter-arching, slightly prominent beneath, obsolete above ; length 55 
to 85 in., breadth 175 to 2'5 in. ; petiole - 4 in. slightly winged above. 
Flowers unknown. Peduncle of ripe fruit stoat, woody, 2 in. or more in 
length ; the torus depressed-globular, woody, about - 5 in. in diam. : ripe 
carpels ovoid-elliptic, tapering to each end, the base gradually passing into 
the stout puberulous slightly scabrid stalk, greenish-yellow when dry, 
glabrous : the pericarp succulent ; length 225 in., breadth nearly 1 in ; 
stalk 15 in puberulous; seed solitary, ovoid. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 61 

Penang: Pinara Bukit, elevat. 2000 feet. Curtis (No. 2414). 
Perak : Waterfall Hill, Wray. Distrib. E. Sumatra, Forbes (No. 1638) . 

This species is known only by a few fruiting specimens collected 
by Messrs. Curtis and Wray Junior. It is nearly allied to P. macropoda, 
Kino- ; but its leaves have different venation and texture, the torus of 
the ripe fruit is smaller, while the carpels themselves are larger and 
have longer stalks. 

17. Polyalthia glomerata, King n. sp. A tree 40 to 50 feet high : 
young branches glabrous, pale, rather slender. Leaves membranous, 
elliptic to oblong, slightly oblique, acute or shortly acuminate, the base 
slightly cuneate or rounded ; both surfaces reticulate, glabrous : the 
midrib alone puberulous on the upper, adpressed-puberulous on the 
lower ; main nerves 7 to 8 pairs, curved, ascending, not inter-arching-, 
thin but slightly prominent beneath ; length 4 to 6 in., breadth 1*8 to 
2 - 6 in., petiole "25 to "35 in. Flowers about 1 in. long, in clusters of 20 
to 30 from nodulated puberulous tubercles on the stem ; pedicels long 
(1*5 to 25 in.), slender, puberulous, with an ovate-lanceolate bracteole 
about the middle. Sepals thick, lanceolate-acuminate with broad con- 
nate bases, sub-erect, puberulous. Petals coriaceous, sub-erect, linear- 
oblono-, slightly concave and glabrous at the . base inside, otherwise 
minutely tomentose, the inner slightly smaller than the outer. Stamens 
numerous ; the connective with an orbicular sub-convex apical expan- 
sion concealing the linear dorsal anther-cells. Ovaries much less nu- 
merous than the stamens, oblong, hirsute, apparently 1-ovuled; the 
stigma small, oblong, slightly pubescent. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Wray. Distrib. Sumati-a ; Forbes, No. 

2804. 

In all the flowers I have examined the pistils are very small (as if 
undeveloped) and I have not been able to find more than one ovule. In 
the Sumatran specimens the flowers are much longer than in those from 
Perak. 

18. Polyalthia congregata, King n. sp. A tree 40 to 60 feet 
high ; young branches at first rusty-puberulous but speedily glabrous 
and dark-coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, acute, 
slio-htly narrowed to the rounded or minutely cordate base ; upper 
surface glabrous except the depressed puberulous midrib ; the lower 
pale when dry, glabrous, minutely lepidote ; main nerves 13 to 19 
pairs, oblique, curving, thin but prominent beneath ; length 9 to 16 in., 
breadth 375 to 7 in. ; petiole "3 or - 4 in. stout. Flowers large, in short, 
much divided, rough, tuberculai% woody cymes from the stem near its 
base ; the pedicels 1'25 to 175 in. long, glabrescent ; bracteole single, sub- 
orbicular, clasping, infra-median. Sepals thick, broadly ovate-triangular. 



62 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

spreading, slightly cuneate at the base, concave, corrugated and puberu- 
lous outside, glabrous inside, often reflexed, "5 in. long. Petals thick, 
white, ovate-elliptic, sub-acute, hoary-puberulous except at the base 
inside on both surfaces ; the outer row 1'5 to 3 in. long and "65 to 1 in. 
broad, the inner row narrower. Stamens numerous, compressed ; the 
apical process of the connective truncate, oblique, granular ; anther- 
cells linear, dorsal. Ovaries 20 to 30, oblong, strigose, with a single 
basilar ovule ; stigma oblong, pubescent. Ripe carpels elliptic, beaked, 
1 in. or more long, hoary-pubescent, narrowed at the base into the short, 
thick stalk. Seed solitary, pale brown, shining, elliptic. 

Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector. 

This resembles P. macrantha, King ; but is distinguished from it 
by its cymose, cauline inflorescence, smaller flowers and puberulous 
fruit. H. O. Forbes collected in the Lampongs in Eastern Sumatra a 
plant (No. 1642 of his HeiT>.) which greatly resembles this. 

19. Poltalthia iiYt'OGAEA, King, n. sp. A tree 25 to 30 feet 
high ; young branches rather stout, densely but minutely rufous-tomen- 
tose, ultimately rather pale, striate Leaves large, thinly coriaceous, 
oblong or elliptic-oblong, sometimes slightly obovate, gradually narrowed 
to the rounded base ; both surfaces glabrous when adult, the lower 
puberulous when young, the veins transverse and, (like the reticulations), 
distinct ; main ncr7es 18 to 22 pairs, oblique, inter-arching within the 
edge, tliiu, prominent on the lower and depressed on the upper surface 
when dry ; length 10 to 20 in. , breadth 3 to 7 in. ; petiole '4 in., stout, 
tomentose, Flowering branches from the stem near its base, 1 to 8 feet 
long, flexuose, rufous-pubescent like the lanceolate bracteoles. Flowers 
•75 to 1 in. long, cream-coloured; pedicels • 75 to l - 5 in. long, usually 
with one lanceolate, tomentose bracteole near the middle and a second, 
sub-orbicular and acuminate, close to the flower. Sepals broadly tri- 
angular-ovate, acute, spreading, tomentose outside, glabrous inside, '25 
in. long. Petals coriaceous, the inner row rather smaller than the outer, 
narrowly oblong, sub-acute, pubescent outside except the glabrescent 
base and edges, inside almost glabrous. Stamens numerous, short, com- 
pressed ; apical process of connective broad, slightly convex, slightly 
oblique, sub-granular, deeply ridged in front, the anther-cells linear 
dorsal. Ocaries few, oblong, villous, 1-ovuled ; stigma large, ovoid, 
granular, sessile. Immature carpels narrowly ovoid, sub-compressed, 
the apex beaked, the base slightly contracted, minutely tomentose. Seed 
solitary, elongated, ovoid, smooth. 

Perak ; near Laroot, King's Collector. Gunong Batu Puteh ; elev. 
3,400 feet, Wray. 

A species remarkable for its hypogoeal inflorescence. The flower- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. G3 

iug branches, which vary from 1 to 8 feet in length, originate from the 
stem near its base, pass into the soil underneath the surface of which 
they run for some distance, and bear on their emerging tips the flowers 
and fruit 

20. Poltalthia OBLiQUA, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 138. A 
tree : young branches minutely pubescent, lenticellate. Leaves sub- 
sessile, oblong-lanceolate, acute or shortly acuminate, the base cuneate, 
minutely and obliquely cordate ; shining and glabrous on both surfaces, 
the lower pale ; main nerves 7 or 8 pairs, slender, curving and formino- 
bold arches '15 in. from the margin ; length 4 to 6'5 in., breadth 15 to 
22 in. ; petiole 1 in., very stout. Flowers -4 to 5'4 in. in diam., soli- 
tary, pedicellate, extra-axillary ; each pedicel rising from a short conical 
woody tubercle, curving, - 25 in. long. Sepals coriaceous, broadly tri- 
angular, blunt, less than half as long as the petals, pubescent. Petals 
coriaceous, sub-equal, oblong, obtuse, sericeous outside. Ripe carpels 
pisiform, with stalks - 5 in. long, dark brown. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 67 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 44. 

Malacca; Griffith, Maingay, No. 44 (Kew distrib.). Chittagong 
Hill Tracts ; Lister. Distrib. Sumatra. 

Lister's plant from the Chittagong Hill Tracts agrees well with 
Griffith's specimens from Malacca. 

21. Polyalthia aberrans, Maing. ex Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 67. 
A large climber, glabrous except the flowers and fruit : young branches 
slender, black. Leaves membranous, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
base slightly cuneate ; both surfaces reticulate, glabrous, the lower 
glaucous ; main nerves 14 to 18 pairs, very faint, the secondary nerves 
quite as well marked : length 35 to 5 in., breadth P4 to 1"8 in., petiole 
•2 to '25 in. Flowers "5 to "75 in. in diam., solitary, axillary; pedicels 
slender, 1*25 in. long 'longer in fruit), with one minute bracteole below 
the middle and another at the base. Sepals ovate-orbicular, sub-acute, 
quite connate into a 3-angled glabrous cup "25 in. in diam. Petals 
leathery, ovate-orbicular, sub-acute, spreading, concave ; the outer row 
•35 in. long and *3 in. broad, yellowish-pubescent on both surfaces 
except a glabrous patch near the base on the inner : inner petals 
half the size of the outer but more concave, hoary-puberulous outside, 
glabrescent inside. Stamens numerous ; apical process of connective 
broad, discoid, depressed in the centre, quite concealing the long linear 
lateral anther-cells. Ovaries narrowly oblong, glabrous, 1 or 2-ovuled : 
style as long as the ovary, curved : stigma small. Ripe carpels ovoid, 
slightly apiculate, puberulous or glabrescent, "35 in. long and *3 in. 
in diam. ; stalks "7 to "8 in., slender, glabrous. Seeds solitary, rarely 
2, ovoid, shining, smooth. Melodorum glaucum, Scortechini MSS. 



04 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Malacca : Maingay. Perak ; Scortechini, Wray. 

In some carpels there are two seeds, such carpels being about twice 
as long as those with a single seed. Although referred by the late 
lamented Father Scortechini to the genus Melodorum, this is an undoubt- 
ed Polyalthia in its stamens, in its 1- rarely 2-ovuled ovaries, and in its 
carpels with usually solitary, ovoid seeds. In externals, save and except 
the much smaller size of the flowers, this much resembles the plant 
figured by Pierre under the name of TJnona Mesnyi (Flore Forest. 
Coch-Chine, t. 17) to which indeed Pierre reduces P. aberrans. 

22. Polyalthia bullata, King n. sp. A shrub 6 to 8 feet high : 
young branches densely covered with long soft spreading golden hairs. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, bullate (at least when dry), narrowly oblong, 
acuminate, narrowed but slightly to the deeply cordate auricled base : 
both sui'faces boldly reticulate, the upper shining, glabrous except the 
sulcate puberulous midrib ; the lower glabrescent except the midrib and 
nerves which have sparse hairs like those on the young branches : main 
nerves 25 to 40 pairs, spreading towards the base, sub-ascending to- 
wards the apex, forming a double series of arches within the margin, 
bold and prominent on the lower, depressed on the upper, surface : 
secondary nerves and reticulations prominent ; length 12 to 14 in., 
breadth 2 75 to 3'35 in. ; petiole "25 in , pubescent like the young 
branches. Floivers solitary, terminal or axillary, 1 in. long ; pedicels 
slender, 1 in. long, pubescent, bracteole small, mesial. Sepals small, 
lanceolate, spreading, free, sparsely pubescent outside, glabrescent inside, 
about "25 in. long. Petals narrowly linear, slightly wider at the base, 
subequal, sub-concave, sparsely pubescent. Stamens numerous, the 
apical process of the connective sub-convex, orbicular, slightly grannlar. 
Ovaries ranch fewer than the stamens, oblong, pubescent; the stigma 
sub-capitate-truncate, puberulous. Ripe carpels globular-ovoid, blunt at 
each end, puberulous, "4 in. long; stalks slender, *2 in. long. Seeds 2, 
plano-convex, the testa rugose, pale : the albumen horny. 

Singapore : Ridley. Perak ; King's Collector. 

Evidently a rare shrub ; readily recognisable by its elongate very 
bullate leaves. 

23. Polyalthia sub-cordata, Blume Fl. Javae, 71 t. 33 and 36 B. 
A shrub or small tree : young branches sparsely hispid-pubescent, after- 
wai^ds glabi'ous and furrowed, not pale. Leaves membranous, sub-sessile, 
oblanceolate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, shortly and obtusely caudate- 
acuminate ; the base slightly narrowed, sub-cordate, auriculate at one 
side ; both surfaces glabrous except the sometimes puberulous midrib : 
main nerves 9 to 12 pairs, slender, the reticulations lax and faint : length 
45 to 9 in., breadth 16 to 3 in. ; petiole "05 in., pubescent. Floivers 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 65 

about 1 in. in diam., solitary, axillary or extra- axillary ; peduncles 
slender, - 5 to "75 in long, puberulous and with 1 or 2 lanceolate brac- 
teoles. Sepals ovate, sub-acute ; united into a cup. Petals coriaceous, 
yellowish, oblong, sub-acute, the inner rather smaller, slightly pubescent 
outside. Carpels numerous, broadly ovoid, not apiculate, furrowed, gla- 
brous, '4 in. long ; stalks slender, *25 in. long ; pericarp thin. Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 44 ; Ann. Mus. Ludg. Bat. II, 14. JJnona sub- 
cordata, Bl. Bijdr. 15. 

Perak ; elev. about 800 feet, King's Collector, No. 2373. Distrib. 
Java. 

24. Poltalthia oblonga, King, n. sp. A shrub or small tree 10 
to 15 feet high : young branches at first rufous-tomentose, afterwards 
glabrous, pale and furrowed. Leaves thinly coriaceous, sub-sessile, oblong 
or oblong-oblanceolate, abruptly and shortly acuminate, narrowed to 
the minutely cordate, unequal base ; upper surface glabrous, except the 
pubescent midrib ; lower puberulous, the midrib prominent as are the 14 
to 20 pairs of little curving, sub-ascending, main nerves ; reticulations 
open and distinct ; length 9 to 14 in , breadth 3'5 to 5 in. ; petiole "15 
in., tomentose. Flowers 125 to 1*75 in. in diam., solitary, axillary or 
extra- axillary, from small tubercles : pedicels 125 to 2"5 in. long, pu- 
berulous and with 2 lanceolate bracteoles near the base. Sepals semi- 
orbicular, acute, very short, united into a cup, pubescent outside. 
Petals coriaceous, yellow, subequal, oblong, tapering to the sub-acute 
apex, minutely adpressed-pubescent on both surfaces but especially on 
the outer, length - 75 to P15 in. Pipe carpels 10 to 20, ovoid to orbicular, 
apiculate, "3 to '35 in. long, pubescent or sub-glabrous ; stalks slender, "6 
to "75 in. long. Seeds usually solitary and ovoid, or sometimes two and 
plano-convex. 

Perak : very common at elevations of from 1,000 to 2,500 feet. 

This plant closely resembles Guatteria (== Polyalthia) elliptica 
Blume : but its leaves have more numerous nerves and its carpels are 
stalked, those of P elliptica (according both to Blume's description and 
figure) being sessile and of larger size. 

25. Poltalthia Beccaeii, King n. sp. A tree 15 to 40 feet high : 
young branches slender, rufous-tomentose ; the older coarsely striate 
and lenticellate. Leaves thickly membranous, narrowly oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, slightly narrowed to the rounded base ; both 
surfaces shining and reticulate, the midrib pubescent on the upper 
tomentose on the lower ; main nerves 6 or 7 pairs, slender, spreading, 
forming bold arches far from the edge, the secondary nerves distinct ; 
length 3 to 4"5 in., breadth '75 to 135 in. ; petiole - 1 in., tomentose. 
Flowers 1 in. long, in fascicles from bracteolate tubercles on the older 

9 



66 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

branches, their pedicels slendei% pubescent, minutely bracteolate near the 
base, about 1 in. long. Sepals ovate-obtuse, "15 in. long, pubescent out- 
side. Petals coriaceous, dark-yellow, sub-equal, linear-oblong, sub-acute, 
1 in. to 1'5 in. long and from "1 to '2 in. broad, minutely pubescent 
especially outside. Ovaries pubescent, 2-ovuled. Pipe carpels numerous, 
broadly ovoid, apiculate, glabrous, sub-granular when ripe, '35 in. long ; 
their stalks granular, puberulous, '6 to *75 in long. 

Perak : at low elevations. Scortechini, King's Collector, Wray. 
Distrib. Sumatra; Beccari P. S., No. 401. Borneo; Motley No. 743. 

The leaves of this species, although smaller, have much the same 
venation as those of P. Teysmannii, King. The carpels of this are, how- 
ever, very much smaller than those of P. Teysmannii. 

26. Polyalthia cinnamomea, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 138 ; 
Hook fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 65. A tree 50 to 70 feet high ; young branches 
rusty-tomentose. Leaves thinly coriaceous, narrowly oblong to oblan- 
ceolate, tapering to each end, acute or shortly acuminate, the base 
rounded ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower sparsely lucid- 
pubescent, (glabrescent when old), the midrib tomentose ; main nerves 
about 12 or 14 pairs, slender, curved, ascending, inter-arching freely ; 
length 45 to 7"5 in., breadth 1"25 to 225 in. ; petiole 2 in., tomentose. 
Flowers sub-sessile, solitaiw, or in pairs from short woody tubercles from 
the young bi^anches below the leaves, dull red, 2 to 2 '25 in. long; pe- 
duncles vei-y short, rusty-tomentose, bracteolate at the base. Sepals 
spreading, sub-orbicular, "25 in. long, tomentose. Petals sub-equal, 
thick, linear-oblong, sub-acute, slightly narrowed at the base, adpressed- 
pnbescent externally, glabrous within, 2 to 3 in. long. Anthers numerous, 
short, compressed ; connective with broad, flat, apical, truncate process. 
Pistils oblong, pubescent ; stigma large, sub-truncate. Torus convex, to- 
mentose. Fruit globose, 25 in. in diam. ; the individual carpels pyriform 
witli very short stalks, # 75 to 1 in. long and 5 to *75 in. in diam., densely 
rusty-tomentose ; pericarp thick. Seeds 2, plano-convex, with scaly 
testa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 44. Guatteria cinnamomea, Wall. 
Cat. 6444. G. multinervis, Wall. Cat. 6445. TJnona canliflora, H. f. and 
Th. Fl. Ind., 137; Fl. Br. Ind. 2, 60. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 43. 

Singapore ; Wallich, Ridley. Penang ; Wallich, Curtis No. 2470. 
Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 37. 

Apparently not a common species. Maingay's specimens from 
Malacca have rather larger and smoother leaves than those from 
Singapore and Penang. 

27. Polyalthia pachtphtlla, King, n. sp. A tree 50 to 100 feet 
high ; young branches softly pubescent, afterwards glabrous and fur- 
rowed. Leaves rigidly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, sub-acute ; the edge 



1893.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 67 

slightly recurved, the base broad and rounded, or narrowed and sub-acute; 
both surfaces glabrous ; the lower slightly paler, the midrib tomentose at 
the base beneath ; main nerves 11 or 12 pairs, spreading, prominent, 
evanescent at the tips : length 4 - 5 to 7'5 in., breadth 1*75 to 35 in., 
petiole '35 to '5 in., tomentose when young. Floivers about 1*5 in. long, 
in few-flowered fascicles from small tubercles on the older branches ; 
their pedicels 2 in. long, bracteolate about the middle, softly tawny - 
tomentose. Sepals broadly half-orbicular, very short, reflexed, tomen- 
tose. Petals coriaceous, nerved, pale green, oblong'-lanceolate or ob- 
lanceolate, sub-acute or obtuse, pubescent on the outer, tomentose on 
the inner, surface ; the outer slightly shorter and narrower than the 
inner, from - 9 to 1'5 in. long and "3 to '5 in. broad. Stamens numerous, 
compressed, the apical process of connective truncate ; anthers linear, 
dorsal. Ovaries numerous, glabrous, vertically striate ; stigma sessile, 
truncate, puberulous. Fiipe carpels numerous, crowded when young, 
densely covered with minute pale tomentum ; when ripe narrowly 
obovoid, blunt, narrowed to a short stalk, sub-tomentose, 1"75 in. long 
and about 1 in. in diam. ; pericarp thick, fleshy ; seeds two, plano-con- 
vex. 

In its leaves this resembles Guatteria pondoJc, Miq. (Fl. Ind. Bat. 
Suppl. 380), but that species has carpels with stalks from 2 to 3 in. 
long. 

Perak ; at elevation under 1,000 feet, King's Collector, Nos. 6655 
and 7516. 

28. Poltalthia ptcnantha, King. A tree ? Young branches 
rather stout, covered with soft yellowish pubescence. Leaves coria- 
ceous, elliptic-oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, obtusely acuminate, the base 
obtuse or rounded : upper surface glabrous ; lower paler and puberulous 
on the midrib ; main nerves arching, prominent ; length 6 to 9 in., 
breadth 25 to 3*5 in. ; petiole "2 in., pubescent. Flowers "5 to "75 
in. in diam., in fascicles from tubercles on the larger branches, 1 to "5 in. 
in diam. ; flower-peduncles - 25 in. long, pubescent, ebracteate. Sepals 
ovate, acute, "2 in. long. Petals linear, obtuse, flat, sub-equal, the bases 
of the inner three concave, "5 to "75 in. long, pale sericeous outside, 
glabrescent inside. Torus columnar-flat-topped, glabrous : ovules 2, 
superposed. JJnona pycnantha, Hook fil. in Fl. Br. Ind. I, 60. 
Malacca ; Maingay. 

12. Anaxagorea, St. Hilaire. 
Trees or shrubs. Leaves with pellucid dots. Floivers small, greenish, 
leaf-opposed. Sepals 3, valvate, connate at the base. Petals 6 or 3, sub- 
equal, 2-seriate, valvate, the inner row sometimes absent. Torus convex. 



G8 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. I, 

Stamens indefinite ; anther-cells extrorse or sublateral ; connective with 
a terminal process. Ovaries few, style variable ; ovules 2, sub-basal, 
collateral, ascending. Ripe carpels follicular ; stalk clavate. Seeds 1—2, 
exarillate, testa shining. — Distrib. Tropical Asia and America ; species 
about 8. 

Petals 6 1 A. luzonensis 

„ 3 2 A. Sco rtechinii. 

1. Anaxagorea luzonensis, A. Gray Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 27. 
A shrub ; all parts glabrous. Leaves membranous, oblong or elliptic- 
oblong, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate, the under surface pale ; 
main nerves 7 or 8 pairs, spreading, slightly prominent beneath, the 
reticulations wide, rather distinct ; length 5 to 7 in., breadth T75 to 
2 '5 in., petiole - 25 to 35 in. Flowers about "5 in. long, solitary; pedi- 
cels - 25 in. long (twice as long in fruit), with 1 or 2 amplexicaul bracteoles. 
Sepals small, OA r ate-rotund, obtuse- Petals subequal, elliptic, obtuse, thin, 
nerved, white. Ovaries few. Pipe carpels 1 to 3, cuneate-clavate, some- 
what compressed, narrowed into a long stalk, 1 to 2-seeded. Seeds plano- 
convex, obovate, black, shining. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 68. Kurz P. 
Flora Burm. I, 39. A. zeylauica, H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind. 114 : Thwaites 
Enum. 10; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 49; Beddome Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 
46. p]ioj)alocarpus fruticosus, Teysm. and Binn. in Miq. Ann. Mus. 
Lugd. Bat. II, 22 t. 2 tig. B. Anaxagorea fruticosa, Scheff. in Nat. 
Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. XXXI, 9. 

Burmah; The Andaman Islands ; Malacca ; Ceylon. Distrib. Phi- 
lippines, Cambodia, Sumatra. 

2. Anaxagorea Scoktechinii, King, n. sp. A bush or small tree : 
all parts, except the flower, glabrous ; the young branches sub-rugulose, 
2-ridged. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovate, 
shortly and abruptly acuminate, slightly narrowed to the rounded or 
sub-acute base ; main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, rather prominent beneath, 
the reticulations open and distinct: length 6 to 8 in., breadth 2"5 to 3 - 5 
in. ; petiole "3 to "4 in. Flowers "75 in. long, solitary ; pedicels "3 in. (much 
longer in fruit) with 1 or 2 amplexicaul bracteoles. .Sepals membranous, 
their edges thin, broadly ovate, acute, pubescent outside. Petals in a 
single row, much larger than the sepals, oblong-lanceolate, sub-acute, 
scurfy-pubescent outside, glabrous within, very fleshy, slightly concave 
at the base. Stamens numerous, those next the pistils barren,* elongate 
and bent over the pistils. Ovaries numerous, obovoid, pubescent : styles 
curved. Carpels as in J., luzonensis, but two or three times as numerous. 
Seeds obovoid, concavo-convex, compressed, black, shining. 

Perak : at low elevations ; Scortechini, King's Collector, Wray. 
I have altered the diagnosis of this genus as regards the petals to 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 09 

admit this species in which the inner -whorl of petals is absent. In 
other respects the species agrees perfectly with the original diagnosis. 
Teysmann and Binnindyk's mono- specific genus Bhopalocarpus (Miq. 
Ann. Mus. Lmgd. Bat. II, 22, t. 2 fig. B.) is an unmistakable Anaxagorea 
in which the inner petals are narrow and incurved. It is probably near 
A. luzonensis. A. Gray, and A. javanica, Bl. (See Benth. and Hook fil. 
Gen. Plant. I, 957). 

13. Disepalum, Hook. fil. 
Trees or shrubs. Sepals 2, large, concave, valvate. Petals 4, 
narrowly linear-spathulate, incurved, inserted remotely from each 
other on the margin of the very broad, sub-concave torus. Stamens 
numerous ; the apical process of the connective broadly orbicular, sub- 
convex. Pistils 10 to 15 or numerous, ovoid ; style short, terete ; stigma 
small, terminal ; ovule solitary. Leaves minutely pellucid-punctate. 
Flowers in long terminal peduncles, solitary or in pairs, Distrib. Three 
species, all Malayan. 

1. Disepalum longipes, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree 30 to 40 feet 
high; young branches slender, pale brown. Leaves minutely pellucid- 
punctate, membranous, oblong, sometimes slightly oblanceolate, rarely 
oblong-elliptic, abruptly and shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; 
main nerves 7 to 10 pairs, spreading, (sub-horizontal) very faint; length 
4 to 7 in., breadth 1*5 to 2'25 in., petiole '25 in. Flowers on long 
pedicels, dark red, solitary or in pairs, terminal, "5 in. in diam. ; pedicels 
slender, ebracteolate, 125 to 2 in. long. Sepals reflexed, concave, 
broadly ovate, blunt. Petals remote from each other, linear-spathulate, 
sub-incurved, "2 in. long. Stamens numerous ; apical process of the 
connective orbicular, sub-convex. Ovaries numerous, stalked, slightly 
obovoid; glabrescent or sparsely pubescent, 1-ovuled ; style short, 
straight ; stigma small, terminal. Immature carpels ovoid, sub-glabrous, 
slightly corrugated ; pericarp fleshy, fragrant. Seed solitary, ovoid. 

Johore; on Gunong Pauti at 1,500 feet; King's Collector, No. 231. 
Distrib. Borneo, Beccari (P. B. 1645). 

The genus Disepalum was founded by Sir Joseph Hooker on a 
Bornean shrub collected by Lobb, and the only species known to its 
founder was that described and figured under the name of D. anomalum 
in the Linnsean Transactions (Vol. XXIII, 156, t. 20 A.) The charac- 
ters which separate the genus from any other in the family are the dimer- 
ous symmetry of the sepals and petals, and the small size of the latter, 
which originate at some distance from each other from the edge of the 
broad sub-concave torus. The species here described differs from D. 
anomalum in its arboreous habit, larger leaves, and much more numerous 



70 



G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 



ovaries, which are moreover nearly glabrous and have long stalks. 
Quite ripe fruit is as yet unknown. 

14. GrONiOTHALAMUS, Blume. 
Small trees or shrubs. Leaves with small nerves, forming intra- 
marginal loops. Flowers solitary or fascicled, axillary or extra-axillary ; 
peduncles with basal, scaly, distichous bracts. Sepals 3, valvate. Petals 
6, valvate in 2 series ; outer thick, flat or nearly so ; inner smaller, 
shortly clawed, cohering in a vaulted cap over the stamens and ovary. 
Stamens many, linear-oblong ; anther-cells remote, dorsal ; connective 
produced into an oblong or truncate process. Ovaries many ; style 
simjue or 2-fid ; ovules solitary or 2, superposed, sub-basal (4 in G. uvari- 
oides.) Pipe carpels 1-seeded. — Distrib. About 47 species, natives of 
Eastern tropical Asia and its islands. 

The plants referred to this genus are, by Baillon, treated as part of 
Melodorum. 
Ovules 1 or 2. 

Style cylindric, slender ; stigma subulate, 

entire 
Style very short ; stigma funnel-shaped, slit 

on one side, its edges toothed 
Style cylindric ; stigma truncate, entire. 

Flowers in fascicles from the stem only ; 

ripe carpels 1'25 in. long 
Flowers solitary from the axils of the 
leaves or fallen leaves ; ripe carpels "4 
in. long 
Style subulate or cylindric ; stigma deeply 

2-cleft, petals 3 to 5 in. long... 
Style cylindric ; stigma unequally 2-toothed 
Style cylindric ; stigma minutely and equally 
2-toothed. 

Flowers axillary or from the axils of 
fallen leaves ; outer petals more than 
1 in. long. 

Anthers with slightly convex, orbi- 
cular apical appendages 
Anthers with very pointed, conical 
apical appendages. 

Nerves of leaves 28 to 34 pairs 
Nerves of leaves fewer than 
20 pairs. 



1. 


G. subevenius. 


2. 


G. tenuifolms. 


3. 


G. Prainiamis. 


4. 


G. Ktmstleri. 


5. 
6. 


G. giganteus. 
G. malayanus. 



G. fulvxis. 



8. G. Curtisii. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 71 

Leaves shining, reticulate, 
glabrous ; ripe carpels 
oblong, '5 to 6 in. long 9. G. Grifithii. 
Leaves glabrous, opaque, 
dull, not reticulate ; ripe 
carpels globular-obo- 
void; '4 in. long. ... 10. G. macrophyllus, 

Flowers in fascicles from tubercles near 

the base of the stem ... ... 11. G. Ridley i. 

Style cylindric ; stigma 3-toothed ; apices 
of anthers acuminate. 

Leaves thickly coriaceous; nerves in- 
conspicuous ... ... ... 12. G. Tapis. 

Leaves strongly and prominently nerved. 
Sepals large, orbicular-ovate, ob- 
tuse, "65 to 1 in. long ... 13. G. Scortechinii. 
Sepals small, ovate acuminate, '2 

in. long ... ... ... 14. G.Wrayi. 

Ovules and seeds 4 ... ... ... 15. G. uvaiioides. 

1. Goniothalamus SUBEVENIUS, King, n. sp. A shrub or small 
tree ; young branches slender, puberulous ; otherwise glabrous except 
the flower. Leaves membranous, narrowly oblong, tapering at each 
end ; upper surface shining, pale-greenish when dry ; the lower paler, 
dull ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, sub-horizontal, invisible or very faint 
on either side ; length 3"5 to 6'5 in., breadth 1*25 to 1*75 in., petiole 
•2 in. Flowers solitary, axillary, - 75 to '9 in. long ; pedicels "4 to *6 
in. long, ebracteate. Sepals broadly ovate, bluntly acuminate, 3-nerved, 
minutely pubescent on both surfaces, "3 in. long. Petals thinly coria- 
ceous, puberulous except towards the base inside, lanceolate, sub-acute ; 
the inner petals half as large as the outer, slightly clawed. Stamens 
with broad orbicular sub-convex apical process. Ovaries narrowly oblono-, 
style cylindric, curved ; stigma subulate, entire. Ripe carpels ovoid to 
oblong, obtuse, tapering very little at the base, glabrous, '5 to '75 in. • 
stalks "35 to '45 in. 

Perak ; at low elevations, King's Collector. 

2. Goniothalamus tenuifolius, King, n. sp. A shrub 6 to 8 feet 
high ; glabrous except the petals ; young branches slender, dark-coloured 
striate. Leaves thinly membranous, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate 
shortly acuminate, the base acute ; main nerves 8 to 11 pairs, spreadino- 
inter-arching within the minutely undulate margin, faint or both sur- 
faces ; length 4'5 to 7 in., breadth 1 to 1*75 in., petiole '2 in. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, drooping ; pedicels slender, bi-bracteolate at the base 



72 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

"35 to '45 in. long. Sepals free, large, membranous, green, many-nerved 
and reticnlate, broadly ovate, acnte or acuminate, glabrous, '75 to l'l in. 
long. Petals whitish, thinly coriaceous, faintly nerved, broadly lanceo- 
late, acuminate, much contracted at the base, pubescent, 1 to 1*2 in. 
long, (smaller in var. aborescens) ; inner petals less than half as long, 
ovate, acuminate, the base contracted, pubescent. Anthers numerous, 
compressed, the apices broad, flat, pubescent. Ovaries few, narrow, short, 
1 rarely 2-ovuled ; the style long, straight, thickened upwards ; stigma 
hollowed like a funnel, the edges toothed. Ripe carpels partly enveloped 
by the persistent calyx, ovoid, very slightly apiculate, puberulous or 
glabrescent, '4 to '5 in. long ; stalks 2 in long. Seeds usually 1, rarely 2. 

Perak ; at a low elevations, King's Collector, No. 3019 ; Wray, 
Nos. 3379, 3558. 

Var. aborescens, King ; a small tree 15 to 25 feet high ; leaves 4 to 
4'5 in. long ; petals coriaceous, adpressed-pubescent, about half as long 
as in the typical form ; sepals only "3 in. long. 

Perak ; elevations from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, King's Collector. 

This possibly ought to be considered a distinct species ; but as its 
anthers and ovaries are exactly the same as in the typical shrubby 
G. tenuifolius, I prefer to consider it a mountain form of that species. 
Both the typical form and the variety have remarkable stigmas, shaped 
like funnels and with toothed edges. 

3. GtOniothalamus Prainianus, King, n. sp. A tree 50 to 70 feet 
high : young branches rather slender, pale ; all parts, except the in- 
florescence, glabrous. Leaves membranous, oblong-oblanceolate to elliptic- 
oblong, abruptly shortly and bluntly acuminate, the base slightly 
cuneate ; main nerves 14 to 18 pairs, oblique, inter-arching within the 
margin, prominent beneath ; length 7 to 11 in., breadth 2'25 to 2'8 in., 
petiole '35 in. Flowers 1*25 to 1*5 in. in diam., on long pedicels from 
large, woody, puberulous tubercles at the base of the stem : pedicels 2 
to 4 in. long with two minute bracteoles at the base. Sepals coriaceous, 
united so as to form a spreading cup with three broad sub-acute tri- 
angular teeth, puberulous outside, glabrous inside. Petals thickly 
coriaceous, pale yellow ; the outer row large, obovate-rotund, concave, 
incurved, (ovate-oblong in var.) pubescent on both surfaces, nearly 1 in. 
long : inner row much smallei', clawed. Stamens numerous, the connec- 
tive prolonged into a blunt, conical, puberulous, apical process. Ovaries 
narrowly oblong, glabrous ; style cylindric, not lobed, truncate. Ripe 
carpels obovoid, slightly apiculate, tapering to the base, glabrous, 1 to 
125 in. long ; stalks '25 in. long. Seed solitary, smooth. 

Perak; King's Collector, Wray ; at low elevations. 

Var.: angustipetala, King; petals oblong-ovate, sub-acute. 



1802.] G. King — Materials for a Flora oj the Malay Peninsula, 73 

Perak : King's Collector. 

A species collected by Forbes in Eastern Sumatra (Herb. Forbes, 
No. 3172) resembles this closely. The specimens are in fruit only, and 
the individual carpels being a little smaller and less obovoid, it probably 
belongs to a distinct species. Forbes' specimens have no flowers, 

4. Gonigthalamus Kunstleri, King. A shrub 4 to 10 feet high : 
youno- branches minutely rufous-tomentose, the older pale, glabrous and 
much striate. Leaves thinly membranous, oblanceolate to elliptic-ob- 
lanceolate, abruptly and bluntly acuminate, the base cuneate ; both 
surfaces pale-brown when dry, minutely pellucid-punctate, glabrous ; 
the midrib alone puberulous on the upper ; main nerves 11 to 13 pairs, 
spreading, curved and inter-arching boldly a little within the mar- 
gin, slightly prominent on the under surface : length 6 to 9 in., 
breadth 2 to 325 in. ; petiole '35 in. puberulous. Flowers solitary, 
slightly supra-axillary; pedicels '15 in. long. Sepals green, thinly 
membranous, puberulous, nerved and reticulate, broadly ovate, acute, 
spreading, very slightly cuneate at the base, '3 to '4 in. long. Petals 
sub-coriaceous, yellow or orange-coloured ; the outer lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, slightly narrowed at the base, puberulous outside, - 8 to T25 in. 
lono* : inner petals about one-third as long, ovate, acute, pubesceut. 
Anthers many, short, compressed, the tops broad, flat, pubescent. Ovaries 
about as long as the stamens, narrowly cylindric ; style long, straight, 
thick : stigma notched. Ripe carpels crowded, broadly ovoid, slightly 
apiculate, "4 in. long. 

Perak ; at Groping, King's Collector, Scortechini, Wray. 
Var. marcantha, King ; leaves narrowly elliptic or oblong, bluntly 
acuminate, puberulous beneath ; outer petals 125 to 1*5 in. long. 
Penang and Province Wellesley : Curtis. 

5. Goniothalamus giganteus, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind., 109. 
A tree 30 to 70 feet high ; young branches very pale, glabrous. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate, the edges 
slightly recurved (when dry) ; upper surface shining, glabrous : the 
lower dull, puberulous, the midrib very prominent : main nerves 10 to 
14 pairs, very slender, spreading, more conspicuous above than below : 
length 6 to 10 in., breadth 225 to 2 - 75 in. ; petiole - 25 in., deeply chan- 
nelled. Flowers very large, from the axils of fallen leaves and from the 
younger branches ; peduncles recurved, 1 in., or more, long (elongated 
in the fruit), pubescent. Sepals ovate, acute, pubescent outside, spread- 
ing or recurved, about 5 in long. Petals very coriaceous, yellowish 
tinged with green ; the outer broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, with a dark 
thick triangular spot at the base, 3 to 5 in. long, minutely pubescent ; 
the inner only about 6 in. long, ovate-acute, densely golden sericeous. 

10 



74 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Anthers very numerous, their apices convex. Ovaries hairy, 2-ovuled : 
style long, slender, much curved ; stigma 2-lobed. Ripe carpels oblong, 
apiculate, tapering much to the stalk, minutely granular and with 
obscure vertical ridges when dry, 1"25 to 1*5 in. long and "6 in. in diam. : 
stalks "75 in., stout. Seeds 1 or 2, oblong, slightly compressed, the testa 
brown. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 75 : Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 28. 
JJvaria gigantea, Wall. Cat. 6469 A. B. (in part). Anonacea Griff. Icon. 
Plant, t. 652 ? 

Singapore ; Wallich, Ridley, Hullett. Penang ; Curtis. Perak ; 
King's Collector. 

6. GtONIOTHAlamus malayanus, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind 107. 
A small glabrous tree, 15 to 20 feet high ; bark of branches very pale. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblong, shortly and abruptly acu- 
minate, the base slightly cuneate, rarely rounded, the edges recurved ; 
upper surface shining, the lower dull, darker (when dry) ; main 
nerves 12 to 15 pairs, sub-horizontal, faint ; length 5"5 to 9 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 2 75 in. ; petiole "25 in., deeply channelled. Flowers 
slightly supra-axillary, solitary, greenish ; pedicels "35 to "5 in., 
pubescent, bracteolate at the base. Sepals ovate-triangular, acuminate, 
pubescent, connate at the base, persistent, *25 in. long. Petals co- 
riaceous, the outer broadly ovate, acuminate to ovate-lanceolate, minutely 
tomentoso on both surfaces, with a triangular glabrous basal spot, 
keeled outside, 1 to 1'25 in. long; the inner about a third as long, 
ovate, acuminate, sericeous or tomentose. Anthers numerous. Pistils 
about 15, the ovary hairy, ovules 3 to 4; style long, slender, much bent 
outwards ; stigma sub-capitate, unequally 2-lobed. Pipe carpels narrowly 
oblong apiculate, tapering to each end, glabrous, 1-5 in. long, and 5 
in. in diam ; stalks "1 in., thick. Seeds 2 or 3, flattened-ovoid, nearly 
black. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 75 ; Miq. Fl Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 28. 
Goniotlialamus Slingerlandtii, Scheff. Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. XXXI, 341. 
TJvaria sp. Griff. Notul. IV, 710. 

Malacca; Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 63. Perak; com- 
mon. Distrib. Bangka. 

7. Goxiothalamus fulvus, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind I 
75. A shrub : young branches slender, dark-coloured, at first rufous- 
pubescent, afterwards glabrous. Leaves membranous, pellucid-dotted 
oblong-oblanccolate, obtuse or with a short broad point; upper surface 
glabrous, the lower puberulous ; main nerves 14 to 16 pairs, slightly 
prominent beneath, spreading ; length 7 to 10 in., breadth 25 to 325 
in. ; petiole 3 in., pubescent. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicels '25 in. 
puberulous. Stpals broadly ovate, obtuse, pubescent, connate at the 
base, 25 iu. long. Petals coriaceous, densely sei'icemis, the outer oblong- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 75 

lanceolate, attenuate to the apex, slightly keeled outside, 1 to 125 in. 
long ; inner about "3 in. long, ovate, acute. Stamens numerous, apices 
of anthers very convex, puberulous. Ovaries oblong, pubescent ; style 
cylindric, glabrous : stigma bifid. Fruit unknown. 
Malacca ; Griffith. 

Known only by Griffith's imperfect specimens. 

8. Goniothalamus Curtisii, King, n. sp. A shrub or small slender 
tree : young branches densely rusty -tomentose, the larger pale and 
glabrous. Leaves stoutly membranous, narrowly oblong to obovate- 
oblong, more or less abruptly and shortly acuminate, slightly narrowed 
to the rounded base ; upper surface shining, glabrous except the pu- 
berulous midrib ; the lower sparsely puberulous, the midrib and nerves 
dark rusty-tomentose ; the latter 28 to 34 pairs, sub-horizontal, inter- 
arching near the margin, very prominent, as is the midrib, on the lower 
and depressed on the upper surface : length 9 to 15 in., breadth 3 to 
5'5 in. ; petiole "35, channelled, pubescent. Floivers solitary, from the 
stem ; pedicels stout, decurved, with two deciduous bracteoles at tlie 
base, "6 in long. Sepals large, green, rigidly membranous, conjoined into 
a cup with 3 broadly-ovate, sub-acute teeth, boldly nerved and reticu- 
late, minutely rufous-pubescent, persistent; length from "75 to 1 inch. 
Petals coriaceous, velvety-tomentose, yellowish, tinged with red : the 
outer broadly lanceolate, acuminate, slightly narrowed and thickened 
at the base, from 125 to 175 in. long ; the inner rather more than 
one-third as long, ovate, acuminate. Anthers numerous, compressed, 
linear, with acute granular conical apices. Ovaries numerous, narrowly 
elongate, densely pubescent, 1-ovuled ; style straight; stigma oblique, 
minutely lobed. Ripe carpels obliquely ovoid with long pointed, slightly 
hooked apices, rufous-pubescent, "75 in. long : stalks only *1 in. long, 
stout. 

Selangor ; Curtis, Nos. 310 and 2316. Perak; King's Collector, 
No. 10548 : Scortechini, No. 660. 
A very distinct species. 

9. Goniothalamus Griffithii, Hook. fil. and Th. Fl. Ind., 110- A 
large shrub or small tree; all parts glabrous except the ovaries and 
carpels : young branches dark- coloured. Leaves coriaceous, oblong, sub- 
acute, or shortly and obtusely acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces 
shining and reticulate ; main nerves 12 to 20 pairs, faint, spreading, 
inter-arching within the edge : length 7 to 12 in , breadth 1*8 to 3 - 5 in. ; 
petiole '25 to "5 in., thick. Floivers solitary, axillary or extra-axillary ; 
pedicel "5 to 1 in. long with a few scale-like bracteoles near the base. 
Sepals thinly coriaceous, orbicular-ovate, blunt, connate below, nerved 
and reticulate, persistent, "5 to "75 in. long. Petals thickly coriaceous ; 



76 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

the outer broadly lanceolate, acuminate, 1*5 to 2'5 in. long : the inner 
ovate, acute, '6 to "8 in long. Anthers with an acute apical process. 
Ovaries strigose : style long, subulate ; stigma slightly bifid. Ripe 
carpels sub-sessile, oblong, - 5 or "6 in. long, glabrescent or glabrous. 
Hook, fil Fl. Br. Ind. I, 73 ; Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 42. 
Burmah : Mergui, Griffith. Moulmein, Falconer. 
10. Goniothalamus macrophtllus, H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind. I, 74. 
A glabrous shrub 5 to 15 feet high ; young branches very stout, dark- 
coloured. Leaves coriaceous, large, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-oblance- 
olate, acute or shortly acuminate, slightly narrowed to the sub-acute 
or rounded base ; main nerves 16 to 20 pairs, spreading, impressed above 
and slightly prominent beneath ; length 10 to J 8 in., breadth 2'5 to 4*5 
in. ; petiole '6 to 1 in., very stout. Flowers slightly supra-axillary or 
from the branches below the leaves, solitary or in pairs, green; pedicels 
•35 in. long, sub-clavate. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, connate at the 
base, "65 in., long, slightly puberulous, tinged with purple. Petals cori- 
aceous, the outer oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 1 to 1*5 in. 
long ; the inner half as long, ovate, acuminate, the edges ciliate. Sta- 
mens numerous, linear. Ovaries 12 to 18, glabrous, 1-ovuled; style 
slender, dilated above, stigma 2-lobed. Ripe carpels globular-obovoid, 
slightly apiculate, glabrous, - 4in. long, Seed pale brown. Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. I, Pt. 2, 28 : Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 38. Polyalthia macrophylla, 
Blume Fl. Jav. Ann. 79 t. 39. Unona macrophylla, Blume Bijdr, I, 17. 

It is possible that two species may be included here, there being 
some difference between the specimens in the nervation of the leaves. 

Malacca ; Griffith, Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 62. Perak, King's 
Collector. Penaug; Curtis. Kedah ; Curtis. Distrib. Sumatra, Forbes, 
1370. 

11. Goniothalamus Ridleyi, King, n. sp. A tree: young branches 
slender, puberulous. Leaves membranous, broadly elliptic, shortly and 
abruptly acuminate, the base sub-acute, pale when dry ; both surfaces 
reticulate; the upper dull, glabrous, except the puberulous midrib and 
nerves , the lower shining, puberulous on the midrib, nerves and reticu- 
lations ; main nerves about 6 pairs, curving, ascending ; length about 
8 in. ; breadth 45 in. ; petiole "25 in., puberulous. Floieers 175 to 2 in. 
long, in fascicles on long pedicels from warted, puberulous, woody tuber- 
cles on the stem : pedicels 2*5 to 3'5 in. long, minutely bracteolate at 
the base. Sepals coriaceous, broadly ovate-elliptic, obtuse, nerved, "6 in. 
long, free, spreading, puberulous. Petals coriaceous, pale brown; the 
outer elliptic-oblong to ovate, obtuse or sub-acute, with a broad thicken- 
ed claw, puberulous, 1*65 to 2 in. long ; inner row a little longer than 
the sepals, obovate, apiculate, with narrow claw. Stamens numerous, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 77 

long, narrow, much compressed ; the apical process of the connective 
small, sub-conic. Ovaries oblong, narrow ; style cylindric, puberulous ; 
stigma 2-lobed. Ripe carpels obvoid-globular, tapering slightly to the 
short stalk, glabrous, about 1 in. long. 
Singapore ; at Sunga Murai, Ridley. 

It is possible that in the above description the size of the leaves 
may be understated, as the only one which I have seen may not be of 
average size. 

12. Goniothalamus Tapis, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 371. A 
tree 15 to 40 feet high ; all parts, except the flowers, glabrous ; young 
branches pale brown. Leaves coriaceous, oblong, abruptly shortly and 
bluntly acuminate, the base rounded or slightly cuneate, the edges 
recurved (when dry) ; both surfaces dull, brown when dry, the lower 
paler ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, thin, spreading, very indistinct, the 
midrib prominent beneath ; length 5 - 5 to 9 in., breadth 25 to 325 in., 
petiole '3 in. Flowers solitary and supra-axillary, or in fascicles from 
tubercles on the branches ; pedicels curved, "4 in. long, bracteolate at 
the base. Sepals free, ovate, acute, spreading, pubescent, persistent, 
•4 in. long. Petals coriaceous, puberulous ; the outer ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, contracted and thickened at the base, l - 75 in. long ; the 
inner ovate, acute, much contracted and thickened at the base, '65 in. 
long. Anthers numerous and with conical apices. Ovaries narrow, hairy ; 
style straight ; ovules solitary, Stigma sub-discoid-capitate, 2- to 3- 
lobed. Ripe carpels crowded, obovoid, smooth, sub-sessile, - 4 to "5 in. 
long. Miq Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 35. 

Perak ; at low elevations, very common ; Scortechini, Wray, King's 
Collector. Penang and Pangkore ; Curtis. Distrib. Sumatra, Borneo. 

13. Goniothalamus Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A shrub or small 
tree, glabrous, except the flowers ; young branches with rather pale 
striate bark. Leaves membranous, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 
very shortly acuminate, narrowed from the above the middle to the 
acute or sub-acute base ; when dry the upper surface greenish, the lower 
pale brown ; main nerves 18 to 24 pairs, spreading and inter- arching* near 
the edges, slender, slightly prominent beneath ; length 10 to 15 in. 
breadth 2'75 to 4 in., petiole "3 in. Floivers solitary, rarely in pairs, from 
the branches below the leaves ; pedicels clavate, decurved, bi-bracteolate 
at the base, "5 in. long. Sepals rigidly membranous, large, orbicular- 
ovate, obtuse or sub-acute, much nerved and reticulate, connate below, 
persistent, from "65 to 1 in. long (according to age). Petals coriaceous, 
rusty-puberulous ; the outer oblong-lanceolate, sub-oblique, not much 
longer than the full grown sepals ; the inner broadly ovate, acute, about 
•5 in. long. Anthers numerous, narrow, with elongate, conical apical pro- 



78 G. King — Materials fur a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

cesses. Ovaries narrow, pubei'ulous, 1-ovuled ; style straight ; stigma 
2- or 3-lobed. Ripe carpels crowded, ovoid-oblong, apiculate, glabrous, 
narrowed to the shoi*t stalks, "45 in. long ; stalks "2 to '25 in. Seed 
smooth, pale. 

Perak ; at low elevations ; Scortechini, Wray, King's Collector. 

The leaves of this species ranch resemble those of Poly alt hia oblonga, 
King. 

14. Goniothalamds Wrati, King, n. sp. A shrub 3 to 12 feet 
high, glabrous, except the flowers : young branches slender, very pale. 
Leaves membranous, oblanceolate to lanceolate or oblong, shortly and 
bluntly acuminate, the base cuneate : both surfaces pale (when dry), 
obscurely reticulate : main nerves 14 to 18 pairs, spreading, straight, 
slender and very slightly prominent even when dry : length 4*5 to 9 in., 
breadth 1*25 to 2 in., petiole 2 to 25 in. Flowers solitary, slightly 
supra-axillary ; pedicels slender, decurved, minutely bracteolate, - 35 in. 
(elongated to '75 in. in fruit). Sepals membranous, slightly nerved and 
reticulate, ovate, acuminate, spreading or recurved, puberulous outside, 
"2 in. long, persistent. Petals sub-coriaceous, greenish-yellow, puberul- 
ous : the outer narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, the bases thickened and 
not narrowed to a claw, "65 to "75 in. long : inner petals about half as 
long, ovate-acuminate. Anthers numerous, half as long as the ovaries, 
compressed, their apices with a long thin point from a broad base. 
Ovaries about 20, narrowly cylindric, hairy like the stout, straight style 
1- to 2-ovuled : stigma truncate. Ripe carpels narrowly obovoid to 
oblong, apiculate, gradually tapering to the stalk, glabrous, 6 in. long. 
Seeds usually 1, rarely 2, oblong. 

Perak : at low elevations very common ; Wray, Scortechini, King's 
Collector. 

15. Goniothalamus uvarioides, King, n. sp. A shrub 6 to 15 feet 
high : all parts glabrous except the flower aud fruit ; young branches 
pale. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong, slightly obovate, slightly narrow- 
ed to the minutely cordate base : both surfaces rather dull when dry, 
the lower pale brown, the edges slightly recurved ; main nerves 22 to 25 
pairs, spreading, rather straight, inter-aixdiing near the margin ; length 
10 to 15 in., breadth 3 to 6 in. ; petiole - 4 in., stout, channelled. Flowers 
on the trunk, (solitary ?) ; pedicels curved, stout, "35 in. long. Sepals 
coriaceous, semi-orbicular, blunt, pubescent, 2 in. long. Petals very 
coriaceous, yellow : the outer broadly lanceolate, thickened and truncate 
at the base, rufous-pubescent, 1*5 in. long : inner petals like the outer 
but with contracted bases and only 1 to 12 in. long. Anthers with 
conical apices. Ovaries hairy ; st}de cylindric ; stigma small, truncate, 
minutely bitid. Ripe carpels oblong, tapering to each end, puberulous, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 79 

15 in. long, and "65 in. in diam. ; stalks "7 in. long. Seeds 4, com- 
pressed, rugose, "5 in. long. 

Perak : Ulu Slim, King's Collector, No. 10664. Ulu Bubong, 
King's Collector, No. 10126. Distrib., Borneo; Motley, No. 9G0. 

Motley's Bornean specimen above-quoted is in flower only ; but it 
so entirely resembles in leaves and wood those of my collector in Perak 
which are in fruit only, that I have ventured not only to consider them 
as belonging to the same species, but to draw up the above description 
of the flowers from the Bornean and of the fruit from the Perakian 
specimens. The species resembles G. fulvus in leaves and flower and 
G. malayanus in flower. The fruit is more like that of a Uvaria than of 
a Goniothalamus, having 4, sub-horizontal, rugose seeds. 

15. Orophea, Blume. 
Trees or shrubs. Flowers usually small, axillary, solitary, fascicled or 
cyrnose. Sepals 3, valvate. Petals 6, valvate in 2 series ; outer ovate ; 
inner clawed, usually cohering by their margins into a mitriform cap ; 
sometimes oblong and slightly approximate below the middle, the apices 
divergent not vaulted : rarely without claws and in one species slightly 
imbricate. Stamens definite, 6-12, ovoid, fleshy ; anther-cells dorsal, 
large, contiguous, the connective sometimes prolonged into a conical 
apical point, not truncate. Staminodes 0, or 3 to 6. Ovaries 3—15 ; style 
short or ; ovules 4. Ripe carpels 1- or more-seeded, globular or oblong 
(very long in several species.) — Distrir. Species about 25 ; all Eastern 
Asiatic. 

Intermediate between Mitrephora and Bocagea, having the perianth 
of the former and stamens of the latter. 

Inner petals distinctly vaulted, the limbs coherent by their edges. 
Stamens 12 ... ... ... 1. 0. setosa. 

Stamens 6. 

Leaves glabrous at all ages (see also No. 5) 2. 0. Katschallica. 
Leaves more or less pubescent (except 
No. 5). 

Carpels globose when ripe ... 3. 0. hirsuta. 

Carpels oblong when ripe. 

Carpels under 2 in. in length ... 4. 0. hexandra. 
Carpels 3 to 5 in. long. 

Leaves quite glabrous, main 

nerves 6 or 7 pairs ... 5. 0. enterocarpa. 

Leaves puberulous beneath, 

main nerves 10 or 12 pairs 6. 0. macidata. 
Inner petals slightly vaulted, trapezoid ... 7.0. gracilis. 



80 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Inner petals spreading, not vaulted and not trapezoid. 
Stamens 10 or 12. 

Inner petals hastate ; ripe carpels globular 8. 0. hastata. 
Inner petals linear-oblong, the apices 
divergent and recurved ; ripe carpels 
ovoid or slightly obovoid ... ... 9. 0. dodecandra. 

Stamens 6. 

Inner petals cuneiform or cuneiform-retuse ; 

ripe carpels cylindric ... ... 10. 0. cuneiformis. 

Inner petals irregularly oblong, their 
apices broad and curved outwards, ripe 
carpels globular ... ... 11. 0. polycarpa. 

1. Orophea setosa, King, n. sp. A shrub : young branches densely 
covered with a layer of minute pubescence with numerous, long, brown- 
ish, straight bristles projecting beyond it ; the older branches dark- 
coloured and almost glabrous. Leaves membranous, oblong or oblong- 
oblanceolate, shortly acuminate, the bs>se rounded : main nerves 8 to 
1 pairs, oblique, inter-arching near the edge ; both surfaces sparsely 
setose more densely so on the midrib and nerves, the lower also with 
sparse, minute pubescence ; length 5 5 to 75 in , breadth 2 to 2 - 75 in., 
petiole '05 in., setose. Flowers solitary, extra-axillary, about - 2 in. in 
diam. when expanded : pedicels very slender, "75 in. long, pubescent, 
with a single minute bracteole below the middle. Sepals sub-orbicular, 
blunt. Outer petals much larger than the sepals, broadly ovate, sub- 
acute, pubescent outside and glabrous inside like the sepals. Inner 
petals longer than the outer, vaulted, *22 in. long, the limb trapezoid- 
sagittate, pubescent on the back and edges, glabrous in front ;-the claw- 
narrow, shorter than the limb. Male flower stamens numerous, cuneate, 
the connective broadly truncate at the apex. Ovaries unknown. Ripe 
carpels 4 or 5, sessile, globose or oblong-globose, - 3 in. in diam., 
densely and minutely pubescent and with a few long seta? besides. 
Seeds solitaiy, rarely 2 ; the testa pale, rather rough ; the albumen very 
dense. 

Perak : at elevations from 800 to 1,200 feet ; King's Collector, 
Scortechini. 

2. Orophea Katschallica, Kurz in Trimen's Journ. Bot. 1875, 
p. 323. A small tree 25 to 30 feet high : young branches slightly puberu- 
lous at first, ultimately glabrous, black and furrowed. Leaves mem- 
branous, oblong-lanceolate to oblong or elliptic, shortly and bluntly 
acuminate, the base sub-cuneate or rounded ; upper surface glabrous, 
shinni" 1 ; the lower much reticulate, slightly adpressed-puberlous ; 
main nerves 3 to 10 pairs, ascending, slender ; length 4 to 7 in., breadth 



1892.1 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 81 

1*5 to 2"75 in., petiole "15 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, solitary, "5 to 
•75 in. long, with, numerous ovate-acuminate, rusty-pubescent bracts. 
Floivers 1 to 4, rather large ; their pedicels about "4 in. long, pubes- 
cent and with a single adpressed ovate-lanceolate bracteole. Sepals 
ovate-acuminate, adpressed-pubescent outside, sub-glabrescent inside. 
Outer petals much larger than the sepals, ovate-orbicular, acute, veined, 
pubescent on the outer surface and on the upper half of the inner, 
"4 in. long. Inner petals *75 in. long, trapezoid, acute, tomentose on 
both surfaces except a glabrous patch bearing a transverse callosity 
on the inner; the claw long, narrow and glabrous. Stamens 6 perfect, 
with a few imperfect in an outer row: anther-cells large, -dorsal ; the 
connective oblique, slightly produced above their apices. Ovaries about 
3, narrowly ovoid, densely sericeous, 3-ovuled ; stigmas sessile, truncate. 
Fruit unknown. 

Nicobar Islands ; Kurz, King's Collector. 

3. Oeophea hirsuta, King, n. sp. A shrub 8 to 12 feet high : 
young branches at first densely rufous-hirsute, afterwards becoming 
glabrous and dark-coloured. Leaves elliptic or elliptic-oblong, often 
slightly obovate, shortly and bluntly acuminate, narrowed from be- 
low the middle to the rounded minutely cordate base : upper surface 
glabrous, shining, the lower pale, dull, sparsely hirsute, the midrib 
setose at the base : main nerves 8 to 9 pairs, spreading, very faint : 
length 35 to 4"5 in., breadth 1*24 to 175 in.; petiole # 05, setose. 
Peduncles extra-axillary, about "5 in. long, 1- to 3-flowered, rufous-hirsute 
like the pedicels : pedicels about '75 in. long and with several minute brac- 
teoles. Floivers '5 in. in diam. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, coarsely hirsute 
outside and on the edges, glabrous inside. Outer petals much larger than 
the sepals, broadly obovate, blunt, sparsely pubescent outside and on 
the edges, glabrous inside, '15 in. long. Inner petals "25 in. long, vaulted : 
the limb trapeziform, rather thick, glabrous outside, pubescent inside ; 
the claw very narrow, longer than the limb, glabrous. Stamens 6, in 
a single row, curved : anthers broad, dorsal, the connective not produced 
above their apices. Ovaries about 6, ovoid, glabrous, 1- to 2-ovuled : stigma 
sessile, roundish. Carpels 4 to 5, globular, yellow when ripe, sparsely 
hirsute, *4 in. in diam. ; stalks '1 in. 

Perak : King's Collector, No. 4283. 

Only once collected. In its leaves this resembles MitrepJiora setosa. 
King. 

4. Orophea hexandra, Blume Bijdr. 18. A small tree : youno- 
branches slender, minutely tomentose, soon becoming dai'k-coloured, 
glabrous and furrowed. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to 
elliptic-oblong, rather abruptly acuminate, the base sub-cuneate or 

11 ~ 



82 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1 , 

rounded ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower reticulate, puberu- 
lous, the midrib pubescent ; main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, oblique : length 
4"5 to 6 in., breadth 1*5 to 2*25 in., petiole "2 in. Peduncles axillary or 
supra-axillary, slender, 1- to 3-flowered, pubescent ; bracts several, 
subulate, hairy. Flowers about *35 in. long, greenish-white. Sepals 
minute, orate to ovate-lanceolate, densely pubescent outside. Outer petals 
thin, ovate-cordate, acuminate, pubescent; the inner larger, trapezoid with 
long narrow claw, glabrous with pubescent margins. Stamens 6, in one 
row. Ovaries about 6, pubescent, 2-ovuled. Ripe carpels oblong, sub- 
sessile, acuminate, minutely adpressed-pubescent, 1*4 to 1*75 in. long. 
Seeds usually solitary, sometimes "2 in. long, narrowly cylindric. Kurz 
For. Flora Burma, I, 49 : Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2 p. 29. 0. acuminata, 
A. D 0. in Mem, Soc. Genev. V, 39 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 112 ; 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 91 ; Wall. Cat. 6432. Bocagea hexandra, 
Blume Fl. Jav. Anon. 83 t. 40. 

Burma prov. Tenasserim, Wallich. Great Coco Island; Kurz. S. 
Andaman ; King's Collectors. 

Pierre (Flore Forestiere Cochin-Chine t. 44) figures a species called 
0. ThoreUi which, as he remarks, must be closely allied to this. 

5. Orophea enterocarpa, Maingay ex Hook. fil. Fl. Br. India, I, 
92. A small tree 15 to 30 feet high ; all parts, except the inflorescence, 
glabrous : young branches slender, black, striate. Leaves membranous, 
ovate or sometimes obovate-lanceolate to elliptic, acuminate (sometimes 
abruptly so) ; the base rounded, sometimes sub-cuneate ; both surfaces 
shining: main nerves 6 or 7 pairs, spreading, slender : length 2 - 5 to 5 
in., breadth 1"2 to 2 in., petiole "1 in. Flowers nodding, solitary, extra- 
axillary: the pedicels very slender, "75 to 1*25 in. long, glabrous below, 
pubescent above and with several ovate-lanceolate bracteoles. Sepals 
small, broadly ovate, acuminate, pubescent. Outer petals much larger 
than the sepals, ovate, acuminate, puberulous, the inner a little longer 
("6 to *7o in. long) ; the limb elongated-trapezoid, puberulous ; the claw 
narrow and glabrous, yellowish with a reddish band ; staminodes 6. 
Stamens 6, with broad connective, not apiculate. Ovaries 6, cylindric, 
glabrous, 2- to 7-ovuled ; stigma small, sessile. Carpels 4 to 6, elongate- 
cjdindric, glabrous, moniliform when dry, 3 to 5 in. long and "3 in. in 
diam. Seeds 2 to 7, linear-oblong. 

Malacca : Maingay. Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector. 

6. Orophea maculata, Scortechini MSS. A shrub or small tree : 
young branches slender, rusty-tomentose at first, afterwar-ds glabrous, 
black and striate. Leaves membranous, elliptic-oblanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate, narrowed from below the middle to the rounded or sub- 
cuneate slightly unequal base : upper surface glabrous, the lower 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 83 

glabrescent, the midrib and nerves pubescent ; main nerves 10 to 12 
pairs, spreading, rather faint ; length 3'25 to 7 in., breadth 1*5 to 2*25 
in., tomentose. Peduncles solitary, 1- to 3-flowered, extra-axillary, very 
slender, '5 to 1 in. long, pubescent, with numerous, distichous, sub- 
deciduous, linear-lanceolate, pubescent bracts. Flowers large, sub-pend- 
ulous. Sepals narrowly lanceolate, acuminate. Outer petals larger 
than the sepals, mottled red and yellow, ovate, very acuminate, veined, 
pubescent on both sides, '5 in. long. Inner petals 1 in. long, with lanceo- 
late, much acuminate, very pubescent limb ; the claw long, narrow, 
pubescent. Stamens 6, broad, not apiculate, hairy at the base. Stami- 
7iodes 3, orbicular. Ovaries 3 to 6, cylindric, very hirsute, 6- or 7-ovuled : 
stigma sessile. Carpels 4 to 6, much elongate, cylindric, puberulous, 

3 to 5 in. long, and about '3 in. in diam., moniliform when dry. Seeds 

4 to 7, linear-oblong. 

Perak; Scortechini, King's Collector. 

7. Orophea gracilis, King, n. sp. A tree 20 to 30 feet high ; 
young branches slender, at first minutely tomentose, afterwards darkly 
cinereous and glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous when adult, lanceolate, 
much acuminate, the base cuneate or slightly rounded, both surfaces 
glabrous : main nerves 5 or 6 pairs, spreading, inter- arching far from 
the edge, very indistinct ; length 2'5 to 3 - 5 in., breadth '9 to 1*2 
in , petiole '05 in. Flowers solitary, "25 in. in diam., extra- axillary ; 
pedicels "75 to 1 in. long, very thin, glabrous, jointed, and with several 
minute, subulate bracteoles above the middle. Sepals broadly ovate, 
sub-acute, connate at the base, spreading or reflexed. Outer petals larger 
than the sepals, ovate, acute, ' 15 in. long; both surfaces glabrous, the edges 
alone minutely pubescent. Inner petals "25 in. long, slightly vaulted ; 
the limb thick, trapezoid, with pubescent edges ; the claw narrow, not 
so long as the limb, glabrous. Stamens 6, in a single row, the connec- 
tive much produced above the rather small dorsal anther-cells. Ovaries 
4 to 10, ovoid, glabrous, 2-ovuled : stigma large, sessile. Ripe carpels 
6 to 10, globular, glabrous, '45 in. in diam., their stalks "25 in. long. 
Seeds solitary or two together, depressed-globose, with a transverse 
groove and ridge, shining, pale. 

Perak : Scortechini, King's Collector. 

This is closely allied to the W. Peninsular O. uniflora, but that 
species has twice as many stamens. 

8. Orophea hastata, King, n. sp. A tree 20 to 40 feet high : all 
parts glabrous except the inflorescence : young branches rather slender, 
dark-coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 
shortly caudate- acuminate ; the base cuneate, rarely rounded ; both 
surfaces shining, the lower pale : main nerves 6 to 8 pairs, spreading, 



84 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

inter- arching within the edge ; length 3"5 to 5*5 in., breadth 1*6 to 2'4 
in., petiole '2 in. Peduncles axillary or supra-axillary, solitary, about 
•25 in. long, bearing towards the apex 3 or 4 1-bracteolate, pubescent 
pedicels. Flowers '4 in. long. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, pubescent, 
outside, glabrous inside as are the outer petals. Outer petals twice as 
lai'ge as the sepals, broadly ovate acute. Inner petals '35 in. long ; the limb 
hastate, triquetrous, thickened, the edges and the base ciliate ; the claw 
long, narrowed to the base, glabrous. Staminodes 0. Stamens 10, in 2 
rows, curved, slightly apiculate ; the anther-cells large. Ovaries about 
10, obliquely oblong, curved, pubescent, 2-ovuled ; stigma small, capitate, 
sessile. Ripe carpels 5 or 6, globular, glabrous, '4 in. in diam., their 
stalks about "25 in. Seeds solitary. 

Perak : Wray, King's Collector, at low elevations. 

This is closely allied to 0. dodecandra, Miq. 

9. Orophea dodecaxdra, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 25. 
A tree 20 to 40 feet high ; young branches sparsely adpressed-pubescent, 
afterward glabrous dark-coloured and striate. Leaves membranous, 
elliptic, rarely elliptic-oblong, slightly unequilateral, shortly caudate- 
acuminate, the base cuneate ; upper surface glabrous, shining, the 
lower paler with a few scattered, pale, adpressed hairs ; main nerves 
5 or 6 pairs, bold beneath, inter-arching "25 in. from the margin ; length 
;!'."> to 55 in.; breadth 175 to 2'3 in., petiole "2 in. stout, channelled. 
P duncles supra-axillary, longer than the pedicels, 3- to 7-flowered, glab- 
rous ; pedicels '5 in. long, clustered near the apex, bracteolate above 
the middle. Flowers "5 in, long. Sepals smaller than the outer petals, 
spreading, dotted, conjoined at the base, slightly tubercular outside, 
glabrous inside. Outer petals broadly ovate, acuminate, narrowed at the 
base, "15 in. long. Inner petals thick, linear-oblong, blunt, puberulous 
outside, slightly arched below the middle, the apices divergent and 
recurved. Staminodes 0. Stamens 12, in 2 rows ; the connective rather 
narrow, prolonged beyond the apices of the large, broad, dorsal anthers. 
Ovaries 6 to 8, oblong, curved, oblique, glabrous, 2-ovuled ; stigma ob- 
long, sessile. Ripe carpels ovoid or slightly obovoid, blunt, glabrous, '85 
in. long ; their stalks '8 to *9 in. Seed solitary, sub-rotund or oblong, 
with rugose, pale, scaly testa. 

Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector ; at low elevations. 

10. Orophea cuxeiformis, King, n. sp. A tree 20 to 40 feet 
high ; young parts rusty-pubescent or tomentose ; the branchlets rather 
stout; ultimately glabrous, dark-coloured and furrowed. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, oblong, narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate-oblong, more 
or less sharply acuminate, very little narrowed to the rounded or 
minutely cordate base ; upper surface at first with many long, thin, pale, 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 85 

adpressed hairs, ultimately glabrous ; lower softly but rather coarsely 
pubescent, the midrib and 8 to 12 pairs of oblique, rather prominent 
main nerves rufous-tomentose ; length 3'5 to 6 in., breadth IT to 22 
in. ; petiole '05, tomentose. Peduncles 4- or 5-flowered, solitary, supra- 
axillary, slender, sub-glabrous below, rufous-sericeous above, longer 
than the pedicels ; bracts numerous, linear-lanceolate ; pedicels '3 in. 
long-, rufous-sericeous like the outer surface of the sepals and outer 
petals, bracteolate at the base. Flower buds globose. Sepals ovate, 
much acuminate, glabrescent inside like the outer petals. Outer petals 
ovate, acute, veined. Inner petals with a cuneiform, sometimes retuse, 
thick limb and a short, narrow claw. Staminodes 3, in an outer row, 
sub-orbicular, fleshy. Stamens 6, with broad flat connective, not produced 
at the apex, and large dorsal anthers. Ovaries about 6, oblong, oblique, 
densely villous, 2- or 3-ovuled, Stigma sessile, broad. Pipe carpels 2 
to 4, sessile, cylindric, tapering a little at each end, puberulous, 1*5 to 
1*75 in. long and about 35 in. in diam. Seeds 2, oblong. 

Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector. 

This is readily distinguished from the closely allied species 0. 
maadata, by its scorpioid cymes, globular flower-buds, and by the 
cuneiform (not lanceolate) limbs of its petals. 

11. Okophea polycarpa, A. DC. in Mem. Soc. Genev. V, 39. A 
large shrub or small tree : young branches slender, pubescent at first, 
but speedily glabrous, furrowed and dark-coloured. Leaves membranous, 
ovate to ovate-oblong, obtusely and very shortly acuminate, the margins 
undulate, the base rounded or narrowed ; both surfaces glabrous ; main 
nerves 6 to 8 pairs, spreading*, faint ; length 2 to 4 in., breadth 1 to 1*75 
in., petiole "05 in. Peduncles axillary or supra-axillary, slendei*, 1- to 3- 
flowered, pubescent ; bracteoles several. Sepals ovate, acute, very pu- 
bescent. Outer petals ovate, acuminate, more than twice as large as the 
sepals, pubescent on the outer, glabrous on the inner, surface. Inner 
petals twice as long as the outer, irregularly oblong, the apices broad 
and curved outwards, the base slightly narrowed, puberulous outside, 
glabrous within, '4 in. long. Stamens 6 or 7 in a single row ; the anther- 
cells quite dorsal, separate, the connective flat and very slightly prolonged 
above their apices. Ovaries about twice as many as the stamens, gla- 
brous, ovate, oblique : stigma small, sessile, sub-capitate. Pipe carpels 
globular, glabrous, shining, "35 in. in diam. : their stalks '25 in. long. 
Seeds 1 or 2. Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. Ill ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Inch 
I, 91 ; Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 49 ; Anonacea Griff. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 
IV, t. 651. Wall. Cat. 6431. Bocagea polycarpa, Steud. JNonien. 212. 
Melodorum? monospermum Kurz in Andaman Report, App. B. p. 1. 
Bocagea polycarpa, Steud. 



86 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

S. Andaman ; Kurz, King. Burmah : Martaban, Wallich. 

Orophea undulata, (Pierre PI. Forest. Coch. -Chine t. 45) must be 
closely allied to this, as must also the same author's 0. anceps, (1. c. t. 
46). 

16. Miteephora, Blume. 
Trees. Leaves coriaceous, strongly ribbed, plaited in vernation. 
Flowers usually terminal or leaf-opposed, sometimes 1-sexual. Sepals 3, 
orbicular or ovate. Petals 6, 2-seriate, valvate ; outer ovate, thin, veined ; 
inner clawed, vaulted and cohering. Stamens oblong-cuneate ; the anther- 
cells dorsal, remote, the connective broadly truncate at the apex. Ovaries 
oblong ; style oblong or clavate, vcntrally furrowed ; ovules 4 or more, 
2-seriate. Pipe carpels globose or ovoid, stalked or sub-sessile. — Distbib. 
Species about 10 ; tropical Asiatic. 
Flowers hermaphrodite ... ... ... 1. ill. Maingayi. . 

Flowers unisexual. 

Ripe carpels ovoid, apiculate, rugulose ... 2. M. reticulata. 

,, „ globular, not apiculate, not rugulose 3. M. macrophylla. 

„ ,, sub-globular, sub-truncate at each 

end, rugulose ... ... 4. M. Prainii. 

1. Mitbephoea MAINGAYI, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. 1, 77. 
A tree 20 to 50 feet high : young branches softly rufous-tomentose 
afterwards glabrous dark-coloured and striate. Leaves coriaceous, 
oblong to ovate, (oblong-lanceolate in var. Kurzii), acute or shortly and 
bluntly acuminate, the base rounded or sub-cuneate ; upper surface 
shining, glabrous except the pubescent midrib ; under surface glabres- 
cent, the midrib and nerves thinly adpressed-pubescent ; (pubescent 
in var. Kurzii) ; main nerves 6 to 10 pairs, oblique, curving, slightly 
prominent beneath : length 3 to 5'5 in., breadth JL - 5 to 2 in., petiole 
'3 to "4 in. Flowers 1 in. or more in diam., axillary or leaf-opposed, 
solitary or 2 or 3 in a multi-bracteolate and tomentose raceme ; pedi- 
cels '5 to 1'5 in. (lengthening with age), bracteolate. Sepals connate 
into a cup, broadly ovate, acute, (or obtuse in var.) tomentose. Petals 
rather thinly pale yellow mottled with red, all more or less pubescent out- 
side, the outer orbicular or obovate with undulate erose edges, slightly 
narrowed at the base, (oblong in var. Kurzii) ; inner shorter, the outer very 
pubescent inside, vaulted, ovate or cordate with a long linear claw. 
Anthers numerous, short, with broad flat smooth tops. Ovaries gradually 
narrowed into the short style ; ovules 4 ; stigma sub-capitate-discoid. 
Pipe carpels broadly ovoid, blunt at each end, densely tomentose, I in. 
long, and '75 in. in diam. : their stalks stout, "75 in. Seeds 4, compressed. 
M. Teysmannii, Scheff. in Flora LII (1869), 302. TJvaria obtusa (not of 



1892.] G. Kins: — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 87 

Blume), Hook. fil. and Thorns., PI. Ind. 113; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
76 ; Wall. Cat. 6484. 

Penang; Wallich, Curtis. Pangkore ; Curtis. Malacca; Maingay, 
(Kew Distrib.) No. 65. Perak : King's Collector, Scortechini, Wray. 
Burma, Kurz. Distrib. Java. 

Var. Kurzii, Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate to elliptic : pe- 
duncles of racemes woody, 1 in. or more long, tomentose ; outer petals 
narrowly oblong. M. vandaeflora, Kurz P. Flora Burma I, 45. 

Burma ; Kurz, Brandis. 

Allied to the Cambodian species M. Thorellii, (Pierre Fl. Forest. 
Cochin-Cbine, t. 37). 

2. Mitrephora reticulata, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
77. A tree 20 to 30 feet high : young branches tawny-tomentose, 
ultimately glabrous and dark-coloured. Leaves narrowly oblong, often 
slightly obovate, acuminate, the base cuneate or rounded ; both surfaces 
shining, reticulate, glabrous ; the midrib puberulous on the upper, 
sparsely setose on the lower, surface ; main nerves 12 to 14 pairs, 
spreading, prominent, distinct beneath ; length 5 to 14 in., breadth 2 
to 4 - 5 in. ; petiole - 25 in., swollen. Floivers '2 in. in diam., axillary, 
solitary or in pairs, or in few-flowered, puberulous cymes ; pedicels long, 
slender, with many lanceolate bracteoles. Flowers as in M. macro- 
phylla, monoecious. Ripe carpels ovoid, apiculate, rugose, hoary, - 8 in. 
long and "65 in diam. Seeds 2. 

Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 44. Orophea reticulata, Miq. Ann. Mus. 
Lugcl. Bat. II, 23. JJvaria reticulata, Blume Fl. Jav. Anon. 50, t. 20. 
Pseuduvaria reticulata, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. 2, 30. 

Burma : prov. Tenasserim ; Heifer. Malacca ; Maingay (Kew Dis- 
trib.), No. 64. Perak: Wray, King's Collector, Scortechini; not so 
common as M. macrophylla, Oliver. 

This species has the inner petals rather larger than the outer and 
much vaulted ; and in this respect it conforms to the characters of 
Orophea ; but its stamens are uvarioid in character and they are numer- 
ous ; its flowers, moreover, are unisexual. The characters of Mitrephora 
therefore preponderate, and it is better located in the latter genus. But 
there is no doubt it forms a connecting link between the two genera. 

3. Mitrephora macrophylla, Oliver in Hook., Ic. Plant, t. 1562. 
A small tree ; young branches more or less puberulous, speedily becoming 
glabrous and cinereous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic-obovate or 
oblong-oblanceolate, acute or shortly acuminate ; the base rounded, 
slightly oblique ; both surfaces puberulous at first but speedily glabrous, 
shining, minutely reticulate ; main nerves 14 to 20 pairs, oblique, in- 
ter-arching "15 in. from the margin, prominent beneath ; length 7 to 13 



88 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

in., breadth 1'75 to 4 in. ; petiole '25 in., swollen. Flowers # 25 to *3 in. 
in diam., axillary, usually in pairs, or in cymes, 1 to 2 in. long, the 
cymes minutely pubescent ; bracts few, lanceolate ; pedicels long, with 
several broadly lanceolate, partly deciduous bracteoles, or ebracteolate. 
Sepals free, or connate below, reniform, or broadly ovate, puberulous out- 
side and on the edges, glabrous inside. Outer petals larger than the 
sepals, orbicular-ovoid, sub-acute, slightly narrowed at the base, puberu- 
lous on both surfaces. '15 in. long. Inner petals '3 in. long, thick, vaulted 
reniform-sagittate, puberulous, with a glabrous callosity on the inside 
near the base, the edges pubescent ; the claw shorter than the limb, 
pubescent. Male flower : stamens very numerous, short, cuneate ; the 
connective truncate, small and not concealing the tops of the anthers ; 
pistils 3, or a few rudimentary. Female flower ; staminodes in two im- 
perfect rows. Ovaries about 12, ovoid-cylindric, oblique, pubescent, 
4-ovuled ; stigmas sessile, large, fleshy, truncate, often oblique. Ripe 
carpels globose, densely and minutely tawny-tomentose, "4 or '5 in 
diam. ; stalks '2 in. long. Seeds several, compressed, the testa membran- 
ous. 

Penang; Maingay, Curtis. Perak ; Scortechini, King's Collector, 
Wruy. 

This species, although rare in Penang, is very common in Perak. 
Specimens of it vary considerably in several respects. In some plants 
the young shoots are densely puberulous, in others they are almost 
glabrous ; the leaves also vary in size and in amount of pubescence. In 
the specimen figured by Professor Oliver (Hook. Ic. PI. 1562), the 
flowers are in axillary pairs ; but, in the majority of the Perak specimens, 
they arc in cymes. The species is practically dioecious, the staminate 
flowers having no ovaries at all or only a few rudiments ; while the 
pistillate flowers have rarely a few perfect stamens, and not always 
any staminodes. The best marks of distinction between this and M. 
reticulata, of -which this must be a very close ally, are the smaller 
number of the nerves in the leaves of this and the ovoid shape of its 
ruo-ose fruit. In its leaves this plant somewhat resembles some of the 
species of Popoicia. And, inasmuch as its inner petals are larger 
than the outer and are vaulted, it is related to Orophea, from which how- 
ever its numerous uvarioid stamens and unisexual habit exclude it. 

4. Mitrephoea Peainii, King, n. sp. A tree 30 to 40 feet high ; 
young branches tawny-pubescent, speedily becoming glabrous and 
dark-coloured. Leaves membranous, elliptic-oblong, rather abruptly and 
shortly acuminate, the base cuneate and often slightly unequal-sided ; 
upper surface glabrous except the depressed, strigulose midxnb; lower 
surface much reticulate, glabrous but with a few scattered hairs on the 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 89 

midrib and 12 to 14 pairs of rather bold, oblique, curving' nerves ; length 
6 to 9 in., breadth 2 - 25 to 3 in., petiole "25 in., pubescent. Flowers 
bisexual, from the axis of the fallen leaves, solitary, "4 in. in diam. ; 
pedicels about - 5 in. long, softly tomentose, minutely bracteolate at the 
base. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, concave, tomentose outside, glabrous 
inside. Outer petals much larger than the sepals, ovate-orbicular, sub- 
acute ; tomentose outside, glabrous inside. Inner petals longer but nar- 
rower tb an the outer ; the limb trapezoid, densely tomentose, glabrous 
inside at the base ; the claw narrow, about as long as the limb, tomentose 
on both surfaces. Stamens in the male flower numerous, short, cuneate ; 
the apical process of the connective truncate, concealing the apices of 
the dorsal anthers. Pistils 0. Female flowers unknown. Pipe carpels 
sub-globose, rather truncate at base and apex, rugulose, minutely pub- 
escent, "65 in. in diam. Seeds about 5, plano-convex, the testa mem- 
branous, rugulose. 

Andaman Islands ; Prain, King's Collector. 

The inner petals of this species are undoubtedly longer than the 
outer ; .but they are much narrower. Technically they are the petals 
of Oropliea rather than of Mitrephora ; but the numerous Uvarioid 
stamens and the unisexual habit are those of the latter, to which I 
accordingly refer it. I have been able to examine only a few flowers of 
the species, and these are all tetramerous ; but whether this arrange- 
ment is normal or only occasional I am unable to say until larger 
suites of specimens are obtained. 



17. Popowia, Endl. 

Trees. Flowers small, sub-globular, opening but slightly, usually 
hermaphrodite, sometimes polygamous, extra-axillary or leaf -opposed. 
Sepals 3, ovate, valvate. Petals 6, valvate in 2-series, (the inner series 
imbricate in Kurzii), more or less orbicular ; outer like the sepals, spread- 
ing ; inner thick, concave, connivent, acute, the tip sometimes inflexed. 
Stamens indefinite or sub-definite, short, cuneate ; anther-cells dorsal, 
remote. Carpels about 6, ovoid ; style large, oblong or sub-clavate, 
straight or recurved; ovules 1-2 on the ventral suture, rarely 1, basal, 
erect. Pipe carpels berried, globose or ovoid, stalked. — Disteib. About 
20 Asiatic species, 12 Australian and 1 African. (The Australian and. 
African species may be generically separable). 

There has been considerable variety of opinion as to the place of the 

genus Popowia amongst the genera of Anonacece. The genus was 

founded by Endlicher (Genus No. 4710) to accommodate the species 

named Bocagea pisocarpa by Blume (Flora Javae (Anonacere) 90, t. 45). 

12 



90 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Endlicher placed it next to Orophea from which it is distinguished by its 
inner row of petals being free and having their apices infiexed in esti- 
vation, while those of Orophea are clawed, vaulted, attached by their edges, 
and not infiexed in aestivation. In their Flora Indica, Hooker Alius and 
Thomson added the species P. ramosissima to the original plant of 
Endlicher, with a remark to the effect that JJvaria Vogelii H. f. 
should be included in the genus. Farther they associated Popowia with the 
genera Orophea, Mitrephora and Goniothalamus in the tribe Mitrephorece. 
In their Genera Plantarum, Mr. Bentham and Sir Joseph Hooker take a 
different view of the position of Popoina and, in the arrangement adopt- 
ed in that great work, Popotoia is put amongst the Unoneae ; Orophea 
is relegated to the tribe Miliuseae ; while Goniothalamus and Mitrephora 
are retained side by side in the tribe Mitrephoreae. Now the character 
of the tribe Unoneae is : — " petals flat, slightly unequal, or those of the 
inner row smaller than those of the outer, or absent," while in several of 
the Popowias, e. g., P. pisocarpa, P. ramosissima the inner petals are longer 
than the outer. Baillon, whose arrangement of tribes differs from that 
of Messrs. Bentham and Hooker, puts Popowia into Unoneae, leaving 
Mitrephora and Orophea side by side in his tribe Oxymitreoi 

Dr. Scheffer differs from the opinion of the authors of the Genera 
Plantarum and of Baillon and rather inclines to that of the authors of 
the Flora Indica. He points out with much force that the proper place 
for Popowia is in the tribe characterised by its " outer petals being 
open, the inner connivent over the andro-gynoecium, erecto-connivent or 
(•(innate " — that is to say in the tribe Mitrephorece of these authors. The 
stamens of Popoit'ia present considerable diversity, but on the whole 
they have the character of those of Uvariae rather than those of Unoneae. 
As Scheffer remarks, there is little difference between the genera 
Orophea and Mitrephora except that the outer petals of Mitrephora are 
usually larger than those of Orophea. And if M. Baillon's plan of re- 
ducing the number of the genera in Anonaceae were to be carried out, 
Dr. Scheffer would suggest the union of these two and of Popowia into 
a single genus, from which would be excluded, however, all the African 
species. Of this new genus Orophea would be the typical form, and the 
other two would form sub-genera. 

There is no doubt than in externals many Popoicias are like Oro- 
pheas, and the non-unguiculate character of the inner petals of Popoivia 
is x'eally the chief character which separates them. 

I venture to follow Dr. Scheffer and the authors of the Flora Indica 
in putting Popowia, Orophea ami Mitrephora together in the tribe Mi* 
trephoreae. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 



91 



Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Both surfaces of leaves glabrous except the 
nerves. 

Both surfaces minutely granular ; nerves 

9 or 10 pairs, sparsely pilose beneath ... 

Lower surface granular, the midrib and 

6 to 8 pairs of nerves pubescent 
Both surfaces shining, reticulate, glabrous 
except the tomentose midrib on the 
upper ; nerves about 10 pairs, very faint 
Upper surface of leaves glabrous, the lower 
minutely granular and sub-strigose ; nerves 
4 or 5 pairs ... 

Upper surface of leaves glabrous except the 
puberulous midrib, the lower yellowish-to- 
mentose ; nerves 11 to 13 pairs ; fruit very 
large 
Upper surface of leaves glabrous except the 
tomentose midrib and 8 to 10 pairs of nerves ; 
lower surface pubescent and sub-granular ... 
Both surfaces minutely granular ; upper short- 
ly puberulous, lower pubescent ; nerves 8 to 
11 pairs ... 
Both surfaces minutely granular ; upper with 
a few scattered hairs ; lower fuscous, densely 
and softly pubescent ; the nerves 6 or 7 
pairs, tomentose or pubescent ... 
Both surfaces, but especially the lower, softly 
pubescent; nerves about 10 pairs 
Flowers polygamous. 

Upper surface of leaves glabrous except the 
puberulous midrib ; nerves 10 or 11 pairs ; 
flowers '5 to "75 in. in diam. ; petals of inner 
row larger than those of outer, valvate, their 
apices inflexed in bud 
Upper surface of leaves sub-granular, minutely 
and sparsely adpressed-pubescent ; nerves 9 
to 12 pairs ; flowers # 4 in. in diam. ; inner 
petals slightly smaller than the outer, im- 
bricate ... 
Both surfaces of leaves glabrous, the lower 
silvery, shining ; nerves 7 pairs 



1. P. paucijlora. 

2. P. ramosissima. 

3. P. nitida. 

4. P. Eelferi. 

5. P. font ida. 

6. P. perakeusis, 

7. P. fusca. 



9. 



P. velutina. 
P. tomentosa. 



10. P. nervifolia. 



11. 



L_' ; 



P. Kurzii. 
P. Hooker i. 



92 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

1. Popowia pauciflora, Maingay MSS. Hook. fil. Fl. Ind. I, 69. 
A tree ? Young branches slender, cinereous, strigose. Leaves membran- 
ous, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces gla- 
brous, minutely granular ; the midrib and 9 or 10 pairs of oblique, little 
curving main nerves sparsely pilose beneath ; length 5 to 6 in., breadth 
1*5 to 2 in., petiole "2 in., pubescent. Floiuers extra- axillary, solitary or 
axillary, '25 in. in diam. ; pedicels *15 to '25 in. long, with a basal 
bracteole, rusty-strigose. Sepals minute, ovate. Petals ; the outer small 
and like the sepals ; the inner three times as large, sub-orbicular, con- 
cave, their apices inflexed. Stamens many. Ovaries about 6, strigose; 
ovale solitary, erect. Ripe carpels sub-sessile, globular, glabrous. 

Malacca: Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 56. 

Known only by Maingay's imperfect specimens ; an obscure species. 

2. Popowia ramosissima, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 105. A 
small spreading tree ; young branches at first rufous-pubescent ; the 
older dax'k-coloured aud furrowed. Leaves membranous, sub-sessile, 
nari'owly elliptic to lanceolate, sometimes slightly obovate, shortly, blunt- 
ly and abruptly acuminate, the base rounded or slightly narrowed ; both 
surfaces glabrous, the lower granular and pubescent on the midrib and 
6 to 8 pairs of ascending rather straight nerves ; length 275 to 4 in., 
breadth 1 to 1*75 in., petiole '05 in. Flowers globular in bud, leaf-op- 

I. solitary or in small fascicles, '2 in. in diam.; pedicels '15 to '25 
in. long (longer in fruit), minutely braeteolate, rufous-tomentose. Sepals 
broadly triangular-ovate, acute, nearly as large as the outer petals and 
like them tonientosc outside, and glabrous inside. Petals sub-equal, 
coriaceous, rotund, concave; the inner rather larger and with incurved 
points. Stamens short, with very broad truncate concave heads. Ova- 
ries 5 or 6, villous; ovules 1 or 2. TMpe carpels globose with short stalks, 
pubescent, '-•'> to 35 in. in diam. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 27 ; Hook. 
fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 68. Guatteria ramosissima, Wall. Cat. 7294, 8006. 
Popowia rufula and V. affinis Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 20. 

In all the provinces, common. Distrib. Sumatra, Borneo. 

3. PorowiA NITIDA, King, n. sp. A shrub ? Young branches 
sparsely and softly rufous-pubescent, the bark brown. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, bluntly acuminate, the 
base rounded ; both surfaces reticulate, glabrous and shining, the midrib 
tomentose on the upper; main nerves about 12 pairs, very faint, spread- 
ing and forming double arches inside the edge ; length 25 to 4 in., 
breadth - 6 to 125 in., petiole T in. Flowers few, in short extra-axillary 
racemes, sub-globular, '25 in. in diam. ; pedicels about as long as the 
flowers, each with 2 sub-orbicular, stem-clasping, pubescent bracteoles. 
Sepals orbicular, concave, pubcrulous on both surfaces, about '15 in. in 



1892.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 9o 

diani. Petals sub-equal, about twice as large as the sepals, orbicular- 
ovate, sub-acute, cordate at the base, the edges incurved. Stamens 
about 27, in three rows ; anther-cells linear, lateral, the apical process of 
the connective obliquely truncate, papillose. Pistils numerous, forming a 
large mass with their stigmas agglutinated. Ovaries sub-cuneate, pubes- 
cent especially near the truncate apex ; stigma very large and viscous, 
sessile ; ovules 1 to 3, ascending. Ripe carpels ovoid, pointed, glabrous, 
'4 to '5 in. long. Seeds 1 to 3, compressed, the testa pale brown, shining. 

S. Andaman : King. Nicobars : Kurz. 

In its leaves this much resembles TJvaria micrantha, H. f. and T. 
as which I have reason to believe some specimens of this have been 
distributed from the Calcutta Herbarium. 

4. Popowia Helfbri, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. I, 69. A 
small spreading tree; young branches coarsely hairy. Leaves mem- 
branous, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the base narrowed 
but rounded ; upper surface glabrous ; the lower granular, sub-strigose, 
especially on the midrib ; main nerves indistinct, about 4 or 5 pairs, 
ascending : length 2 to 4 in., breadth - 8 to 125 in., petiole '05 in. 
Flowers minute, globose, extra-axillary : peduncles "05 to - 2 in., tomen- 
tose. Sepals ovate, strigose. Outer petals like the sepals, the inner 
orbicular, larger than the outer, concave, very strigose, their apices 
inflexed. Stamens 15. Ovule solitary. Carpels about 6, globular, stri- 
gose. Kurz. F. Flora Burin. I, 39. 

Andamans ; North of Port Mouat ; Kurz. Burmah : Tenasserim, 
on King's Island ; Heifer. 

A very little known species closely resembling P. Beddomiana, 
H. f. and Th. 

5. Popowia fcetida, Maingay MSS., Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 69. 
A large tree ; young branches tawny-tomentose. Leaves sub-coriaceous, 
elliptic-lanceolate, shortly caudate-acuminate, the base sub-acute ; upper 
surface glabrous except the puberulous midrib, lower densely covered 
with yellowish -grey tomentum as are the petioles; main nerves 1L to 
18 pairs, rather prominent beneath, curved, spreading, inter-arching 
close to the margin; length 4"5 to 6'5 in., breadth 16 to 2 in., petiole 
•2 in. Floivers solitary, '35 in. in diam. ; pedicels 2 in., tomentose. 
Sepals minute, ovate, obtuse. Petals unequal, the outer ovate-elliptic, 
obtuse, yellow ; the inner slightly larger, apiculate, concave, the margins 
thick. Stamens about 30, the connective large. Ovaries about 6, stri- 
gose, 2-ovuled. Ripe carpels few, very large, oblong-ovoid, obtuse, sessile, 
densely and shortly yellowish-tomentose, 225 in. long, and 1'5 in. in 
diam. Seed solitary, oblong, the testa bony. 

Malacca; Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 55, 



94 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

6. Popowia perakensis, King, n. sp. A shrub 6 to 15 feet high ; 
young branches densely and minutely dull rusty-tomentose, the older 
dark and furrowed. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, very shortly and 
rather abruptly acuminate, the base slightly narrowed, sometimes sab- 
oblique ; upper surface glabrous, the midrib and nerves tomentose ; lower 
pubescent, sub-granular : main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, spreading, slightly 
prominent beneath; length 4 to 55 in., breadth 2 to 2'5 in. ; petiole - 1 
in., tomentose. Flowers extra-axillary, usually in pairs (but not con- 
temporaneous) "3 in. in diam. ; pedicels '4 in. long, ferrugineous-tomen- 
tose, minutely bracteolate. Sepals smaller than the petals, semi-orbicu- 
lar, acute, coarsely tomentose outside, sub-glabrous inside. Petals thick, 
ovoid-orbicular, sub-acute, sub-concave, densely whitish-sericeous outside, 
glabrous within ; the inner row slightly larger than the outer, neither 
their edges nor apices incurved. Stamens numerous, flattened, with 
truncate, corrugated heads. Ovaries about 10, thin, glabrous, except a 
few long hairs near the base, 2-ovuled : stigmas large, rounded. Ripe 
carpels few, ovoid, with sub-truncate apices, slightly narrowed to the 
stalks, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, with several horizontal constrictions 
when ripe '5 in. long and '25 in. in diam. ; stalks "25 to '5 in. long. 
Seeds 2, superposed, plano-convex. 

This resembles P. ramusissiiiia in its leaves but has much larger 
flowers of which the inner petals are not inflexed and the carpels have 
2 seeds. 

Perak : King's Collector, Wray ; from 200 to 2,500 feet. 

7. Popowia fusca, King, n. sp. A tree 40 to 50 feet high ; young 
branches densely covered with purplish-brown tomentum; the older 
cinerons, sub-pubescent and much furrowed. Leaves coriaceous, oval- 
oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, the base rounded ; both surfaces minutely 
granular, the upper shortly puberulous, the lower pubescent, the midrib 
and 8 to 11 pairs of spreading, rather prominent main nerves tomentose 
on both ; length 25 to 3*5 in., breadth 14 to l - 8 in. ; petiole 2 in. pur- 
plish-tomentose like the flower pedicels. Floivers in small extra-axillary 
fascicles from small bracteate tubercles, 25 in. in diam. ; pedicels T5 to 
•25 in. Sepals ovate-obtuse, tomentose outside, glabrous inside. Petals 
sub-equal, rotund, very thick and fleshy, tomentose outside, puberulous 
inside. Pipe carpels few, globular, densely tomentose, '25 in. in diam. ; 
stalks '1 to 2 in. long, tomentose. Seeds solitary. 

Perak, near Ulu Kerling, at an elevation of 500 feet, King's Col- 
lector, No. 8602. 

This much resembles P. vclutiua, King, but its leaves are more 
oval have more nerves, and are not so pubescent. 

8. PorowiA veluhna, King, n. sp. A tree 20 to 40 feet high ; 



1802.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 95 

young branches covered with minute soft deep brown tomentum. Leaves 
elliptic-oblong", to ovate-elliptic, acute or shortly and narrowly acumi- 
nate, slightly narrowed to the rounded sub-unequal base ; both surfaces 
minutely granular, the upper with a few scattered hairs ; the lower 
fuscous and more densely and softly pubescent, both the midrib and 
nerves tomentose or ptibescent ; main nerves 6 or 7 pairs, spreading, 
indistinct ; length 3 to 5 in., breadth 14 to l - 8 in., petiole '1 in. Flowers 
solitary or in pairs, extra-axillary, about '25 in. in diam., pedicels dense- 
ly tomentose, "35 in. long, bracteolate. Sepals broadly ovate, sub-acute, 
densely tomentose outside, glabrous inside, persistent in the fruit. Petals 
sub-equal, thick, sub-orbicular, very tomentose outside, glabrous inside. 
Pipe carpels few, sometimes solitary, ovoid, blunt, slightly oblique at the 
base and slightly narrowed to the stalk, minutely velvety-pubescent, - 5 in. 
long and '35 in. in diam. ; stalks 2 in., tomentose ; torus small. Seed 
solitary, glabrous, rugose, vertically furrowed. 

Perak, at Kinta ; at elevations under 1,000 feet ; King's Collector. 

A species very like P. fusca, but with shorter, fewer-nerved leaves ; 
evidently not common. None of the collectors' specimens have fnlly 
developed flowers, and the foregoing description of these is taken from 
a bud. 

9. Popowia tomentosa, Maingay MSS. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 70. 
A tree ; young branches softly rusty-tomentose, when older black and 
rugose. Leaves elliptic-oblong to elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate, 
the base rounded, slightly unequal-sided ; both surfaces, but especially the 
lower, softly pubescent ; main nerves about 10 pairs, slightly prominent, 
spreading; length 4"5 to 5"5 in., breadth 1*75 to 3 in. ; petiole *1 in., 
tomentose. Floivers extra-axillary, sub-sessile, '25 in. in diam. Sepals 
broadly ovate, connate, slightly smaller than the petals. Petals slightly 
unequal, villous outside, glabrous inside ; the outer ovate, thick ; the 
the inner larger, very thick and concave, oblong, connivent. Stamens 
about 25. Ovaries 7 to 9, oblong, pubescent ; ovules 2. Pipe carpels 
globose, slightly pubescent, '5 to '74 in. in diam., 2-seeded ; their stalks 
"35 in., pubescent. 

Malacca ; Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 54. Penang : Curtis, No. 
648. Perak ; Scortechini. 

I am not satisfied that there are not two species involved here, the 
one with broader leaves and shorter pubescence. 

10. Popowia nervtfolia, Maingay MSS. ex Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 60. A small tree 12 to 25 feet high : young branches at first densely 
rusty-tomentose, afterwards dark-coloured and furrowed. Leaves coria- 
ceous, from oblong-lanceolate or ob-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, shortly 
abruptly and bluntly acuminate, the base acnte ; upper surface shining, 



96 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

glabrous except the puberulous midrib ; lower paler, sparsely rusty- 
pubescent ; main nerves 10 or 11 pairs, oblique, rather prominent on 
the lower surface ; length 5*5 to 8 - 5 in., breadth 1*8 to 3 in. ; petiole 
•35 to "5 in., rusty-pubescent. Flowers polygamous, extra-axillary, 
solitary or 2 or 3 together, sub-globose, from '5 to "75 in. in diam. ; 
pedicels, stout, tomentose, '15 to "25 long, with 2 bracts nearly as large 
as the sepals. Sepals ovate-orbicular, acute, slightly smaller than the 
outer petals, very thick, villous-tomentose outside and glabrous inside 
as are all the petals : inner petals larger than the outer, their apices 
much inflexed in bud. Stamens numerous, with flat, rhomboid heads. 
Ovaries numerous, hirsute. Carpels numerous, cylindric-ovoid, apiculate, 
narrowed to the stalk, sparsely strigose, *5 in. long and *25 in. in diam. ; 
stalks - 2 to "3 in. long, strigose-pubescent ; torus globular, - 4 in. in 
cliam. Seed pale, shining. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.,) No. 53. Perak : common at 
low elevations. 

Allied to P. Kurzii, but with larger flowers which have their inner 
petals valvate with much inflexed edges. 

11. Porowu Kunzir, King. A shrub or small tree; young 
branches at first tawny-pubescent, afterwards dark-coloured, glabrous 
and furrowed. Leaves sub-coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic-ob- 
long sub-acute or shortly and bluntly acuminate, narrowed to the sub- 
cuneate (sometimes almost rounded) base ; upper surface sub-granular, 
minutely and sparsely adprossed-pubescent ; lower sparsely pubescent; 
main nerves 9 to 12 pairs, oblique, inter-arching close to the edge, rather 
prominent beneath ; length 5 to 9 in., breadth 15 to 3 in. ; petiole 2 to 
•25 in , tomentose. Floicers polygamous, solitary, or in pairs, sub-sessile, 
extra-axillary, sub-globose, - 4 in. in diam. ; pedicels tomentose, 1 to "2 in. 
long, bracteolate. Sepal* smaller than the petals, valvate, semi-orbicular, 
and, like the petals, tomentose externally and glabrous internally. 
Petals sub-equal, concave, the outer ovate-orbicular, valvate ; the inner 
slightly smaller than the outer, imbricate. Stamens numerous, flattened, 
elongate, with linear, lateral anther-cells and flat, oblique, rhomboid 
apices. Ovaries (often absent) about 10, elongate, pubescent, the stigmas 
clavate. Fruit unknown. Polyalthia macrophylla, Hook. fil. and Thorns. 
Fl. Br. Ind. I, 68. P. dubia Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 38. Guatteria 
macrophylla, Blume Bijdr. 19 ; Fl. Javae Anon. 96. t. 97 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. I, Pt, 2, 47. 

South Andaman ; Kurz, King's Collector. Burmah ; province Tenas- 
serim ; Falconer, Kurz. 

This species appears to be practically dioecious. In its flowers 
the inner petals are distinctly imbricate ; they are not connivent, and 



1892.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 97 

their points are not inflexed. And in these respects they do not answer 
to the diagnosis of Popowia as heretofore understood. I have therefore 
ventured to modify the generic character of Popowia in these points, and 
to institute a section of it to receive this and other two species. This 
species is closely allied to the plant originally described and figured 
by Blume as Guatteria macrophylla, (Fl. Jav. Anon. 96 t. 47,) and to 
receive which Miquel founded his genus Trivalvaria (Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat. II, 19). Bat, in Blume's and Miquel's plant, the inner petals are 
distinctly valvate, although their apices are not inflexed. And in the 
non-inflection of its petals it also does not conform to the character of 
Popowia as originally defined by its founder Endlicher. 

12. Popowia Hookeri, King. A shrub ; young branches dark- 
coloured, glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, broadly lanceolate or 
oblanceolate, acute or acuminate, the base acute : both surfaces glabrous, 
the lower silvery, shining : main nerves about 7 pairs, spreading, 
ascending, curving, rather prominent beneath, evanescent at the tips ; 
length 5"5 to 7 in., breadth 1*6 to 2 - 4 in. Floivers solitary or in fascicles 
of 2 or 3 from short extra-axillary, woody tubercles, polygamous, minute ; 
" the males as in Popowia Kurzii but smaller ; the females with many, 
densely pubescent ovaries and a few imperfect stamens ; bracts many, 
minute, strigose. Carpels many, "75 in. long, oblong, granulate, glabrous ; 
stalk -35 in." Guatteria pallida, H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind., 143 (not of 
Blume). Polyalthia argentea, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 67. 

Assam and Sylhet ; in dense forests, Hook. fil. and Thomson ; Naga 
Hills, Masters. Khasia : Griffith. 

A species of which I have seen only imperfect specimens. The 
description given above of the flowers is copied from Sir Joseph Hooker. 
In my opinion the plant is a Popowia rather than a Polyalthia and to 
the former genus I have ventured to remove it. 

Doubtful Species. 
Popoivia parvifolia, Kurz in Journ. of Botany for 1875, p. 324. Of 
this I have seen only leaf specimens -with a few detached fruits. It ap- 
pears to have also had the MSS. name P. nitida given to it by Kurz. 

18. Oxtmitra, Blume. 
Climbing shrubs. Leaves parallel-nerved ; nervules transverse, not 
forming intra-marginal loops. Floivers leaf-opposed or extra- axillary. 
Sepals 3, valvate, connate below. Petals 6, valvate, in 2 rows, outer 
large, long, flat or triquetrous and narrow, leathery, more or less spread- 
ing or connivent ; inner much smaller, ovate-lanceolate or oblong (lono- 
and narrow in 0. filipes and 0. glatica), conniving over the stamens and 
13 



98 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula . [No. 1, 

ovaries. Stamens many, linear-oblong or cuneate, truncate ; anther-cells 
dorsal, remote (small and ovoid in 0. glauca). Ovaries oblong, strigose ; 
style oblong or clavate, recurved ; ovules 1-2, sub-basal, ascending. 
Ripe carpels 1-seeded, stalked. — Distrib. About 28 species, Asiatic and 
African. 

A genus of which the flowers have some resemblance to those of 
Goniothalamus : but in this the inner petals are not contracted into a 
claw as in Goniothalamus and the calyx in this is smaller and not 
persistent. 
Outer petals flat ... ... ... 1. 0. affinis. 

Outer petals concave. 

Pedicels slender, much longer than the flowers 2. O.filipes. 
Pedicels shorter than the flowers. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic, more or less obovate, 

blunt ... ... ... 3. 0. calycina. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate 
or elliptic-lanceolate, not obovate, acute, 
or acuminate. 

Outer petals expanded and concave in 
the lower third ; the inner only one 
fourth as long as the outer, very 
acuminate ... ... ... 4. 0. biglandulosa. 

Outer petals narrowly linear-lanceo- 
late, slightly expanded and concave 
at the veiw base ... ... 5. 0. glauca. 

1. Oxymitra affix is, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 70. A 
spreading shrub or climber : young branches at first densely rusty to- 
mentose, afterwards dark-coloured and glabrous. Leaves membranous, 
elliptic to oblong-elliptic, sometimes slightly obovate, acute or very short- 
ly acuminate, rarely obtuse, the base rounded or slightly narrowed ; 
upper surface shining, minutely scaly, glabrous except the pubescent 
midrib ; under surface slightly glaucous, pubescent especially on the 
midrib and nerves ; main nerves 8 to 14 pairs, spreading, ascending, 
rather prominent on the lower surface ; length 35 to 10 in., breadth 
1-25 to 4 - 5 in. ; petiole "3 in., tomentose. Flozvers solitary, extra-axillary ; 
pedicels '25 to "4 in. Sepals slightly connate at the base, spreading, 
broadly ovate or orbicular-orate, sub-acute, 3- to 7-nerved, adpressed- 
pnbescent, - 5 in. long and slightly narrower than the base of the petals, 
persistent in the fruit. Petals flat, very unequal ; the outer thinly 
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, sub-acute, the midrib thick and with 
several strong sub-parallel nerves, adpressed-pubescent on both surfaces, 
15 to 175 in. long and '4 to "6 in. broad; inner petals thickly coria- 



1892. J G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 99 

ceous, ovate, sub-acute, '5 in. long, pubescent outside, glabrous inside. 
Ripe carpels cylindric, blunt at each end, pubescent, *5 to '8 in. long 
and "3 in. in diam. : stalks pubescent, 2 in. long. Seed solitary. 

Malacca ; Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 39. Perak ; King's Col- 
lector, Scortecliini. Distrib., Siam. 

2. Oxymitra filipes, H. f. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 71. A climber : 
young branches softly brown-tomentose, dark-coloured and lcnticellate 
when old. Leaves membranous, oblong-lanceolate or oblong- elliptic, 
often slightly obovate, acute or shortly acuminate, slightly narrowed to 
the sub-cordate sometimes slightly oblique base ; upper surface glab- 
rous, minutely scaly, sometimes pubescent, the midrib and nerves al- 
ways so ; under surface paler, sub-glaucous, pubescent, the midrib 
tomentose ; main nerves 12 to 14 pairs, spreading, prominent beneath ; 
. secondaiw nerves obliquely transverse, prominent: length 4"5 to 7 - 5 in., 
breadth 14 to 2"5 in. ; petiole "2 to "25 in., tomentose. Flowers very 
long and narrow, often curved, 175 to 2 - 5 in. long, solitary on slender 
extra-axillary pedicels 3 or 4 in. long, which are pubescent and have 
a subulate bract near the middle. Sepals "25 in. long, spreading, ovate, 
acute, pubescent. Petals very unequal ; the outer fleshy, very narrow, 
triquetrous, expanded and concave at the base, pubescent ; the inner 
less than one fifth of the outer in length, lanceolate with caudate-acu- 
minate apex, glabrous. Stamens numerous : ovaries 1-ovuled. Ripe 
carpels numerous, ovate-cylindric, shortly apiculate, softly pubescent, 
•5 in. long and '25 in. in diam. ; stalks "3 in. long, pubescent. Seed 
solitary, pale. 

A species readily distinguished in this gen vis by the extreme length 
and narrowness of the outer petals. Evidently closely allied to 0. 
cuneiformis, Miq. (PolyaltMa cuneiformis, Bl. Fl. Javae Anon. 75 t. 35, 
36d, 37), which it resembles in that respect as also in its filiform, elon- 
gated pedicels. 

Malacca; Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 60. Perak: King's Col- 
lector. 

3. Oxymitra calycixa, King, n. sp. A slender, woody creeper ; 
young branches densely rusty tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, oblong and 
sub-acute or cuneiform-oblong, very blunt or even emarginate, always 
slightly narrowed to the rounded or minutely cordate base ; upper sur- 
face glabrous, shining, the midrib sometimes rufous-pubescent ; under 
surface pale, glaucous, pubescent especially on the midrib and nerves : 
main nerves 7 to 14 pairs, prominent on the under, impressed on the 
upper, surface, spreading; the secondary nerves obliquely transverse, 
prominent : length 6 to 12 in., breadth 2'65 to 7'5 in., petiole 2 to '4 in., 
rufous tomentose. Flowers solitary, extra-axillary ; pedicels '3 to 1 in.. 



100 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

rufous-tonientose, bearing two "bracts, one small, the other large, obo- 
vate, ribbed. Sepals free, nearly half as long as the outer petals, ellip- 
tic, sub-acute ; the edges undulate, rufous-tomentose on both surfaces. 
Petals thick, lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, the midrib prominent, the 
base concave, both rows glabrous inside, the outer about 1 to P25 in. 
long, tomentose outside ; the inner about *5 in. shorter, connate into a 
narrow, acute cone, puber-ulous outside. Ovaries 1-ovuled. Pipe carpels 
elliptic, apiculate, pubescent, *35 in. long : stalks '2 in., pubescent. 

This closely resembles Oxymitra cuneiformis, Miq. of which Blume 
(under the name of Polyalthia cuneiformis) gives an excellent description 
and three admirable figures (Fl. Javae Anon. 75 t. 35, 36D. and 37. But 
in Blume's plant the flowers are much larger, the petals are falcate, 
while the sepals are much smaller and have caudate apices : the pedi- 
cels too are much longer and have smaller bracteoles. 

Perak : Ulu Bubong at elevations of 500 to 1,000 feet, King's Col- 
lector, No. 10604. Singapore : Ridley. Penang ; Curtis. 

4. Oxymitra biglandulosa, Scheffer in Nat. Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. 
XXXI, 341. A creeper 50 to 100 feet long ; young branches minutely 
rufous-sericeous, afterwards dark-coloui'ed and glabrous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acute or shortly acuminate, the edges 
slightly recurved when dry, the base rounded or slightly cuneate ; 
upper surface glabrous, the midrib puberulous; the lower paler, sub- 
glaucous, pubcrulous or glabrescent ; main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, ascend- 
in-, prominent beneath; length 3'5 to 7 - 5 in., breadth 2 to 35 in., 
petiole 2 to '4 in. Flowers shortly pedicelled, solitary, extra-axillary, 
1 to 1'15 in. long : pedicels '4 in. long (elongating in fruit) angled, 
slender, with 1 subulate bracteole, Sepals fleshy, ovate, much acumi- 
nate, spreading or reflexcd, adpressed, rusfcy-puberulous. Petals fleshy, 
yellow, very unequal : the outer lanceolate-oblong, obtuse, expanded, 
and concave in the lower third, rusty adpressed-pubescent ; the midrib 
prominent, sub-glabrous inside ; the inner only as large as the sepals, 
with broad bases (cleft in the middle) and long acuminate points. Pipe 
carpels oblong-ovoid, blunt at each end or slightly apiculate at the apex, 
yellow when ripe, puberulous or glabrous, 75 in. long: stalks "5 in. 
Polyalthia biglandulosa, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 65. Guatteria big- 
landulosa, Blume Fl. Javae Anon. 102, t. 51 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 
Pt. 2, p. 48 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 143. 

Malacca; Griffith, Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 49. Selangor ; 
Ridley. Perak, King's Collector. Distrib. : Malayan Archipelago. 

The structure of the flowers of this species appears to me to be 
that of an Oxymitra rather than of a Polyalthia or Guatteria, and there- 
fore I have transferred it to this genus. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 101 

5. Oxymitba glauca, H. f. and Th. Fl. Incl. 146 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. 
Ind. I, 71. A slender woody climber : young branches slightly tomen- 
tose, soon becoming glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic, ellip- 
tic-lanceolate to lanceolate, obtuse, acute or shortly acuminate ; the 
base rounded, sometimes slightly narrowed ; upper surface glabrous, the 
midrib and sometimes the nerves pubescent ; the lower very pale, glauc- 
ous, glabrous or sparsely pubeiailous, the midrib pubescent ; main nerves 
8 to 12 spairs, spreading, prominent beneath : length 4 to 6 in., breadth 
1*5 to 2 in. ; petiole "2 in., pubescent. Floioers solitary, extra-axillary, 
narrow and elongate ; pedicels slender, *5 in. long, with a median subulate 
bract, longer in fruit. Sepals connate at the base, broadly ovate, much 
acuminate, adpressed-pubescent, "25 in., long. Fetals very unequal : the 
outer thickly coriaceous, linear-lanceolate, sub-acute, slightly expanded 
and sub-concave at the base, outside minutely pubescent; inside glab- 
rous, the midrib prominent : inner petals with sub-orbicular bases 
(cleft in the middle), and long acuminate points, glabrous, only about 
one-fifth as long as the outer. Ovaries hairy ; ovule solitary. Carpels 
many, ovoid, slightly apiculate, "4 in. long and "25 in. in diam., minutely 
tomentose ; stalks slender, "75 in. long. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 50. 

Penang, Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 58. Perak ; com- 
mon at low-elevations. Distrib. : Sumatra, Beccari, No. 626. 

19. Melodoeum, Dunal. 
Climbing shrubs. Floioers terminal, axillary and leaf-opposed, fasci- 
cled or panicled ; buds triquetrous. Sepals 3, small, valvate, connate 
below. Petals 6, valvate, in 2 rows ; outer plano-convex or trigonous : 
inner triquetrous above, hollowed below on the inner face. Stamens 
many ; anther-cells dorsal, contiguous ; top of connective more or less 
flattened, triangular, quadrate or orbicular. Pistils many, free ; style 
oblong ; ovules 2 or more. Pipe carpels berried. — Distrib : — species 
about 35. Tropical Asia and Africa ; Australia. 

Section I. Melodoeum proper. Outer petals oblong-ovate ; ovaries 
hairy, ovules usually more than 4. Seeds smooth (unknown in M. litseae- 
foliuni) . 

Flowers not more than '4 in. long (often '5 
in. in M. fulgens), flower-buds broadly pyra- 
midal. 

Flowers '2 to '25 in. long, in few-flower- 
ed, lax, axillary racemes ; leaves be- 
neath hoary-pubescent with a super- 
ficial layer of flexuose hairs : ovules 4 1. M. UtseacfoUiim, 
Flowers *4 to "5 in. long ; solitary, or in 



102 



G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 



few-flowered terminal or leaf-opposed 
cymes ; leaves beneath sparsely and 
minutely strigose : ovules 4 
Flowers "5 in. or more in length (see also 
M. fulgens). 

Flower-buds broadly pyramidal. 

Flowers racemose, rarely solitary. 
Leaves glabrous above except the 
midrib, beneath densely golden- 
brown sericeous. Ripe carpels 
ovoid-globose, l - 25 in. long, their 
stalks 2 to 3 in. long 

Flowers in axillary or terminal 
panicles. Leaves minutely pubes- 
cent above, softly brown-tomen- 
tosc beneath : ripe carpels glo- 
bose to ovoid, velvetty-tomentose, 
1 to 225 in. long ; stalks 75 to 
175 in. ... 

Flowers always solitary and axil- 
lary. Ripe carpels cylindric, 
sub-tubercular, 1 to 175 in. long 
Flower-buds narrowly pyramidal, race- 
mose or paniculate. 

Leaves glabrous above except the 
midrib, beneath glaucous hoary- 
puberulous. Ripe carpels glo- 
bose or ovoid-globose, tubercled, 
I in. long, their stalks 1 in. 

Leaves glabrescent or glabrous 
above, except the midrib ; beneath 
softly rufous-pubescent. Ripe 
carpels globular, densely and 
minutely dark brown-tomentose, 
•8 in. in diam. ; their stalks 
slightly longer 

Leaves harshly pubescent above, 
uniformly and softly pubescent 
beneath. Ripe carpels globose, 
harshly and minutely pubescent, 
LI iu. in diam.; stalks slender, 
twice as long 



2. M. fulgens. 



3. M. manubriatum. 



4. M. latifolium. 

5. M. cyUndrieum, 



6. M. hypoglaucum. 



7. M. parviflorum. 



8. M. sphaerocarpum. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 103 

Section II. Pyramidanthe. Outer petals very long, linear-lanceo- 
late, 1-2 to 5 in. long. Flowers solitary or in pairs, axillary, rarely leaf- 
opposed (cymose in M . latmginosum and M. rubiginosum.) 
Ovules more than 4. 

Flowers 1'25 to 15 in. long; outer petals 
rufous-lanate externally ; ripe carpels sub- 
globose, '79 in. in diam. ... ... 9. 31. lanuginostim. 

Flowers 125 to 1*5 in. long; outer petals 
minutely rufous-tomentose externally ; ripe 
carpels oblong, tapering to both ends, 1*5 
to 2 in. long ... ... ... 10. M. Maingayi. 

Flowers 1 "5 to 2 in. long; outer petals minutely 
rufous-tonientose outside ; ripe carpels 

ovoid, tuberculate, 1*4 in. long ... 11. M. prismaticwm. 

Ovules 4. 

Flowers 3 to 5 in. long ; outer petals ad- 

pressed-puberulous externally ... 12. M. macranthum. 

Section III. Kextia. Outer petals not much longer than broad, 
broadly ovate or sub-orbicular, with broad thick margins : flowers 
axillary ; ovaries glabrous, 2 to 8-ovuled : seeds pitted. 
Ovules about 8 : ripe carpels ovoid or ovoid- 
globose ; leaves oblong-lanceolate ... 13. M. elegans. 
Ovules 2 ; ripe carpels globular : leaves 
elliptic or elliptic-oblong, sometimes ob- 
ovate ... ... ... 14. M. pisocarpum. 

1. Melodorum litse^folium, King, n. sp. A powerful climber : 
young branches densely but minutely rusty-tomentose, afterwards 
tuberculate and sub-glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-ovate to ob- 
long, acute, the base rounded or slightly cuneate ; upper surface greenish 
when dry, glabrous, shining except the rufous-pubescent midrib ; lower 
reticulate ; uniformly hoary-pubescent with a superficial layer of deci- 
duous yellowish or reddish flexuose hairs ; main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, 
oblique, curving, prominent beneath; length 2 - 75 to 4"25 in., breadth 
1*35 to 1*6 in. Floivers '2 to '25 in. long, in few-flowered lax axillary 
rufous-tomentose racemes or in terminal panicles ; pedicels "25 to "35 
in. long with a single small median bracteole. Sepals broadly ovate- 
acute, concave, connate at the base, spreading, *1 in. long. Petals 
broadly ovate-oblong, acute, leathery ; outer 3 in. long, slightly con- 
cave and glabrous at the base, otherwise puberulous inside, rufous- 
tomentose outside ; the inner petals much smaller, hoary-puberulous 
except the pitted glabrous concavity at the base inside. Stamens nu- 
merous, apical process of the connective broadly aud bluntly triangular ; 



101 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

filaments short. Ovaries few, oblong, oblique, rufous-pubescent, 4- 
ovuled ; stigma lateral, oblong. Ripe carpels unknown. 

Perak : King's Collector, Nos. 4063 and 4986. 

The flowers of this resemble those of M. fulgens, H. f . and Th., but 
they are smaller and more numerous than those of M. fulgens ; the 
petals of this species also are thinner and the apical process of the 
anthers is broader and blunter. The leaves too of this are broader and, 
in the indumentum on their lower surface, they differ considerably from 
those of M. fulgens. Fruit of this species is as yet unknown. The 
ovaries have only 4 ovules. 

2. Melodorum fulgens, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 120. A large 
climber ; young branches minutely tawny-pubescent, speedily becoming 
glabrous and dark-coloured. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
base rounded or sub-acute ; upper surface pale olivaceous when dry, 
glabrous, the midrib strigose ; under surface brown when dry, sparsely 
and minutely strigose, especially on the midrib ; main nerves 11 to 13 
pairs, oblique, curving ; length 3 to 4 - 5 in., breadth 1*2 to 1-5 in. ; petiole 
•25 to "4 in. pubescent. Floicers "4 to "5 in. long, solitary or in terminal 
or leaf-opposed, few-flowered cymes: pedicels "3 to '4 in. long, adpressed 
(:iw ny-pubescent with one sub-medial and one basal bracteole. Sepals 
broadly ovate, sub-acute, connate at the base, spreading, '1 in. long, 
pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Petals thick ; the outer flat, ovate- 
oblong, sub-acute, tawny-pubescent outside, glabrous at the base inside, 

o in. long; inner petals like outer but concave at the base, only - 3 in. 
loner and glabrous, except near the apex outside. Stamens numerous ; 
apical process of connective of the outer lanceolate and as long as the 
anthers, that of the inner shorter. Ovaries narrowly oblong, oblique, 
em ved, minutely pubescent, with 4 ovules in two rows : style lateral, 
half as long as the ovary, stigma small. Ripe carpels ovoid-globose 
densely and minutely silky tawny-tomentose like the stalks, 1 to 15 in, 
long, and "9 in. in diam. ; stalks '85 to 1*5 in. long, stout. Seeds oblong, 
plano-convex, brown, shining. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 82. Miq. Fl, 
Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 35. Uvaria fulgens and Myristica Finlaysoniana, Wall. 
Cat, 6482 and 6793. 

Malacca, Perak, Singapore. Distrib. Borneo, Philippines. 

3. Melodorum manubriatum, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 118. 
A large creeper: young branches minutely rufous-pubescent. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the base rounded or 
slightly narrowed ; upper surface olivaceous when dry, glabrous, the 
midrib ruf ous-pubescent ; lower uniformly covered with rather thin 
brown or golden sericeous tomentum ; main neiwes 12 to 18 pairs, ob- 
lique, slightly carved, rather prominent beneath ; length 2 to 4"5 in., 



1892.] G. King — Material* for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 105 

breadth '75 to 1'5 in. ; petiole '3 in., tomentose. Flowers '6 to '75 in 
long, leaf-opposed or extra-axillary, in short racemes, rarely solitary ; 
pedicels '25 to "75 in., softly pale rufous-tomentose, with one broad 
clasping bracteole near the base. Sepals broadly ovate, shortly sub- 
acuminate, spreading, connate at the base, sericeous outside, o-labrous 
inside. Petals leathery, ovate-lanceolate, sub-acuminate, concave, the 
outer '6 to "75 in. long, outside sericeous, inside puberulous in the upper 
half, glabrous in the lower ; the inner petals smaller, minutely pubescent 
in the upper half outside and near the apes inside, otherwise glabrous 
the base very concave. Stamens numerous, the connective bluntly tri- 
angular at the apex. Ovaries numerous, oblong, densely sericeous - 
ovules 8 in 2 rows ; stigma sessile, glabrous, bifid. Ripe carpels numer- 
ous, ovoid-globose, with thick pericarp, about 1"25 in. long, densely rufous- 
tomentose ; stalks 2 to 3 in. long. Seeds about 8, in two rows. Hook. fil. 
Fl. Br. Ind. I, 79 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 35. Melodorum bancanum, 
Scheff. Nat. Tijds. XXXI, 343. Uvaria manubriata, Wall. Cat. 6456. 

Penang, Malacca, Singapore. Perak : very common. Distrib. : 
Bangka. 

4. Melodorum latcfolium, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl Ind., 116. 
A large climber ; young shoots velvety rufous-tomentose. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong or narrowly elliptic, sub-acute or obtuse, the base 
rounded ; upper surface minutely pubescent, the midrib tomentose • 
lower surface uniformly covered with short, soft, brown tomentum • main 
nerves 16 to 24 pairs, spreading, bold, not inter-arching : leno-th 3 to 
7 - 5 in., breadth L"75 to 2'5 in. ; petiole '4 to '7 in., stout, channelled to- 
mentose. Floivers from "6 to 1*25 in. in diatn. when expanded, brown in 
lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles ; pedicels '35 to '5 in. with 
bracteole at the base. Sepals broadly ovate, blunt, connate into a flat 
triangular cup, '25 in. wide, tomentose outside, glabrous within like the 
outer petals. Petals thick, fleshy, ovate, acuminate, "4 to '7 in. lone 1 - 
the inner much smaller. Stamens very numerous, the apex of the con- 
nective triangular, acute ; anther-cells linear, lateral, Ovaries about 6 
obliquely oblong, densely sericeous, 6- to 8-ovuled ; stigma small sessile. 
Ripe carpels globose to ovoid, slightly apiculate and slightly taperino- to 
the base, densely velvety and minutely tomentose, 1 to 2'25 in. lono- and 
1 to 1/2 in. in diam. : stalks stout, velvety, '75 to 1*75 in. lono- • Hook 
fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 79; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 35; Wall. Cat. 9l.ll! 
M. mollissinium, Miquel Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 374. Uvaria latifolia 
Blume Fl. Jav. Anon. t. 15. TJuona latifolia, Dunal Anon. 115. Uvaria 
longifolia, Bl. Bijdr. 13. 

Malacca; Griffith. Singapore; Maingay, Hullett. Perak: very 
common. Distrib. : — Sumatra, Java, Philippines. 
14 



106 Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Uvaria latifolia, Blume, as described and figured by that author has 
larger flowers than the common Perak plant and its carpels are globular, 
whereas those of the Perak plant are ovoid and apiculate. The plant 
figured by Blume does, however, occur there, but it is not common. The 
forms may be characterised thus : — 

Var. typica : flowers - 7 in. long: fruit globular, not apiculate, 1 in. 
in diam. Uvaria latifolia, Blume 1. c. t. 15. Perak, Java. 

Yar. ovoidea : flowers '5 in. long : fruit ovoid, slightly apiculate, 
often oblique, as much as 225 in. long, very oblique and warted when 
young. M. latifolium, H. f. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. 79. Malacca, Perak, 
Singapore. The common form in the Malay Peninsula. 

5. Melodorum cylindricum, Maingay in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 80. 
A climber : young branches minutely rusty-pubescent, speedily glabrous 
and dark-coloured. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, brownish when 
dry, acute or acuminate, the base rounded or slightly narrowed ; upper 
surface quite glabrous, the lower paler, minutely pubescent ; main nerves 
8 to 10 pairs, spreading, very faint ; length 2'5 to 425 in., breadth P6 to 
1*8 in., petiole - 5 in. Floivers "5 in. long, solitary, axillary, drooping ; 
buds short, pyramidal, adpressed, brown-pubescent : pedicel short, stout, 
with minute bracteole. Sepals small, triangular, connate, forming a flat 
spreading cup. Outer petals triangular-ovate, triquetrous with an ex- 
cavated base ; the inner very small, triangular, glabrous. Stamens nu- 
merous, the apex of the connective orbicular. Ovaries 4 to 6, sericeous. 
Ripe carpels cylindric, curved, both ends obtuse, sub-tubercular, minutely 
brown-pubescent, 1 to 1 75 in. long and '35 to '75 in. in diam. ; pericarp 
thin ; stalk - 5 in. long, stout. Seeds many, horizontal, in two series, 
compressed, "65 in. long, shining, with a small cartilaginous arillus. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 78. Singapore: Ridley, 
No. 2115. 

6. Mi?lodorum hypoglaucdm, Miquel in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 
37. A strong creeper : young branches minutely rufous-pubescent, 
xiltimately glabrous, rather pale and much tubercled. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, acute or shortly acumi- 
nate, the base rounded or cuneate ; upper surface glabrous except the 
rnfous-puberulous midrib ; lower minutely hoaiy-puberulous, the 10 or 
12 pairs of bold oblique curving main nerves ultimately glabrous and 
darker-coloured ; length 3 to 5"5 in., breadth 135 to 2'2 in., petiole '25 
in. Floivers 5 to S in. long, in lax, 2-to 3-flowered, axillary racemes or 
(by abortion of the leaves) in lax, terminal, 10- to 12-flowered panicles ; 
p^lieels as long as the flowers, slender; bracteoles 1 or 2, minute. 
Sepals ovate, acute, concave, conjoined only at the base, rufous-pubes- 
cent outside : puberulous within. Petals leathery, linear-lanceolate, 



1892.] G\ King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 107 

the base expanded and concave : the outer minutely rufous-tomentose 
on the external surface, paler and pubescent on the internal, "5 to - 8 in. 
long, concave for their whole length : the inner one -third shorter with a 
glabrous concavity at the base only, the rest triquetrous, and puberu- 
lous. Stamens numerous ; apical process of connective large, broader 
than the anther-cells, sub-globular. Ovaries about 12, oblong, golden- 
silky : with 4 to 6-ovules in. 2 rows : stigma large sub-capitate ; style 
short. Ripe carpels globose or ovoid-globose, tubercled, puberulous or 
glabrescent, 1 in. long ; stalks about the same length, striate. Seeds 
about 4 or 5, oval, compressed, smooth, brown, shining. 

Perak : Scortechini, King's Collector. 

This plant agrees fairly well with the only specimens of Melodorum 
hypoglaucum, Miq. which I have been able to consult. It also agrees 
fairly with Miquel's description of that species. But its petals and 
stamens, and its ovaries externally are rather those of Xylopia than of Melo- 
dorum ; although its habit, its torus and carpels are emphatically those of 
the latter genus In the number of ovules it agrees with the majority 
of the species of Melodorum. It thus forms a connecting link between 
the two genera. 

7. Melodorum parviflorum, Scheffer in Nat. Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. 
XXXI, 344. A powerful climber ; young shoots minutely rusty-tomen- 
tose, the bark dark-coloured. Leaves coriaceous, more or less broadly 
elliptic, abruptly acute ; the base broad, rounded : upper surface pale 
yellowish-green when dry, when young minutely stellate-pubescent, 
when old glabrescent or quite glabrous, the midrib always tomentose ; 
under surface softly rufous-pubeseent, the nervation and venation very 
prominent ; main nerves 13 to 15 pairs, oblique, curving, inter-arching 
close to the edge ; length 3 to 6 in., breadth 2 - 25 to 3"2 in., petiole - 4 in. 
Floivers '5 in. long, in lax axillary or terminal rusty racemes often more 
than half as long as the leaves : pedicels # 4 to '6 in. long with 1 or 2 
small bracteoles. Sepals triangular, spreading, connate at the base, 
rusty-tomentose outside, glabrescent inside like the petals, "1 in. long. 
Petals thick, leathery, oblong-lanceolate with broad bases ; the outer 
"5 in. long ; the inner smaller, concave at the base, triquetrous in the 
upper half. Stamens numerous, the connective with compressed sub- 
quadrate apical appendage. Ovaries narrow, elongate, densely seinceous, 
6- to 8-ovuled. Rife carpels globular, sometimes very slightly apiculate, 
densely but minutely dark-brown tomentose, "8 in. diam. ; stalks rather 
longer, slender, tomentose. 

Perak : King's Collector. — Distrib. : Bangka. 

A species closely allied to M\ sphaerocajpum , Blume. The leaves 
of this are, however, larger, the upper surface is stellate-tomentose 



108 CI. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

when young and dries a pale yellowish-green ; the flower-racemes are 
much longer and laxer, and the flowers larger. 

8. Melodorum sphaer.oca.rpum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 35. 
A strong climber : yours g branches and all others parts more or less 
dark rusty-velvety tomentose. Leaves elliptic-oblong, obtuse and very 
slightly apiculate, slightly narrowed to the rounded base ; upper surface 
with harsh, short pubescence, the midrib tomentose ; lower surface uni- 
formly and minutely soft-pubeseeut : main nerves 8 to 12 pairs, oblique 
not inter-arching at the tips, prominent beneath ; the connecting veins 
transverse oblique, rather prominent, length 25 to 4"5 in., breadth 1'25 
to 2 in., petiole "35 in. Flowers '6 or '7 in. in diam., in axillary or 
terminal racemes or panicles ; pedicels "35 to "5 in. long with a small 
supra-basal bracteole. Sepals ovate-acuminate, connate at the base, 
spreading, minutely tomentose outside, glabrescent inside. Petals thick, 
leathery, brown outside, pink within, ovate, acuminate, slightly pouched 
at the base ; the outer "3 to '35 in. long, tomentose outside, puberulous 
within: the inner smaller than the outer, more concave at the base, 
glabrous or glabrescent, the upper part very thick. Stamens numerous, 
the apex of the connective thick, obliquely triangular; anther-cells 
linear, lateral. Ovaries about 6, elongate, oblique, pubescent, with 6 to 
8 ovules : style short, glabrous : stigma small. Ripe car-pels globular, 
harshly and minutely pubescent, 11 in. in diam. : stalks rather slender, 
about twice as long. TJnona sphaerocarpa, Blume Bijdr. 12 : Fl. Javae 
Anon. 79 t. 16. 

Perak : King's Collector. 

This is allied to M. latifoKum ; but has smaller leaves with fewer 
nerves ; its pubescence is very dark rusty, not tawny ; and the apices of 
the anthers are truncate, not bearing a broad triangular, acute point. It 
is also allied to M. parviflortim, Scheff. 

9. Melodorum lanuginosum, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 117. 
A strong creeper ; young branches softly rufous-tomentose. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-, sometimes sub-obovate-oblong, abruptly acute or 
shortly acuminate, rarely obtuse, the base rounded ; upper surface 
glabrous, the midrib rufous-tomentose, olivaceous when dry ; lower sur- 
face densely rufous-lanate ; main nerves 12 to 20 pairs, oblique, curving, 
inter-arching close to the edge, prominent beneath ; length 35 to 9 in., 
breadth 1 9 to 3 5 in. ; petiole "4 to 6 in., stout, tomentose. Floivers 1 25 
to 1*5 in. long, axillary or leaf-opposed, solitary, or in short 2- to 4- 
flowered cymes ; pedicels stout, lanate, '5 in. long, with a single basal 
bracteole. Sepals ovate, spreading, slightly connate, golden or rufous- 
lanate outside, glabrous inside like the outer petals. Petals thick, 
leathery, oblong-lanceolate from a broad base, sub-acute, the outer 1 25 



1802.] Ct. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 109 

to 1*5 in. long; the inner smaller, glabrescent or glabrous, concave at 
the base. Stamens numerous, the connective obliquely triangular at 
the apex ; the anther-cells very narrow, lateral. Ovaries obovoid, oblique, 
curved, densely sericeous, 4- to 6-ovuled ; style glabrous. Ripe carpels 
sessile, shortly stalked, sub-globose, narrowed to the base ; densely and 
softly rufoiis-tomentose, about - 75 in. in diam. when ripe ; seeds about 4. 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 35 ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 79. Uvaria 
tomentosa, Wall. Cat. 6454. 

Penang : "Wallich, Curtis. Singapore ; Wallich. Pangkore : Curtis. 
Penang ; Scortechini, Wray, King's Collector. 

At once distinguished by its large flowers, lanate leaves and sessile, 
or shortly stalked, rufous-tomentose fruit. 

10. Melodorum Maingayi, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 80. 
A climber : young branches pubescent, dark-coloured. Leaves coriace- 
ous, reddish-brown when dry, broadly elliptic or oblong, rounded at both 
ends, the tip sometimes minutely apiculate ; upper surface glabrous 
except the puberulous midrib ; lower glaucous and finely pubescent ; 
main nerves 14 to 16 pairs, spreading, slightly prominent and dark- 
coloured beneath ; length 3 to 6 in., breadth 15 to 2 - 35 in. ; petiole '6 
in. Flowers 1*25 to 15 in. long, solitary, axillary ; buds swollen at the 
base, narrowed and triquetrous above : pedicels - 25 to "5 in., stout ; 
bracteoles several, small. Sepals orbicular, sub-acute, quite connate into 
a disk, - 35 in. in diam. Petals leathery ; the outer oblong-lanceolate, 
with broad base, flat but keeled down the middle inside, outside minutely 
rufous-tomentose, inside hoary-pubescent ; inner very small, triangular- 
ovate, glabrous. Stamens numerous, small, with a broad rounded apical 
process, convex. Ova7ies about 6, sericeous on one side ; stigma sub- 
sessile. Ripe carpels oblong, tapering to each end, the apex shortly 
beaked, rusty-puberulous ; the pericarp thick, 1*5 to 2 in. long and *75 
in. in diam. ; stalks '5 in. long', stout. Seeds many, in horizontal rows, 
"5 in. long testa shining, not margined. 

Penang ; Maingay (Kew Distrib.,) No. 108, Curtis, No. 1046. Perak : 
Wray, 1112. 

11. Melodordm prismaticum, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. 
121. A large creeper ; young branches glabrous, dark-coloured. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong, elliptic-oblong, rarely obovate-oblong, abruptly and 
shortly acuminate ; the base broad, rounded : upper surface glabrous 
except the minutely puberulous midrib ; lower surface glaucous, reticu- 
late, finely pubescent especially on the midrib ; main nerves 12 to 18 
pairs, spreading, faint especially near the tip, the secondary nerves pro- 
minent ; length 4'5 to 8'5 in., breadth 2'3 to 33 iu., petiole '5 to - 7 in. 
Flowers 15 to 2 in. long, axillary, solitary; pedicels - 3 to - 6 in. long, 



110 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

rufous-tomentose, with 1 large bracteole above the middle and several 
smaller near the base. Sepals quite connate into a flat, obtusely 3-angled 
disk, - 3 in. broad, pubescent outside, glabrous and tubercled inside. 
Petals very thick : the outer linear-lanceolate, 1'5 to '2 in. long, trique- 
trous, rufous-tomentose outside, puberulous inside : the inner thinner 
and only about 3 in. long, triangular, ridged outside, much excavated 
and glabrous at the base inside, otherwise puberulous. Stamens numer- 
ous, with very short filaments, anthers linear, apex of connective ob- 
liquely triangular. Ovaries elongate, oblong, tapering to the apex, 
shortly pubescent : ovules about 14, in 2 rows ; style short, lateral ; 
stigma sub-capitate, lobulate. Ripe carpels ovoid, blunt, tuberculate, 
puberulous, becoming sub-glabrous, 14 in. long and '8 in. in diam. : 
stalks "8 to 1 in., stout. Seeds in 2 rows, horizontal compressed, oval, 
black, shining. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 81 ; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I, 
Pt. 2, 36. Pyramidanthe rufa, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. II, 39. 
TJvaria rufa, Wall. Cat. 6455. Oxymitra bassiaifolia, Teysm, and Binnin. 
in Tijdsch. Ned. Ind. XXV, (1863;, 419. 

Penang, Malacca, Perak, Singapore: common. Distrib. : Borneo. 

Authentic specimens both of Pyramidanthe rufa and of Oxymitra 
bassiaifolia, T. and B. shew that they unmistakably belong to this species. 
Specimens of the former from Baugka and from the Buitenzorg Botanic 
Garden have, however, their leaves rather more hairy beneath than is 
usual in Perak specimens and their flowers are also rather longer. 

12. MtLODORUM macranthum, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 
1872, Pt. II, 291 ; 1874, Pt. II, 56 ; F. Flora Burma, I, 42. A small tree : 
all parts except the young leaf-buds and the flower glabrous ; young 
branches dark-coloured, rather slender. Leaves membranous, elliptic- 
oblong, sometimes slightly obovate, shortly and abruptly acuminate, the 
base cuneate ; upper surface shining, the lower dull ; main nerves 12 to 
16 pairs, faint and much more prominent than the secondary, forming 
a double set of intra-niarginal arches : length 6 to 8 in., breadth 25 to 
3"5 in., petiole '3 to '4 in. Flowers solitary, axillary or from the 
branches below the leaves, 3 to 5 in. long, drooping ; pedicels "5 to "75 
in. long, obscurely bracteolate at the base only. Sepals broadly ovate, 
sub-acute, coriaceous, pubescent at the edges inside, glabrous outside, 
connate for half their length, "45 in. long. Petals greenish- white, becom- 
ing yellowish, coriaceous ; narrowly linear-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
outer row flat, adpressed-puberulous with a glabrous patch at the base 
inside, 3 to 5 in. long; the inner row only 1 to 1*25 in long, cohering 
by their edges, vaulted at the base and with a glabrous patch ; the limb 
keeled inside, puberulous on both surfaces. Stamens numerous, the 
anther-cells linear, elongate ; apical process of connective narrowly tri- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. Ill 

angular, pointed. Ovaries numerous, narrowly oblong, adpressed-rufous- 
pubescent, 4-ovuled : style nearly as long as the ovary, cylindric, bent 
outwards, glabrous ; stigma small, slightly bifid. Ripe carpels oblong, 
blunt, tapering at the base, slightly rugose, glabrous, T25 to 1"5 in. long 
and about '5 or "6 in. in diam. : stalk "4 to - 5 in. Seeds 1 or 2, com- 
pressed, ovoid, smooth. TJnona viacrantJia, Kurz. in Andam. Report, Ed. 
I, App. B. I : Pyramidanthe macrantha, Kurz. 1. c. Ed. 2, p. 29. 
S. Andaman ; Kurz, King's Collector. 

In some of its characters, (e. g., the erect habit, the fewness of the 
ovules, and the thin texture and flatness of the much elongated outer 
petals) this does not quite conform to the characters of typical Melodo- 
rum. By its thin elongated outer petals, it approaches the Dasymasch- 
alon section of TJnona ; but the fewness of its ovules excludes it there- 
from. From Xylopia, which it in some respects resembles, it is chiefly 
excluded by the very convex torus of its flowers, and by the very pointed 
apical appendage of its stamens. The stamens on the other hand are 
those of Melodorum, and the petals resemble those of M . prismaticum 
(Pyramidanthe rnfa, Miq.). On the whole therefore, I think, it best to 
leave this plant in the genus to which Kurz finally refez^red it. 

13. Melodorum elegans, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 122. A 
large climber : young branches slender, puberulous at first, ultimately 
glabrous, dark-coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, slightly narrowed to the rounded base : upper surface oliva- 
ceous when dry, glabrous : lower paler, puberulous, minutely reticulate, 
the 12 or 13 pairs of main nerves spreading, faint : length 2 - 5 to 3"5 in. 
breadth 1 to 1*25 in., petiole '25 to "35 in. Flowers axillary, solitary or 
2 or 3 in a fascicle, '35 to '65 in. long : pedicels slender, *35 to "6 in. lono- 
often deflexed, with 2 or 3 minute basal bracteoles. Sepals ovate, acute, 
united at the base only, spreading, outside tubercular and pubescent, 
inside glabrous and concave, T in. long. Petals leathery, the outer 
broadly ovate, sometimes minutely ovate-oblong, silky, rufous-tomentose 
outside, boary-puberulous within, with a perfectly glabrous patch at the 
concave base, "35 to "6 in long : inner petals only '25 in. long, very thick, 
triquetrous and puberulous above, concave and glabrous at the base, 
inside. Stamens numerous, with filaments half as long as the anther- 
cells ; apical process of connective short, thick, obliquely triano-ular. 
Ovaries narrowly oblong, glabrous, with 8 ovules in 2 rows : style short, 
lateral. Pipe carpels ovoid or ovoid-globose, blunt at each end, glabrous 
•35 to -5 in. long : stalks slender, '25 in. long, compressed, black, shining-, 
pitted. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 82 : Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 36^ 
TJvaria elegans, Wall. Cat. 6474A. 

This is closely allied to M. fulgens, H. f . and T. ; but its flowers have 



112 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

more slender and usually longer pedicels : the ovary of this is moreover 
glabrous, while that of M. fulgens is pubescent and the carpels of this 
are under half an inch in length, while those of If. fulgens are three 
times as long. This is also allied to M. Kentii, H. f. and Th., the ovaries 
of which have, however, never more than two ovules. 

Penang : Wallich. Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.,) No. 75. 
Perak : King's Collector, Wray, Scortechini. 

14. Melodorum pisocarpum, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 123. 
A powerful climber: young branches glabrous, black. Leaves coriaceous, 
elliptic or elliptic-oblong, sometimes obovate-elliptic, shortly and abrupt- 
ly acuminate ; the base rounded or sub-cuneate : upper surface olivace- 
ous when dry, glabrous, shining ; the lower glaucous, slightly pubeimlous 
when young : main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, spreading, very indistinct ; 
length 25 to 4 in., breadth 125 to 1'8 in., petiole "35 in. Flowers - 3 to 
•65 in. long, axillary, solitary or in pairs ; pedicels rather stout, deflexed, 
rufous-puberulous, bi-bracteolate at the base, "25 to - 35 in. long. Sepals 
broadly ovate, acute, concave, connate into a triangular cup, rufous-pu- 
berulous outside, glabrous inside, persistent. Petals thick : the outer 
fiat, oblong-ovate, acute, minutely silky, rufous-tomentose outside, hoary 
pubescent inside except on the glabrous basal excavation, 3 to - 65 in. 
long: inner petals less than half as long, with a large glabrous basal 
concavity and :i short, thick, triquetrous point, hoary-puberulous. Sta- 
mens numerous, filament very short, apical process of connective orbicu- 
lar. Ovaries narrowly oblong, glabrous, pitted, 2-ovuled : style lateral, 
nearly as long as the ovary. Ripe carpels globular, slightly tubercled, 
glabrous, "25 in. in diam. : stalks about as long. Seeds 2, plano-convex, 
dark-brown, shining, pitted. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 82 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Pat. I, Pt. 2, 37. M. pyramidale, Maingay MSS. Uvaria mabiformis, 
Griff. Notulae, IV, 700. 

Malacca; Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 77. Singapore; 
Ridley. Penang ; Curtis. Perak ; common. Distrib. Sumatra, Forbes, 
Iso. 2182. 

Only two species of Melodorum besides this have glabrous ovaries 
(M. Kentii and M. elegans) ; but whereas those of this and M. Kentii are 
2-ovuled, the ovaries of M. elegans have 8, or, according to Sir Joseph 
Hooker, sometimes 10 ovules. This species has however different leaves 
from the two above mentioned, and its carpels are much smaller and 
quite globular. As in other species of Melodorum, there is considerable 
variability in the size of the flowers in this species. 

20. Xtlopia, Linn. 
Trees or shrubs. Leaves coriaceous. Flowers axillary, solitary 



1892.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 



113 



cymose or fascicled ; buds triquetrous, conic, often slender. Sepals 3, 
valvate, connate. Petals 6, elongate, valvate, in 2 series ; outer flat or 
concave ; inner nearly as long, trigonous, concave at the base only. Torus 
flat, or hollow and enclosing the carpels. Stamens oblong, truncate or 
connective produced ; anther-cells remote or contiguous, often septate 
and with a large pollen-grain in each cellule. Ovaries 1 or more ; style 
long, clavate ; ovules 2-6 or more, 1- to 2-seriate. Ripe carpels long or 
short, continuous or moniliform, usually several-seeded. — Distrib. Tro- 
pics generally ; species 60 to 70. — Closely allied to Melodorum, but very 
different in habit. 
Leaves quite glabrous. 

Leaves 6 or 7 in. long ... ... 1. 

Leaves between 3 and 5 in. long. 

Ripe carpels cylindric, boldly tubercled 2. 
„ „ „ smooth ... 3. 

Leaves between 2 and 3 in. long. 

Flowers always solitary ; pedicels with 
2 or 3 orbicular bracteoles, apical pro- 
cess of stamens rounded, anther-cells 
septate 
Flowers solitary or in pairs, '5 in. long : 
pedicels with orbicular basal bracte- 
oles ; apical process of stamens round- 
ed ; anther-cells septate... 
Flowers in fascicles or solitary, "75 in. 
long : pedicels ebracteolate ; apical 
process of stamens oblong : anther- 
cells not septate ... 6. X. 
Both surfaces of leaves glabrous, the midrib alone 
pubescent in its lower half on the upper sur- 
face ; length 5"5 to 9"5 in. ... ... 7. X. Curtisii. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper surface (the midrib 
pubescent in X. caudata), the lower slightly 
pubescent or puberulous. 

Leaves more or less lanceolate, acute or acu- 
minate, not at all obovate. 
Leaves 2 or 3 in. long. 

Leaves not glaucous beneath. 

Flowers "5 to - 57 in. long, soli- 
tary, axillary, obtuse ... 8. X. elliptica. 
Flowers "2 to '25 in. long, axil- 
lary, solitary, or 2 to 3 to- 
gether ... ... 9. X. caudata. 

15 



X. oxyantha. 

X. dicarpa. 
X. malayana. 



4. X. Mainyayi. 



5. X. pustulata. 



jusca. 



114 G. King* — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Teninsula. [No, 1, 



Leaves glaucous beneath 
Leaves 35 to 5*5 in. long, leaves glau- 
cous beneath ; petals very long and 
narrow 
Leaves more or less obovate or oblanceolate, 
4 to 7 in. long. 

Leaves l"75to 4 in. broad ; flower pedi- 
cels '2 to '25 in. long ; ripe carpels 
broadly ovoid, blunt, sub-glabrous ... 
Leaves 1*75 to 2' 5 in. broad ; flower 
pedicels "5 to '8 in. long ; ripe carpels 
globular, densely and minutely yel- 
lowish-tomentose 
Upper surfaces of leaves glabrous (the midrib 
alone pubescent in some) : under surfaces uni- 
formly pubescent. 

Under-surface of leaves adpressed-rufous- 

sericeous ; length 2 to 3 in. ... 
Under-surface of leaves deep brown, the 
pubescence slightly paler ; length 3 to 
4 - 5 in. ; ripe carpels obovoid-oblong, blunt 
Under-surface of leaves purplish-brown, pu- 
bescent ; length 3'5 to 55 in. ; main nerves 
10 to 12 pairs ; ripe carpels much elon- 
gate, cylindric, many-seeded ... 
Under-surface of leaves brownish -torn en- 
tose ; length 65 to 85 in. ; nerves 12 to 
14 pairs 



30. X. stenopetala. 



10. X. stenopetala. 



11. X. Scortechinii. 



12. X. olivacea. 



13. X. obtusifolia. 



14. X. magna. 



15. X. ferruginea. 



nerves 

... 16. X. Ridleyi. 

1. Xylopia oxyantha, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. 
A tree : young parts puberulous ; the branchlets rather stout, striate. 
Leaves coriaceous, ovate or oblong, abruptly and shortly acuminate, 
glabrous, glaucous on the lower surface ; main nerves 12 to 15 pairs, 
spreading, thin; length 6 to 7 in., breadth 25 to 3 in., petiole "35 in. 
Veduncles axillary, in fascicles, '35 to "5 in. long, adpressed-pubescent. 
Sepals broadly ovate. Outer petals narrowly linear, tapering at the apex, 
yellowish pubescent, slightly keeled at the back, 125 to I'o in. glon 
Stamens and ovaries as in X. ferruginea. Habzelia oxyantha, Hook, fil 
and Th. El. Ind. 124; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 37. Uvaria oxyantha, 
Wall. Cat. 6478. 

Singapore : Wallich. 

2. Xylopia dicakpa, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. A 
tree 20 to 25 feet high ; branches glabrous, dark-coloured, minutely 



1892.] 0. King 1 — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 115 

dotted. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, the 
base acute ; both surfaces glabrous, minutely reticulate ; main nerves 
about 10 pairs, spreading, very faint, the secondary nerves almost as 
distinct ; length 3 to 4"5 in., breadth 15 to 175 in., petiole '25 in. 
Flowers solitary or in pairs, pendent, 1*5 in. long : pedicel very short 
with 1 to 3 orbicular, amplexicaul, glabrous bracteoles. Sepals ovate, 
obtuse, tubercled, connate to the middle. Petals linear oblong, slightly 
expanded and concave at the base, hoary, pubescent ; the inner narrower 
and shorter than the outer, sub-trigonous. Stamens numerous, the inner 
rudimentary : apical process rounded ; anthers linear, septate. Ovaries 
2 to 4, pilose, multi-ovular : style short. Ripe carpels cylindric, blunt at 
each end, much tubercled, puberulous, 1*5 in. long and about '75 in. in 
diam. Seeds 7 or 8, compressed, the testa pale, scaly. 

Singapore : Maingay (Kew Distribution in part) No. 84, King's 
Collector No. 7079. 

3. Xylopia Malay ana, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 125. A 
slender tree : young branches thin, glabrous, the buds pubescent. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, shortly and bluntly acuminate, the base cuneate ; 
both surfaces glabrous ; main nerves about 8 pairs, faint, spreading ; 
length 3'5 to 5 in., breadth 15 to 2 in,, petiole '2 in. Floioers *6 to "9 in. 
long, solitary or in pairs, axillary ; pedicels rufous-pubescent, - 1 in. 
long, with several bracteoles at the base. Sepals broadly ovate, sub- 
acute, puberulous outside and on the edges, glabrous inside, '15 in. long 
and as broad. Petals linear-oblong, tapering to the apex, concave and 
glabrous at the slightly expanded base, densely pubescent elsewhere ; 
the inner slightly narrower and shorter than the outer and more con- 
cave at the base. Stamens numerous, the apices rhomboid, papillose ; 
the anthers long, lateral, with transverse divisions. Pistils about 6 ; 
the ovaries oblong, densely pale-hirsute, about as long as the stamens, 
2-ovuled ; styles about as long as the ovaries and projecting far above 
the stamens, glabrous, sub-cylindric, clavate. Pipe carpels (fide Maingay) 
•35 to 1 in., several-seeded ; stalk short, thick. Hook. fil. and Thorns. 
Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt, 2, 38. Parartabotrys sum- 
atrana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 374 ; Scheffer in Nat. Tijdsch. Ned. 
Ind. XXXI, 15. 

Malacca; Griffith, Derry, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 81. Singa- 
pore, Ridley. Perak ; Scortechini. Distrib., Sumatra. 

4. Xylopia Maingayi, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. A 
tree ? Young branches rusty-pubescent, afterwards glabrous and with 
white dots. Leaves small, coriaceous, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, subacute 
or obtusely acuminate, the base sub-cuneate : both surfaces glabrous and 
reticulate, the upper pale, the lower dark ; main nerves slender ; length 2 



116 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

to 3 in., breadth 1 to 125 in. ; petiole '25 to '3 in. Flowers solitary, pendent, 
pale-orange ; pedicels very short, stout, curved ; bracteoles 2 or 3, orbi- 
cular, rusty-tomentose. Sepals broadly ovate, connate to the middle, 
rusty-tomentose. Petals flat, linear-oblong, sub-acute, softly tomentose 
except the glabrous concave base ; the inner narrower, almost as long, 
trigonous. Stamens with rounded apiculus : the anthers narrow, sep- 
tate. Ovaries about 9, with 6 ovules ; style gdabrate. Pipe carpels 
unknown. 

Malacca : Maingay. 

5. Xtlopia pustulata, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Tnd. I, 85. 
A tree : young branches pale, glabrous, minutely white-dotted. Leaves 
coriaceous, small, elliptic, sub-obtuse, the base acute, both surfaces gla- 
brous, the lower reddish brown and reticulate : main nerves faint, not 
more prominent than the secondary. Floivers solitary or in pairs, axil- 
lary, - 5 in. long, pendent ; pedicels very short, with orbicular, ciliate, 
deciduous basal bracteoles. Sepals short, ovate, sub-acute, rust} T -pubes- 
cent, united to the iniddle. Petals linear, sub-acute, densely adpressed- 
pubescent ; the outer obtuse with a rather broad concave base, the inner 
shorter and much narrower with a broader concave base. Stamens 
linear with rounded apiculus : the antliers long, septate. Ovaries 5 to 8, 
hirsute; the style slender with clavate stigma; ovules several. Pipe 
carpels unknown. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew ..Distribution) No. 86. 

6. Xtlopia FUSCA, Maingay ex Hook. iil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. A 
tree ; young branches rather stout, glabrous, black : buds silky. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, the base cuneate ; upper surface glabrous 
shining ; the lower dull, dark, reticulate ; main nerves 8 or 9 pairs, very 
faint ; length 2 to 3 in., breadth '75 to 1 in. ; petiole - 2 in., stout. Flowers 
•75 in. long, supra-axillary, solitary, racemed, or fascicled ; peduncle - 25 
to "75 in. with several bracts ; pedicels "25 in., puberulous, ebracteolate. 
Sepals ovate, acute, connate into a cup with 3 spreading, acute teeth, 
puberulous outside. Petals liuear-oblong, tapering to the sub-acute 
apex : the outer adpressed golden-sericeous outside ; the inner nar-, 
rower and shorter, concave at the base. Stamens with an oblong apical 
process ; anthers linear, lateral, not septate. Ovaries 4 or 5, cohering 
into a cone, golden-silky ; ovules 10 to 16, in two rows. Pipe carpels 
unknown. 

Malacca : Maingay, (Kew Distribution) No. 86. 

7. Xylopia Cuutisii, King, n. sp. A tree 30 feet high : young 

branches stout, glabrous, striate, dark-coloured. Leaves very coriaceous, 

oblong, acute or shortly acuminate ; the base cuneate, slightly oblicme : 

upper surface glabrous, shining; the lower dull, darker (when dry), 



1892.] G. King — Materials f oi- a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 117 

puberulous on the midrib near the base ; main nerves 12 to 20 pairs, 
very prominent beneath and connected by straight transverse veins ; 
length 5'5 to 9"5 in., breadth 2 to 3 in. ; petiole "35 in., stout. Flowers 
1 or 2, on stout woody extra-axillary peduncles ; pedicels - 2 in. long, 
rufous-pubescent, with a single large bracteole. Sepals thick, spread- 
ing, broadly ovate, sub- acute, minutely tomentose on both surfaces but 
especially on the outer. Petals thick, subequal, linear-oblong, obtuse, 
keeled outside ; the claw orbicular, vaulted over the andro-gynoecium 
and glabrous inside, otherwise minutely tomentose, "75 in. long. Stamens 
numerous, the heads obliquely truncate and concealing the linear, lateral 
anthers. Ovary solitary, cylindric, fluted, glabrous, inulti-ovulate. Itipe 
carpel ovoid, compressed, silvery-grey, many-seeded, 3 in. long, and 25 
in. in diam. 

Penang : Curtis, No. 1569. 

8. Xylopia elliptica, Maingay ex Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 86. 
A tall tree : young branches dai'k-coloured, glabrous, the youngest pu- 
bescent. Leaves membranous, small, elliptic, obtusely acuminate, the 
base rounded or acute : upper surface glabrous, pale ; the lower brown, 
minutely adpressed-pubescent ; both reticulate : main nerves 6 or 7 
pairs, oblique, very faint ; length To to 2 in., breadth 1 to 125 in.; 
petiole '2 in., slender. Flowers solitary, erect, axillary, - 5 to "75 in. 
long : peduncle about half as long, rusty-pubescent like the calyx, 
bracteoles minute. Sepals ovate, sub-acute, united to the middle. Petals 
pale brownish-tomentose ; the outer linear-subulate with a broader con- 
cave base : the inner trigonous, shorter and narrower than the outer. 
Stamens numerous, minute, the apex rounded ; anthers linear. Ovaries 
1 to 3, densely hairy, 4- to 6-ovuled. Pipe carpels unknown. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.,) No. 82. Perak : Wray No. 
3194. Penang : Curtis, No. 2482: 

9. Xylopia caudata, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 125. A shrub 
or small tree : young branches very slender, minutely pubescent. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, lanceolate, long and obtusely acuminate, the base 
cuneate ; upper surface glabrous except the pubescent midrib ; the 
lower sparsely adpressed-sericeous : main nerves about 10 pairs, spread- 
ing, faint ; length 2 to 2'25 in., breadth - 6 to - 8 in. ; petiole 1 in:, 
slender. Peduncles 1 to 3, axillary, very short, minutely bracteolate at 
base and apex. Floivers 2 to '3 in. long. Sepals ovate, sub-acute, con- 
nate at the base, adpressed-pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Petals 
linear-oblong, obtuse, pubescent except a small glabrous concave spot 
at the base, the inner about as long as, but narrower than, the outer. 
Anthers rather numerous, compressed, the apical process narrow. Ovaries 
2, elongate, sericeous, 2-ovulcd : style long, pointed, glabrous, exserted. 



118 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

Ripe carpels (fide Hooker) 2 or 3, sub-globose or ovoid, pubescent, "5 in. 
long, 2-seeded. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 
2, 38. Guatteria (?) caudata, Wall. Cat. 6452. 

Singapore : Wallich, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 79. Malacca ; 
Griffith. 

10. Xylopia stenopetala, Oliver in Hook. Ic. Plantar, t. 1563. A 
tree 50 to 60 feet high : young branches dark-coloured, glabrescent, 
minutely lenticellate. Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, shortly 
and obtusely acuminate, the base sub-cuneate ; upper surface glabrous, 
shining; the lower glaucous or glaucescent, sparsely adpressed-pubes- 
cent ; both reticulate ; main nerves 10 or 12 pairs, spreading, inter- 
arching close to the edge, faint : length 25 to 4'5 in., breadth 1] to 1*6 
in., petiole "25 in. Floioers axillary, solitary or in fascicles of 2 to 5 ; 
pedicels slender, often decurved, puberulous, with one minute bracteole, 
•5 to '75 in. long. Sepals united to form a small puberulous cup with 
acute, spreading teeth. Petals fleshy, very narrow, slightly expanded 
and concave at the base, minutely tawny-pubescent, the inner slightly 
shorter and narrower. Stamens linear, the connective prolonged into 
a cylindro-conic apical appendage ; the anthers fusiform, lateral. Ovaries 
numerous, elongate, pubescent, 6-ovuled ; style filiform: stigma sub- 
clavate. Ripe carpels oblong, sub-terete, narrowed to the stalk, 2 to 25 
in. long and in. diam. : pericarp fleshy. Seeds 1 to 4 : stalks thick, - 3 
in. long. 

Penang ; on Government Hill at 600 feet : Cui-tis Nos. 857 and 880. 

11. Xylopia Scoetechinii, King n. sp. A tree 50 to 60 feet high: 
young branches rusty-tomentose, ultimately glabrous, much striate and 
pale brown. L--arr* eoriaeeous, obovate-elliptic to elliptic-oblong, very 
shortly and abruptly acuminate, slightly narrowed to the sub-cuneate 
rounded slightly oblique base : upper surface glabrous, the midrib 
slightly ruious-puberulous near the base : lower surface pale, sparsely 
rufous-pubescent especially on the midrib and 10 to 14 pairs of oblique, 
rather straight, prominently raised main nerves ; length 4 to 7 in., 
breadth 175 to 4 in. ; petiole "35 in., pubescent. Flowers rarely solitary, 
usually in fascicles of 2 to 5 on tubercles in the axils of leaves or of 
fallen leaves; pedicels short, (2 to 25 in.), stoat, rusty-tomentose with 
a sub-mesial bracteole. Sepals quite free, broadly ovate, blunt, pubes- 
cent outside, glabrous inside. Petals thickened, linear-obtuse with an 
orbicular concave claw, vaulted over the stamens and pistils, 1'25 to 175 
in. loner, pubescent everywhere except on the glabrous concavity of the 
claw. Stamens numerous, with truncate 4- or 5- angled apices concealing 
the lateral anthers. Ovaries few, short, oblonsr, pubescent, 4- or 5-ovuled ; 
stigma large, oblong. Ripe carpels broadly ovoid, blunt, rufous-pubes- 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 119 

cent when young, glabrescent when old, "8 in. long and "6 in. in diam. 
Seeds about 4, discoid, pale brown, shining. Drepananthus stenopetala, 
Scortechini, MSS. 

Perak: Scortechini, No. 1781; King's Collector, No. 8241. 

A species allied to X. olivacea, King ; but with broader leaves, 
shorter flower pedicels, narrower petals and ovoid sub-glabrous fruit. 

12. Xylopia olivacea, King n sp. A shrub or small tree : young 
branches pubescent, ultimately brown, striate and glabrous. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, sometimes slightly obovate, shortly 
and abruptly acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces dull oliva- 
ceous when dry ; the upper glabrous, the lower paler, slightly scurfy ; 
main nerves 6 to 8 pairs, oblique, curving, inter-arching boldly "15 in. from 
the margin, prominent beneath ; length 35 to 7 in., breadth P75 to 2 - 5 in., 
petiole '2"> in., swollen, puberulous, black when dry. Flowers solitary 
or in pairs, supra-axillary; pedicels rather stout, '5 to "8 in. long, 
cinereous-tomentose with an ovate-lanceolate, mesial bracteole. Sepals 
thick, especially at the base, ovate, acute, connate below the middle, 
pale cinereous-puberulous on both surfaces. Petals sub-equal, fleshy, 
narrowly linear with a tapering limb and slightly expanded concave 
vaulted claw, densely and minutely cinereous-tomentose, 1 to l - 5 in. 
long, the inner shorter. Stamens short, cuneate, the broad oblique 
heads covering the apices of the linear anthers. Ovaries few, oblong, 
densely sericeous, 6- to 8-ovuled ; style short, cylindric : stigma large, 
fleshy. Ripe carpels few, globular, with slightly flattened minutely 
apiculate apex, and an imperfect lateral ridge, densely and minutely 
yellowish-tomentose, '6 in. in diam., stalks very short. Seeds 4 or 5, 
discoid, smooth, pale brown, shining, separated from each other by 
imperfect dissepiments. 

Perak : up to elevations of 3,000 or 4,000 feet, common. Scorte- 
chini, Wray, King's Collector. 

13. Xylopia obtusifolia, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. 
A tree : young branches glabrous, dark-coloured, striate : buds silky. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong, obtuse or refuse, the base cuneate, upper 
surface glabrous, shining ; the lower adpressed rufous-sericeous : 
main nerves 8 or 10 pairs, oblique, very faint ; length 2 to 3 in., breadth 
1 to P5 in., petiole '25 in. Flowers "5 in. long, axillary, solitary or 2 or 
3 in small sub-racemose cymes ; pedicels "2 to "25 in., rufous-pubescent 
with a single bracteole. Sepals thick, broadly ovate, acute, united to 
the middle, pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Petals linear-oblong, 
tapering towards the blunt apex ; the outer petals adpressed-rufous- 
pubescent outside, puberulous within, slightly concave and glabrous at 
the base ; the inner smaller, more concave at the glabrous base, puberu- 



120 Q-. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

lous elsewhere. Stamens numerous, elongate, narrow, with an acute 
apiculus ; the anther-cells linear, lateral. Pistils one or two, conical, 
adpressed-pubescent ; the style short, thin. Pipe carpels oblong, cylin- 
dric, sub-oblique, blunt, T25 in. long *7 in. in diam. Seeds 3 or 4, 
globular. 

Malacca : Griffith. Perak : King's Collector, No. 2816. 

14. Xtlopia magna, Maingay ex Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 84. A 
tree : young branches tomentose, becoming glabrous and darkly cine- 
reous. Leaves coriaceons, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, sub-acute, the 
base rounded, tbe edges slightly revolute when dry ; upper surface 
shining, reticulate, glabrous except the pubescent midrib ; under sur- 
face deep brown, with rather pale pubescence ; main nerves about 10 
pairs, spreading, inter-arching some way from the edge, faint : length 3 
to 4 - 5 in., breadth l - 25 to 2 in. ; petiole "25 in., pubescent. Flowers 2 to 
2'5 in. long, solitary or in pairs, axillary : pedicels stout, tomentose, 
with a single large, ovate, acute, often bifid bract. Sepals thick, ovate 
acute, connate into a 3-toothed cup, adpressed-pubescent outside, glab- 
rous inside. Petals sub-equal, the inner narrower and shorter, narrowly 
linear, slightly expanded and concave at the base, tapering towards the 
apex, pubescent except in tbe basal concavity. Stamens numerous, 
elongate, with an oblong obtuse apical process ; the anthers lateral, 
linear, septate. Pistils about 15, narrowly oblique, hirsute on the outer 
side, 4-ovuled. Style filiform, long. Pipe carpels obovoid-oblong, com- 
pressed, blunt, minutely tomentose, T4 in. long and - 65 in. diam.; stalks 
thick, only "15 in. long. Seeds about 4, in two rows, arillate, the testa 
bony. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 83. Singapore ; Ridley. 
Perak ; Scortecbini. 

15. Xylopia ferrdginea, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 85. 
A tree 20 to 60 feet high ; young branches brownish-pubescent. Leaves 
coriaceous, narrowly oblong, acute ; the base slightly narrowed and 
oblique, rounded or minutely sub-cordate ; upper surface glabrous, shin- 
ing ; the lower glaucous and sofily purplish-brown pubescent : most 
densely so on the midrib ; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, oblique, inter- 
arching near the edge, prominent beneath ; length 3*5 to 5 - 5 in., breadth 
IT to 2 in. ; petiole '2 in., channelled. Flowers solitary or in pairs, 
axillary or extra-axillary, erect or pendulous, yellow; pedicels - 5 to "75 
in., rusty-pubescent ; bracteoles 1 to 3, small, lanceolate. Sepals broadly 
ovate-acuminate, connate at the base, spreading, small, pubescent out- 
side, glabrous within. Petals linear, fleshy, tapering at the very apex, 
very long ; the outer rufous-pubescent outside, cinereous-puberulous 
inside, concave at the very base, T25 to 2 in. long; inner petals much 



1892.] G. King -Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 121 

narrower and thinner and a little shorter than the outer, cinereous- 
puberulous. Stamens about 24, narrow: anthers linear, lateral, the 
connective endmg in a broadly oblong apical process. Ovaries numerous, 
narrowly oblong, pointed, densely rusty-hirsute, multi-ovular : st}de 
short, filiform, glabrous ; stigma minute. Ripe carpels numerous, much 
elongate, cylindinc, glabrescent, with transverse partitions between 
the seeds, many-seeded, sub-moniliform when dry, 2 to 5 in. long. Seeds 
oblong, rugose, minutely pellucid-dotted, \3 in long. Habzelia ferruginea, 
H. f. and T. Fl. Ind. 123. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 37. Artaboirys 
malayana, Griff. Notul. IV, 713. 

Malacca: Griffith. Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 85. Perak : 
Scortechini, King's Collector, Wray : common. Selangor : Curtis. 

16. Xylopia Ridleyi, King n. sp. A tree ? Young branches stout, 
densely rusty-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, obovate-elliptic, abruptly 
and very shortly acuminate, narrowed from below the middle to the 
slightly cuneate base : upper surface glabi'ous except the rufous-puberul- 
ous midrib : lower softly rusty-tomentose with longer, superficial, paler 
hairs : main nerves 12 to 14 pairs, oblique, inter-arching boldly within 
the margin, prominent on the lower, depressed on the upper, surface ; 
length 65 to 8"5 in., breadth 2"75 to 3'5 in. ; petiole '5 to '6 in. stout, 
tomentose. Flowers in extra-axillary (often leaf-opposed) fascicles of 
3 to 5 : pedicels stout, rufous-tomentose, with a single bracteole, "25 to 
"3 in. long. Sepals broadly ovate, long-acuminate, rufous-pubescent 
outside, glabrous within, "35 in. long. Petals filiform, triquetrous, with 
expanded concave vaulted bases concealing the andro-gyncecium, and 
glabrous inside, otherwise pubescent, 25 to 3'5 in. long. Stamens nu- 
merous, with truncate 4- or 5-angled heads concealing the elongate, 
lateral anthers. Ovaries obliquely ovoid, densely sericeous, 4- to 6- 
ovuled : stigmas fleshy, agglutinated. Ripe carpels unknown. 

Singapore : Ridley. 

21. Ph^anthus, H. f. and T. 

Trees or climbers. Floioers solitary, terminal or in extra-axillary 
fascicles. Sepals 3, small, valvate. Petals 6, valvate in 2 rows : outer 
small like the sepals ; inner large, flat, coriaceous. Stamens numerous, 
oblong or quadrate, truncate ; anther-cells dorsal, distant. Carpels nu- 
merous ; style cylindric or clavate, sometimes grooved ventrally. Ovules 
1-2, sub-basal, ascending. Ripe carpels staked, 1-seeded. — DistrIB. 
.Species about 6 ; one in Southern Peninsular India, the rest Malayan. 
Leaves softly pubescent ... ... ... 1. P. nutans. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Ovules and seeds solitary ... ... 2. P. lucidus. 

Ovules and seeds in pairs ... ... 3. P. andamauicus. 

16 



122 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. l f 

1. Ph^anthus nutans, H. f. and Th. Fl. Ind. 147. A small tree : 
young branches rusty tomentose. Leaves membranous, oblong'-lanceolate 
or oblanceolate to obovate-elliptic, caudate-acuminate, the base always 
narrowed and sometimes acute ; upper surface glabrous, the midrib and 
main nerves tomentose ; lower softly pubescent, the midrib tomentose : 
main nerves 10 to 14 pairs, spreading, prominent beneath, inter-arching 
near the edge : length 5 to 9 in., breadth 1*3 to 4'5 in. ; petiole "3 in., 
tomentose. Flowers foetid, solitary or 2 or 3 together, drooping, extra- 
axillary ; pedicels '5 to 1"5 in. long with 1 or 2 linear bracteoles, pubes- 
cent. Sepals linear-lanceolate, spreading, tomentose, '2 in. long. Petals 
very unequal ; the outer small like the sepals ; inner ovate-oblong, acute, 
yellow, pubescent, 5- to 7-ribbed, '75 to 1 in. long. Pipe carpels ovoid, 
pubescent, beaked, '6 in. long and '35 in. in diam. ; stalk nearly as long. 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 72; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat I, pt. 2, 51. Uvaria 
nutans, Wall. Cat. 6481. JJ. tripetala, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 667. U. ophthal- 
mica, Roxb. ex Don Gen. Syst. i, 93. 

Singapore ; Wallich and others. Penang ; Curtis. Malacca ; Main- 
gay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 67. Perak ; at low elevations. Sugei Ujong ; 
Ridley. Distrib. Moluccas, Sumatra. 

2. Phj;anthus ldcidus, Oliver in Hook. Ic. PI. t. 1561. A tree 
40 to 50 feet high : young branches minutely rusty pubescent or almost 
glabrous, dark-coloured and furrowed. Leaves thickly membranous, 
oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, acuminate, the base cuneate ; both sur- 
faces shining, glabrous except occasionally the puberulous midrib ; 
main nerves about 8 pairs, oblique, rather prominent beneath : length 
4"5 to 6'5 in., breadth l - 25 to 2'25 in. ; petiole "2 in. Flowers solitary, 
rarely in fascicles of 2 or 3, extra-axillary, erect, 6 in. to 1 in. in diam., 
buds triquetrous ; peduncles 1 to 1'25 in. long, slender, puberulous, 
with 2 minute bracteoles. Sepals ovate, acute, less than 1 in. long. 
Outer petals like the sepals but a little longer : inner petals thick, 
greenish-yellow, oblong-ovate, acute, about '5 in. long, glabrescent with 
puberulous edges. Anthers with square truncate heads. Ovaries 
numerous, 1-ovulate. Pipe carpels oblong, 6 in. long and "3 in. in diam., 
minutely granular, sub-glabrous as are the '5 to "6 in. long stalks. 

Penang : Curtis. Perak : at low elevations : King's Collector, Nos. 
7275 and 10044. 

3. Phj:anthus andamanicus, King n. sp. A small glabrous shrub : 
young branches pale brown, slender. Leaves membranous, elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate, acute, slightly narrowed to the rounded base, both 
surfaces rather pale when dry ; main nerves 15 to 20 pairs, faint, slen- 
der, horizontal, forming double loops near the margin, the reticulations 
faint; length 4 to 75 in., breadth 175 to 25 in., petiole '35 in. Flowers 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 123 

- 5 to '75 in. in diam., campanulate, solitary, rarely in pairs, extra- 
axillary : pedicels 2 in. long, bracteolate at the base. Sepals very small, 
semi-orbicular. Outer petals slightly larger than the sepals and about 
"1 in. long ; inner petals united at the ba v se, oblong-ovate, sub-acute, '5 to 
•7 in. long, 4 or 5 nerved. Anthers numerous, flattened from front to 
back, about as broad as long with truncate not apiculate heads. Ovaries 
numerous, elongate, narrow, 2-ovuled : stigmas elongate. Ripe carpels 
sub-globular, '5 in. in diam. : stalks "5 to "7 in. Seeds two, plano-convex, 
pale. 

South Andaman, King's Collector. 

This is a very distinct species recognisable at once by the un- 
usual character of having its petals united at the base and by its 2- 
seeded carpels. 

22. Miliusa, Leschenault. 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers usually bi-sexual (dioecious or polygam- 
ous in No. 1), green or red, axillary or extra- axillary, solitary, fascicled 
or cymose. Sepals 3, small, valvate. Petals 6, valvate in 2 series ; 
outer smaller, like the sepals ; inner cohering when young by the 
margins, at length free. Torus elongated, cylindric. Stamens definite 
or indefinite ; anthers subdidymous ; cells contiguous, ovoid, extrorse ; 
connective more or less apiculate. Ovaries indefinite, linear-oblong ; 
style oblong or very short ; ovules 1-2, rarely 3-4, Ripe carpels globose 
or oblong, 1- or 2- or many-seeded. — Distrib. Species 8 ; all Indian. 

Flowers dioecious or polygamous ... 1. M. Roxburghiana. 

Flowers hermaphrodite ... ... 2. M. longipes. 

1. Miliqsa Roxburghiana, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Ind. 150. A 
small tree ; young branches softly pubescent, ultimately glabrous, striate 
and pale. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, shortly 
acuminate, the base rounded ; upper surface glabrous, the lower sparsely 
adpressed, pubescent to tomentose ; main nerves about 10 pairs, spread- 
ing, inter-arching '15 in. from the base ; length 25 to 4 in., breadth - 85 
to 1'4 in. ; petiole '05 in., pubescent. Pedicels 1 to 3 together, axillary, 
slender, "5 to 1*5 in. long, sometimes on a short peduncle ; bracteoles 
several, linear. Flowers dioecious or polygamous, about 5 in. long. 
Sepals and outer petals subequal, lanceolate or linear, rusty-tomentose. 
Inner petals '5 to '6 in. long, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, sub-acute, nerved, 
red. Stamens in male flower numerous, with obliquely truncate, broad 
apices. Ovaries (in female flower) oblong, glabrous ; style oblong 
ovules 1 or 2. Ripe carpels ovoid or oblong, blunt, glabrous, granulate, 
"25 to '35 in. in diam. ; stalk '4 in. long, slender. Seeds 1, rarely 2. 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 87 3 Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 47. M. Wallich- 



124 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

iana, H. f. and T. 1. c. 149. M. tristis, Kurz F. Flora Burma, I, 47 • 
Uvaria dioica, Roxb. Fl Ind. ii. 659. Phaianthus dioictcs, Kurz in Flora 
LIU. (1870) 274. Guatteria globosa, A. DC. Mem. Soc. Genev. V, 43 ; 
"Wall. Cat. 6448. Hyalostemma BoxburgJiiana, Wall. Cat. 6434 ; Griff. 
Ic. PI. Ind. Or. iv. t. 653. 

Sikkim, Himalaya ; Assam Hill ranges ; Chittagong Hills : Burma ; 
Singapore up to 4,000 feet. 

Kurz's species M. tristis, (F. Flora Burma, I, 47) appears to be a 
form of this with larger leaves and flowers than usual. The only speci- 
mens of it extant are very poor and better material may shew it to be, 
as Kurz thought, a distinct species. According to M. Pierre, his Cam- 
bodian species M. mollis (Fl. Forest. Coch. -Chine, t. 40) is closely allied 
to M. Boxburghiana. The same author's species M campanulata (1. c. t. 
41) is also allied to M. Moxbv/rgliiana and to M. macrocarpa. 

2, Miliusa LONGIPBS, King, n. sp. A small tree 15 to 30 feet high : 
young branches dark-coloured ; all parts glabrous except the edges of 
the sepals and outer petals. Leaves membranous, shining, oblong-ob- 
lanceolate, acuminate, the base sub-cuneate or rounded ; main nerves 
about 12 pairs, spreading, faint : length 55 to 7 in., breadth 175 to 
2'75 in., petiole '1 to T5 in. Flowers "5 to "65 in. long, axillary, solitary ; 
pedicels slender, '5 to '75 in. long, (larger in fruit) with 3 or 4 lanceolate 
bracteoles at the base. Sepals and outer petals sab-equal, minute, ovate, 
sub-acute, the edges ciliate. Inner petals very much larger than the 
outer, ovate-oblong, veined, sub-acute, greenish-yellow, "5 or - 6 in. long. 
Stamens about 18, compressed, short, often bent, the apiculus broad, 
shallow. Ovaries numerous, elongate, glabrous ; stigma large, capitate, 
sessile. Pipe carpels numerous, g-lobular-ov T oid, blunt, glabrous, sub- 
granular, 25 to - 3 in. long ; stalks 75 to 1 in., slender. Seeds ovoid. 

Perak : at low elevations, Scortechini. King's Collector. 

This species approaches M. macropoda, Miq : but its leaves are more 
narrowed to the base and more acuminate. 

23. Alphonsea, H. f. & T. 
Lofty trees. Leaves more or less coriaceous, glabrous, shining. 
Flowers small or middle-sized, in leaf-opposed, rarely extra-axillary, 
pednncled fascicles ; buds conical. Sepals- 3, small, valvate. Petals 6, 
valvate in 2 series, often saccate at the base, larger than the sepals, 
equal or the inner rather smaller. Torus cylindric or hemispheric. 
Stame7is indefinite, loosely packed ; anther-cells dorsal, contiguous ; 
connective apiculate. Ovaries 1 or more ; style oblong or depressed ; 
ovules 4-8, in 2 series on the ventral suture. Carpels sub-sessile or 
stalked. — Distrib. Species 9, all Indian or Malayan. — Baillon Hist. 215 
unites this genus with Bocagea. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula, 125 

Leaves rusty-pubescent beneath at all stages ... 1. A. Maingayi. 
Leaves glabrous on both surfaces (puberulous on 
the lower in A. elliptica). 

Leaves more than 3 inches long. 

Buds conical ; ripe carpels ovoid or glo- 
bose. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper sur- 
face, puberulous on the lower 
when young, elliptic or ovate- 
elliptic ; main nerves 6 to 8 pairs 2. A. elliptica. 
Leaves quite glabrous, broadly ellip- 
tic, shortly acuminate : main ner- 
ves 7 to 8 pairs ... ... 3. A. lucida. 

Buds globose ; ripe carpels cylindric ... 4. A. sub-indehiscens. 
Leaves 3 inches long or less : ripe carpels 

cylindric ... ... 5. A. cylindrical. 

Of uncertain position (fruit unknown) ... 6. A. Gurtisii. 

1. Alphonsea Maingayi, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. 1,90. 
A tree : branches rusty-tomentose, ultimately dark-coloured and glab- 
rous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, shortly, and 
often obtusely, acuminate, the base rounded ; upper surface shining, 
glabrous except the midrib, puberulous near the base ; lower surface 
rusty, conspicuously reticulate, pubescent, the midrib tomentose ; main 
nerves 8 or 9 pairs, oblique, inter- arching far from the edge ; length 
5 to 7 in., breadth 1*5 to 2 - 7 in., petiole - 25 in. Flowers '75 in. in diam., 
supra-axillary, solitary or in small racemes ; pedicels '1 in. long, rusty- 
tomentose, bracteole small. Sepals sub- orbicular, very small. Petals 
ovate, pubescent outside, glabrous within, the outer recurved, the inner 
smaller. Stamens with broad short filaments ; the anther-cells small, 
diverging below. Ovules about 20. Pipe carpels ovoid, short-stalked, 
2 in. long, by 1 in. in diam. Seeds many, smooth. 

Malacca, Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 98. 

2. Alphonsea elliptica, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 90. 
A tree ? Young branches rather stout, grey, glabrous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, elliptic or ovate-elliptic, shortly and bluntly acuminate or acute, 
the base abruptly cuneate ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower 
reticulate, puberulous when young, glabrous when adult, slightly paler 
than the upper ; main nerves 6 to 8 pairs, spreading, slightly pro- 
minent beneath ; length 35 to 5 in., breadth L25 to 1"75 in., petiole "2 in. 
Flowers "8 in. in diam., axillary, solitary or 2 to 3, in short racemes ; 
peduncles very short, multi-bracteate, pedicels - 25 to *35 in. long, Avith 
1 or 2 minute bracteoles. Sepals sub-orbicular, obtuse, recurved, con- 



126 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

nate at the base. Petals adpressed-pubescent ; the outer ovate-lanceo- 
late, reflexed : the inner rather smaller. Stamens in several rows, 
apiculate. Ovaries linear-oblong, pubescent ; stigma sub-sessile, sub- 
capitate. Ovules numerous, in two series. Ripe carpels unknown. 
Malacca ; Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 99. 

3. Alphonsea lucida, King, n. sp. A shrub 6 to 8 feet high : all 
parts glabrous except the flower ; young branches slender, rather dark- 
coloured. Leaves thinly coriaceous, broadly elliptic, shortly, abruptly 
and rather obtusely acuminate, the base cuneate ; under surface very 
minutely scaly ; main nerves 7 or 8 pairs, oblique, curving, depressed on 
the upper, bold and prominent on the lower, surface ; length 4 - 5 to 5*5 
in., breadth 1'75 to 2'5 in. ; petiole '3 in., stout. Floioers extra-axillary, 
solitary or 2 or 3 in racemes : peduncle of raceme short, pedicels shorter 
than the peduncle, puberulous, ebracteolate, "3 to '4 in. long. Sepals, 
triangular-ovate, connate at the base, reflexed, puberulous outside, 
glabrous inside. Petals yellowish- white, subequal, oblong, oblique, taper- 
ing gradually to the sub-acute apex, the base broad, suddenly narrowed 
and slightly pouched, puberulous, "5 in. long, the inner slightly smaller. 
Stamens in 3 rows ; filament very short, connective with a short apiculus. 
Ovaries 4 or 5, oblong, adpressed-pubescent ; ovules many, in two rows : 
stigma sessile, sub-capitate. Ripe carpels unknown. 

Perak : elevat. 500 feet. King's Collector, No. 5387. 

4. Alphonsea sub-dehiscens, King, n. sp. A shrub or small tree : 
young branches rather slender, puberulous at first but speedily becoming 
glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, shortly 
and rather bluntly acuminate, the base rounded or sub-cuneate ; upper 
surface glabrous except the puberulous midrib, the lower reticulate, 
sparsely puberulous or glabrous ; main nerves about 10 pairs, spreading, 
very faint ; length 4 to 6 in., breadth 1*75 to 2 - 3 in. ; petiole "25 in. 
Flowers globular, scarcely opening, '25 in. in diam., solitary or in pairs, 
slightly supra-axillary, on short pedicels, with several large sub-orbicu- 
lar pubescent bracteoles. Sepals thick, fleshy, connate into a flat cup, 
•3 in. in diam., with three broad obtuse, spreading lobes. Petals larger 
than the sepals, thick, hard and fleshy, valvate, orbicular, acute, concave, 
outside tawny-pubescent, inside glabrous except near the apex ; the 
outer "2 in. in diam., the inner row rather smaller than the outer. Sta- 
tnens numerous ; the apical process large, fleshy, conical, concealing the 
apices of the narrow, linear anther cells : torus conical. Pistil solitary, 
clavate, minutely puberulous, many-ovuled : stigma minute. Ripe car- 
pels elongate-clavate, puberulous, 1 to 125 in. long, tapering into a stalk, 

"25 to "3 in. long. Seeds about 10. 
Perak : King's Collector. 



1892,] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 127 

The dried fruits of this species sometimes open longitudinally by a 
sort of quasi-suture — hence the specific name. 

5. Alphonsea cylindrica, King, n. sp. A small tree 20 to 30 feet 
high ; young branches with long, soft, pale brown pubescence, ultimately 
glabrous, cinereous, striate, Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, 
sometimes oblanceolate, shortly and bluntly acuminate ; the base rounded 
or sub-cuneate, slightly oblique ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the 
midiib pubescent, the lower dull sparsely pubescent on the midrib and 
nerves ; main nerves 7 to 9 pairs, spreading, faint ; length 2 - 5 to 35 
in., breadth 11 in. to 1*5. in., petiole '15 in. Flowers "35 in. long, single or 
2 or 3 from leaf-opposed or extra- axillary peduncles ; peduncles '15 to 
*4 in. long, with deciduous, distichous, sub-orbicular bracts : pedicels 2 to 
"35 in. long, pubescent, with 1 bracteole near the base. Sepals semi- 
orbicular, blunt, connate at the base, tomentose outside, glabrous with- 
in, reflexed. Petals subequal, oblong-ovoid, tapering from the sub-saccate 
base to the sub-acute apex, tomentose outside, pubescent minutely inside 
except a glabrous patch at the base, 4 in. long. Stamens in 3 rows with 
short, broad filaments : anthers ovate, the connective very slightly 
apiculate. Ovaries 3, oblong, ^densely pale yellowish sericeous, with 
many ovules in two rows : style short, stigma bifid, sub-capitate. Ripe 
carpels 1 or 2, elongate, terete, tapering to the apex, pubescent or 
puberulous, nearly 1 in. long and only - 2 in. in diam. 

Perak : on Ulu Bubong, elevat. 400 to 600 feet. King's Collector, 
No. 10633. 

A species resembling A. sub-dehiscens in its narrow cylindric fruit. 
6. Alphonsea Curtisii, King, n. sp. A scandent shrub : young 
branches yellowish-pubescent, speedily becoming glabrous and dark- 
coloured. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acute at base and apex ; 
upper surface glabrous shining, the lower minutely, sparsely adpressed- 
puberulous or glabrous, darker than the upper when dry, minutely 
reticulate ; main nerves about 12 to 15 pairs, sub-horizontal, very faint, 
inter-arching far from the edge ; length 4 to 5 - 5 in., breadth 1*2 to 175 
in., petiole '2 in. Peduncles extra-axillary, 1- or 2-flowered ; flowers 
about "5 in long, conical in bud : pedicels about "3 in. long, tawny-to- 
mentose ; bracteoles 1 or 2, sub-orbicular. Sepals connate into a spread- 
ing cup, "25 in. broad, tomentose outside and glabrous inside, with 3 
broad, sub-acute teeth. Petals much larger than the sepals, fleshy, ob- 
long, ovate, sub-acute ; the outer tomentose on both surfaces, "4 in. lono- • 
the inner narrower, glabrous inside. Stamens numerous, with short 
thick filaments : apical process of connective small, not concealing the 
short perfectly dorsal anther-cells. Pistils about 3, oblong, tomentose 
many-ovuled : stigma large, broad, sessile. Ripe carpels unknown. 
Penang : Curtis, No. 1410. 



128 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. [No. 1, 

25. Kingstonia, H. f. and T. 

Trees. Flowers fascicled on cauline tubercles, bisexual. Sepals 
3, persistent, ovate, acute, the bases connate. Petals 6 ; outer valvate ; 
inner smaller, oblong, imbricate. Stamens about 12, the filament half 
the length of the extrorse anther-cells ; connective obliquely truncate. 
Ovary 1 ; stigma sessile, peltate, crenate : ovules few. Pipe carpels 
globose. Seeds several, 2-seriate. 

1. Kingstonia nervosa, Hook. fil. and Thorns. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 93. 
Young branches rusty-pubescent. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong, 
rarely elliptic, shortly acuminate, the base rounded ; both surfaces 
glabrous, the nerves and midrib puberulous beneath when young ; main 
nerves 12 to 14 pairs, oblique, rather straight, depressed on the 
upper, strong and prominent on the lower, surface ; length 4 to 8 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 3*25 in. ; petiole "4 in., puberulous. Flowers "25 in. long, 
in extra-axillary fascicles of 8 or 10 : pedicels *35 to "5 in., slender, 
rusty-pubescent ; bracteoles oi-bicular, one close to the flowei*, the others 
basal and imbricate. Sepals ovate, connate at the base, spreading, 
pubescent outside, glabrous within. Outer petals oblong-elliptic, con- 
cave, obtuse, cinereous-tomentose outside,, pubescent inside ; inner petals 
smaller, thick, concave and very tomentose, in the upper half. Stamens 
about 15, the connective with a broad truncate apex. Ovary one, oblong, 
angled, pubescent ; ovules 4 to 6. Ripe carpels broadly ovoid, blunt, 
minutely velvety pale-rusty tomentose, 15 in. long and IT in. in diam.; 
pericarp woody. Seeds about 4, oblong, compressed, separated by 
dissepiments. 

The species above described has only a single pistil. But there 
are, in the Calcutta Herbarium, specimens from Sumatra (Forbes No. 
2713, in fruit but without flower) of what appears to be a second Kings- 
tonia, and in these there are two carpels. If this plant proves to be a 
Kingstonia, the diagnosis of the genus will have to be amended. 

Malacca : Maingay, (Kew Distrib.) No. 22. Perak : Wray, No. 3376. 

26. Mezzettia, Beccatn. 
Trees. Flowers small, greenish, axillaiy or from the axils of fallen 
leaves, fasciculate or umbellate. Sepals 3, ovate, valvate. Petals 6, 
valvate, opening late and accrescent, flat, linear, the inner petals smaller 
than the outer. Stamens 9 to 12, in two rows ; anther-cells lateral, 
introrse ; connectives produced beyond their apices, truncate. Turns 
small, slightly concave, pubescent. Ovary solitary, ovate, glabrous, con- 
tracted into a very short style ; stigma sub-capitate ; ovules 2, super- 
posed. Carpel coriaceous, elliptic or globose. Seeds 2, large, compressed. 
Five species, all Malayan. 



1892.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 129 

1. Mezzettia leptopoda, Oliver in Hook. Ic. PL t. 1560. A tree : 
young branches dark-coloured, glabrous, striate, rather stout. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong or narrowly elliptic, obtusely acuminate or acute ; 
the base rounded or acute ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower 
dull, obscurely reticulate ; main nervf s 8 or 9 pairs, forming wide arches 
far from the margin, very faint ; length 2 - 5 to 4 in., breadth 1 to l - 75 
in , petiole "35 in. Flowers '5 in. long, on long slender pedicels in axil- 
lary fascicles of 2 to 6 ; pedicels "5 to "75 in., pubescent : bracteolas 
minute. Sepals broadly ovate, connate at the base, tomentose, reflexed. 
Petals tomentose, on both surfaces ; the outer linear, obtuse, "2 in, long ; 
the inner shorter and broader. Ovary ovoid. Ripe carpels unknown, 
Lonchomera leptopoda, H. f. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 94. 

Malacca : Maingay (Kew Distrib.) No. 102. 

This plant is very imperfectly known. The carpels associated with 
Maingay's specimens do not agree with his description of them (Fl. Br. 
Ind. I, 94) and they are evidently those of some species of Polyalthia. 

2. Mezzettia Herveyana, Oliver Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 1560. A tree ; 
young branches rather stout, nodose, glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, ellip- 
tic-oblong, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate, both surfaces glabrous, 
the upper shiniug ; main nerves about 10 pairs, spreading, inter-arching 
within the margin, faint; length 2 - 5 to 3 in., breadth 1 to T25 in., 
petiole '25 to '35 in. Floivers "4 in. h>ng, rather crowded, in sessile axillary 
or extra- axillary fascicles of 3 to 8 : pedicels '3 in. long, puberulous, 
ebracteolate. Sepals broadly ovate, obtuse, connate at the base, pubes- 
cent like the petals. Outer petals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, flat, the inner 
smaller, broadly elliptic, obtuse, the tips incurved. Anthers sessile, 
obovate- quadrate, about 12. Ovary oblong, tapering into the style : 
ovules 2, superposed. Pipe carpels unknown. 

Malacca : H ervey . 

3. Mezzettia Cuetisii, Kingn. sp. A tree, 30 to 40 feet high : young 
branches cinereous, rugose. Leaves thinly coi'iaceous, oblong-lanceolate 
or oblong, more or less acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces gla- 
brous ; the upper shining, the lower dull ; main nerves about 10 pairs, 
spreading, faint ; length 25 to 5 in., breadth 5 to 1*5 in., petiole "25 in. 
Floivers '25 in. long, in crowded, sessile, axillary or extra-axillary fascicles 
of 5 to 10 ; pedicels slender, ebracteolate, scm-fily pubescent, "35 to - 6 
in. long. Sepals semi-orbicular, with reflexed tips, connate and forming 
a spreading, shallow cup, densely and minutely tomentose. Outer petals 
ligulate, acute, tomentose like the sepals but with a glabrous patch at 
the base inside. Inner petals like the outer, but less acute and one- third 
shorter. Stamens about 12, short, about as broad as long, the connec- 
tive very broad, truncate at the apex. Ovary solitary, broadly oroid ; 

17 



130 D. Pram — Mezoneuron from the Andaman Group. [No. 1, 

tapering to the curved, truncate stigma, 2-ovuled. Ripe carpels unknown. 

Penang, on Government Hill at 1,200 feet ; Curtis, No. 2266. 

A species with rather longer, thinner leaves than M. Herveyana, 
and a different calyx. 



II. — Novicia? Indicae V. An undescribed Mezoneuron from the Andaman 
Group. — By D. Prain. 

When in the Andamans in 1889 and again in 1890 and 1891 the 
writer met with a species of Mezoneuron which occurs rather frequently 
in the neighbourhood of Port Blair and which has not hitherto been 
described. During each of these visits only fruiting specimens were 
obtained ; at length, however, the native collectors who are under the 
care of Mr. E. H. Man have sent flowering specimens to Calcutta. The 
subjoined synopsis, in which the position of the new species among the 
Indian Mezoneura described by Mr. Baker, in the Flora of British India, 
257-259, is shown, is followed by a description of the plant. 

MEZONEURON, Desp. 
Calyx deeply cleft, disk basal (§ Eumezoneuron) 
filaments hirsute : — 

pods one-seeded, filaments faintly ciliate ; 
leaflets glabrous, rigid, opposite, 8-10, 
large, ovate, acute; calyx glabrous ... M. cucullatum. 
pods several-seeded, filaments densely pilose : — 
leaflets glabrous : — 

leaflets rigid, alternate, 8-10, large, 

obovate, retuse ; calyx glabrous M. andaraanicnm . 
leaflets membranous : — 

leaflets alternate, 14-16, small, 
oblong, obtuse ; calyx exter- 
nally puberal ous ... M. glabrum. 
leaflets opposite, 18-22, small, 
oblong, obtuse ; calyx glabrous M. ennea/phyllum. 
leaflets pubescent ; membranous, opposite, 
12-16, oblong, obtuse ; calyx externally 
and internally pubescent ... M. pubescent. 
Cl lyx shallowly cleft, disk extending above tbc 
base (§ Tubicaltx) ; filaments glabrous, pods 
several seeded ; leaflets glabrous, rigid, opposite, 
8-10, large, obovate-oblong ; calyx glabrous ... M. sumat cannm 



1892.] D. Prain — Mezoneuron from the Andaman Group. 131 

Baker describes the calyx of M. glabrum as glabrous, but both by 
his diagnosis and figure Desfontaine (Mem. Mm. iv, 246, t. 10) indi- 
cates that the calyx is tomentose ; the writer has not seen an}' flowering 
specimens. 

Mezoneuron andamanicum Prain, sp. no v. 

A large climber, branches glabrous with a few pale, scattered 
prickles. Leaf rachis 1— If ft., pinnae 4-10, long-stalked, leaflets 8-10, 
rigidly subcoriaceous, f-lf in. long, alternate, obovate, slightly retuse, 
base cuneate, glabrous on both surfaces, dark green above, paler below. 
Racemes uubranched, 10-12 inches long, pedicels \— § in. long. Calyx 
leathery, anterior sepal | in. long, deeply cucullate, the others § in. diam., 
orbicular, all green and delicately reticulately yellow-veined, the inter- 
spaces dotted with yellow glands. Petals yellow with base and veins 
reddish, ovate-orbicular, the lateral and anterior pairs subequal and 
only slightly larger than the lateral and posterior sepals, with very 
short claws, slightly hirsute internally, the inner and upper (vexillary) 
petal with a lamina less than ^ the size of the others, with a thick claw 
as long as the blade, channelled internally and prolonged at the base of 
the lamina into a ligular ridge, densely ciliate at its margin, which rests 
in the angle formed by the decimate filaments. Stamens decimate, in 
two rows, the outer row (5) with lowest stamen single, longer than the 
rest, curved, the lateral rather shorter, also curved ; the upper pair ab- 
ruptly angularly bent, with the portion of the filaments below the angle 
thrice as thick as the other filaments and filling up the channel in the 
claw of the vexillum, the upper portion not thicker than the other 
filaments, bent backwards over the vexillary ligule. The inner row (~>) 
with upper vexillary stamen smallest of all, simply, declinately curved 
as are the other four ; all filaments densely pilose in the lower 2/3 rds. 
Ovary declinate, about 6-ovuled ; style long, stigma terminal, concave, 
tip slightly fringed. Pod thin, 5 inches long, 1 inch wide (including 
the posterior wing \ in. wide) finely reticulated, 3-5 seeded ; seed flat, 
orbicular, embryo exalbuminous, with flat cotyledons and straight radicle. 

South Andaman ; near Port Blair at Protheropnr, Rangachang. 
etc., Prain! King's Collectors! 

Fl. January — February. 



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Vol. LXI, Part II, No. III.— 1892. 

EDITED BY 

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Issued January 24th, 1893. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
I, — Note on the Indian Butterflies comprised in the subgenus 
Pademma of the genus Euplcea. — By Lionel »e Nice'ville, 

F. E. S., C. M. Z. S 237 

II. — The Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. — By S. E. 

Peal, Esq. (Plates 1 and II) 246 

III. — Be Ranunculaceis Indicis Bisputationes. — Scbipsit P. Bruhl 

(Tab. iii, iv, v, et vi) 270 



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Road. 






JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE. 



No. III.— 1892, 



I. — Note on the Indian Butterflies comprised in the subgenus Pademma of 
the genus Euplcea: — By Lionel be Nice'ville, F. E. S., C. M. Z. S. 

[Received August 15th ; — Read November 2nd, 1892.] 

In the August Proceedings of the Society, p. 158 will be found a note 
on the subgenus Stictoplwa, mainly based on material received from the 
Rev. Walter A. Hamilton and collected in the Khasi Hills. The present 
note owes its origin to the same source, over 200 specimens of Pademma 
having been sent to me from that region by Mr. Hamilton. The sub- 
genus Pademma occurs in Ceylon, South India, Bengal as far west as 
Maldah, the lower slopes of the Sikkini hills, Bhutan, Assam, Burma, the 
Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin China, Nias Island, and Hainan. Its head- 
quarters appears to be Assam and Burma (especially the former), where 
it may be said to swarm ; everywhere else it is comparatively rare, except 
perhaps in Calcutta, where E. hollari, Felder, may be met with in con- 
siderable numbers if looked for in the right places and at the right 
seasons of the year. 

The subgenus as represented in Ceylon, South India, Orissa, Bengal 

(usually), and in parts of Burma and in the Malay Peninsula, presents 

the curious phenomenon that the several species are in both sexes 

entirely, or but slightly, on the upperside of the wings, more especially 

31 



238 L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euploea. [No. 3, 

the forewing, unglossed with blue ; bat in some parts of Bengal 
(Maldah), and in Sikkim, specimens are met with which are either entirely 
unglossed, or partly glossed with blue, towards the base of the wing, 
while in Assam, Arakan and Pegu the whole of the forewing is usually 
most richly blue-glossed. This phenomenon may be due to mimicry, 
as in the Khasi Hills of Assam, where Pademmas are individually most 
numerous, Euploea midamus, Linnieus (linncei, Moore), is also exceedingly 
common, and the Pademmas probably mimic it or some other blue-glossed 
species. The only thing to be said against this theory is that in Maldah 
where many specimens are most distinctly glossed with blue there are 
no other blue Euploeas which these Pademmas could mimic ; the occur- 
rence of these latter in Maldah may, however, be due to immigration. 

The next point to be dealt with is the extraordinary variability of 
the subgenus. The species which is found in Ceylon (E. sinhala, Moore) 
appears to be quite constant, as do specimens of E. kollari, Felder, 
received from South India, the Eastern and Western Ghats, Orissa, and 
Calcutta. But directly the hills are approached, at Maldah north of 
the Ganges and at tho foot of the Sikkim hills, the species commences 
to vary and to approach E. klugii, Moore, both as regards the presence 
of a more or less well-marked blue gloss, and in the acquisition of discal 
markings to the forewing. But for these intermediate specimens, 
E. liollari might be considered to be a good and constant species, but, as it 
is, in certain parts of north-eastern India it is distinctly variable. As 
we proceed to the eastwards, in Bhutan, Assam, and the northern and 
middle divisions of Burma (Arakan and Pegu), blue-glossed species 
mainly prevail, though occasionally specimens almost as free from the 
gloss as is E. Tcollari are met with. Lastly, in the southernmost division 
of Burma (Tenasserim) the blue-glossed species have almost dis- 
appeared, being as rare as unglossed are in Assam, and are replaced 
by unglossed species which differ in the character of the markings 
from the continental Indian species, E. kollari. In the Malay Peninsula 
Pademmas are very rare, and are of the Tenasserim form. To a certain 
extent, therefore, we can divide np the Indian Pademmas into more or 
less well-defined geographical races, which, were they only constant each 
in its own region, might be retained as distinct species. But this is not 
entirely so. E. kollari gradually merges into E. klugii in Maldah and the 
lower slopes of the Sikkim Hills, and E. klugii equally gradually 
grades into E. erichsonii, Felder, in Arakan. In their respective head- 
quarters the two extreme forms are perfectly constant and recognisable 
at a glance, E. kollari from any part of India south of the Ganges, and 
E. erichsonii from Lower Tenasserim or the Malay Peninsula. On the 
border-lands between these regions the several species are no longer 



1892.] L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euplcoa. 239 

reliably distinct, and in the Khasi Hills, which may be said to be the 
head-quarters of the Pademmas, as there they exist in the greatest 
number of individuals, a bewildering multiplicity of various forms is 
met with. Messrs. Butler aud Moore, but especially the latter, have 
described a great number of these quite inconstant forms as distinct 
species, and the present writer with the material at his disposal, could 
if desired, easily describe a dozen more such species, many of them far 
more distinct in superficial appearance than several of Messrs. Moore 
and Butler's. It appears to him that the only way to deal satis- 
factorily with these puzzling species is to treat all of them (except 
E. sinhala which appears to be constant owing to its insular habitat) 
as geographical races of the earliest described E. Mugii. To this end he 
has given below the full synonymy of the various forms and a brief 
description of them. 

I must once more enter my protest against the erroneous views 
held by home naturalists on the variability of these species. Messrs. 
Wood-Mason, Marshall, Distant, Elwes, Adamson, Doherty, Watson, and 
I, all of whom know these insects in life and have lived amongst them, 
have written page upon page to shew how inconstant they are, yet Mr. 
Moore, who has never been in the East, in his latest work on butterflies 
(" Lepidoptera Indica"), admits eight distinct species, and eight named 
" Varieties " of Pademma, all but one of the latter of which he described 
as good and distinct species in 1883. When a species is obviously so 
extremely variable as E. Mugii, it can be of no possible scientific use 
to have names for every possible combination and permutation of the 
blue-glossing of the upperside and of the disposition of the mark- 
ings of both sides of the wings. These variations are obviously 
mainly individual, and from the same batch of eggs it is almost certain 
that several at least of these variations would be obtained were they 
carefully bred. It is, however, of great scientific use to make out the 
range and to describe the peculiarities of geographical races when these 
are constant and sufficiently well-marked for definition each in its own 
area, but this Mr. Moore never makes the slightest attempt to do. It 
is hoped that what has been here written will tend to this desirable 
result. 

I might also mention to shew the absurdity of the views expressed by 
Mr. Moore in his Monograph of Euploeina written in 1883, in which seven- 
teen distinct species of Pademma are given from India, — that I sent to 
him, just after the appearance of that paper, 12 very variable specimens 
of Pademma captured in the Arakan Hills, out of which he could only 
name three. The inference was that the other nine specimens represent- 
ed as many " new species." 



210 L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euplcea. [No. 3, 

1. Eupl(ea (Pademma) sinhala, Moore. 

Euplcea sinhala, Moore, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., fourth series, vol. xx, p. 45 
(1877) ; id. (part), Marshall and de Niceville, Bntt. of India, vol. i, p. 66, n. 47 (1882) ; 
Isamia sinhala, Moore, Lep. Cey., vol. i, p. 10, pi. v, fig. 1, male (1880); Fademma 
sinhala, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 309, n. 18 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, 
p. 126, pi. xlvii, figs. 3, male; 3a, female (1890). 

Habitat : Ceylon. 

Expanse : d 1 , 9 , 3-25 to 3'85 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside, both wings dark olive-brown. 
Forewing •with the outer marginal area broadly much paler than the 
rest of the wing, bearing in the middle of the pale area a series of from 
six to eight small ochreous-white spots, the one in the first median 
interspace the largest, often two in the submedian interspace ; a 
marginal series of dots variable in number, but usually four, com- 
mencing at the anal angle and never reaching the apex of the wing ; 
the usual oval sexual brand in the submedian interspace. Hindiving 
with the outer margin paler than the rest of the wing, but less markedly 
so than in the forewing ; the usual flour-like sexual patch about the 
anterior area of the discoidal cell ; a submarginal seines of twelve 
och icons-white spots, the four anterior ones round, decreasing in size 
towards the costa, placed one in each interspace, the posterior ones 
elongated into streaks, placed two in each interspace; an almost com- 
plete marginal series of dots much larger than those in the forewing, 
not quite reaching the apex of the wing, placed in pairs in the inter- 
spaces. Underside, both wings paler olive-brown than on the upper- 
side Forewing somewhat darker in the middle of the disc ; a costal 
spot placed between the bases of the first and second subcostal 
nervules ; discal spots placed beyond the cell varying from two to 
four, the lowermost spot in the submedian interspace the largest, all 
these spots bluish-white ; submarginal and marginal series of spots as on 
the upperside, but the latter more numerous ; inner margin of the wing 
up to the first median nervule cinereous ; the sexual brand black and 
prominent. Hindiving with none, one, or two discal spots placed just 
beyond the cell ; submarginal and marginal spots as on the upperside. 
FEMALE, rather paler than the male throughout, lacking all the second- 
ers- sexual characters, and having the inner margin of the forewing 
straight, not strongly outwardly bowed. Underside, foreiving has 
the inner margin cinereous as far as the submedian fold. 

E. sinhala occurs only in Ceylon, and is, for an Eujjlcea of this 
group, owing to its insular position, fairly constant. 

2. Euplcea (Pademma) klugii. Moore. 

Euplcea klugii, Moore, Horsfield and Moore, Cat. Lep. Mns. E.I. C, vol. i, p. 130, 



1892.] L. dc Niceville-- Subgenus Paclemma of the genus Euplcea. 241 

n. 258 (1857) ; idem, id., Anderson, Anat. and Zool. Researches, p. 922 (1878J ; id., 
Marshall and de Niceville, Butt, of Ind , vol. i, p. 64, n. 44 (18*2) ; id , Adamson, 
Notes on the Danamoe of Burmab, p. 8 (1889) ; idem, id., Cat. of Butt, coll. in Burmah, 
p. 4, n. 20 (1889) ; id., Watson, Jonrn. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. vi, p. 29, n. 8 
(1891) ; Salpinx klugii, Bntler, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zoology, vol. xiv, p. 294, 
n. 35 (1878) ; E. ( Pademma) klugii, Wood-Mason and de Niceville, Jonrn. A. S. B., 
vol. lv, pt. 2, p. 346, n. 10 (18S6) ; Pademma klugii, Moore, Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 117, 
pi. xlii, figs. 1, male; lft, female; 16, female (type of E. grantii) (1890) ; Pademma 
Idugi, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 305, n. 1, pi. xxxii, fig. 1, male; 
Bitplcea (Pademma) klugi, Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1888, p 300, n. 9 ; Euplcea 
erichsonii, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep., vol. ii, p. 324, n. 444 (1865) ; id., Marshall and 
de Niceville, Butt, of India, vol. i, p. 63, n. 42 (1882); id., Watson, Journ. Bomb. 
Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. iii, p. 18, n. 13 (1SS8) ; id., Adamson, Cat. of Butt. coll. in 
Bnrmah, p. 4, n. IS (1889) ; id., Watson, Journ. Bomb. Nat Hist. Soc, vol. vi, p. 29, 
n. 7 (1891) ; id., Shopland, Butt. coll. in Aracan, p. 4 ; Euplcea (Pademma) erichsonii, 
Wood-Mason and de Niceville, Journ. A. S. B., vol. lv, pt. 2, p. 347, n. 11 (1S86); id., 
Elwes and de Niceville, Journ. A. S. B., vol. lv, pt. 2, p 415, n. 7 (1886) ; Salpinx 
erichsonii, Butler, Jonrn. Linn Soc Lond., Zoology, vol. xiv, p. 295, n. 39 (1878) ; 
Pademma erichsonii, Moore, Journ. Linn. Soc Lond., Zoology, vol: xxi, p. 31 (1886) ; 
Pademma erichsoni, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 18S3, p. 307, n. 11 ; Euplcea erich- 
soni, Adamson, Notes on Danaince of Burmah, p. 7 (1889) ; Euplcea hollari, Felder, 
Reise Novara, Lep., vol. ii, p. 325, n. 445 (1865) ; Paclemma kollari, Moore, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 309, n. 19, pi. xxix, fig. 9, male ; id., Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 126, n. 8 ; id , Hampson, Journ. A. S. B., vol. Ivii, pt. 2, p. 348, 
n. 8; id, Moore, Lep. Ind, vol. i, p 124, pl. xlvii, figs. 2, male; 2a, female (1890) ; 
E. (Pademma) kollari, de Niceville, Journ. A. S. B., vol. liv, pt. 2, p. 41, n. 8 (1885) ; 
id , Taylor, List of the Butt, of Khorda in Orissa, p. 1, n. 8 (1888) ; id., Elwes, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., 1888, p. 301, n. 10; id., Ferguson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, 
vol. vi, p. 435, n. 9 (1891) ; Euplcea crassa, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc Lond., 1866, p. 278, 
n. 31 ; id., Distant, Rhop. Malay., p. 29, n. 9, pl. v, fig. 8, male (18S2) ; p. 410, n. 9 
(18S6) ; id., Marshall and de Niceville, Butt, of India, vol. i, p. 63, n. 41 (1882) ; id , 
Watson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. iii, p. 18, n. 12 (188S) ; id., Adamson, Cat. 
of Butt. coll. in Burmah, p. 4, n. 17 (1889) ; idem, id., Notes on Danaince of Burmah, 
p 7 (18S9) ; id., Shopland, Butt. coll. in Aracan, p. 4; Salpinx crassa, Bntler, Journ. 
Linn. Soc Lond , Zoology, vol. xiv, p. 295, n. 38 (1878) ; id., Moore, Proc Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1878, p. 822 ; Pademma crassa, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc Lond., 1883, p. 307, 
n. 9 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 121, pl. xiv, figs. 2, male ; 2a, female (1S90); Salpinx 
illustris, Butler, Jonrn. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zoology, vol. xiv, p. 294, n. 36 (1878) ; 
Euplcea illustris, Marshall and de Niceville, Butt, of India, vol. i, p. 66, n. 46 (1882) ; 
id., Shopland, Butt. coll. in Aracan, p. 4 ; Pademma illustris, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, p. 307, n. 7 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind , vol. i, p. 119, pl. xliii, figs. 1, male ; In, 
female (1890) ; Salpinx masoni, Moore, Proc Zool. Soc Lond., 187S, p. 823; Euplcea 
masoni, Marshall and de Niceville, Butt, of India, vol i, p. 64, n. 43 (1SS2) ; id., 
Adamson, Cat. of Butt. coll. in Burmah, p. 4, n. 19 (1889) ; id., Notes on Danaimr of 
Burmah, p. 7 (1889) ; Pademma masoni, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1SS3, p. 309, 
n. 17; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 123, pl. xlvi, fig. l,male (1890) ; Salpinx grantii, 
Butler, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 2 ; Euplaea grantii, Marshall and de Niceville, 
Butt, of India, vol. i, p. 65, n. 45 (18S2) ; id., Adamson, Cat. of Butt. coll. in Bur- 
mah, p. 4 (18S9) ; id., Shopland, Butt, coll in Aracan, p. 4 ; Pademma granti, Moore, 



242 L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euplcea. [No. 3, 

Proo. Zool. Soo. Lond., 1883, p. 306, n. 2 ; Isamia rothneyi, Moore, Etit. Month. Mao-., 
vol. xix, p. 34 (1882) ; Euplma sinhala (part, nee Moore), Marshall and de Niceville, 
Butt, of India, vol. i, p. 66, n. 47, pi. vii, fig. 12, male and female (1882) ; Pademma 
dharma, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 306, n. 3, pi. xxxii, fio\ 2, female • 
Pademma augusta, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 306, n. 4 ; idem, id., Lep. 
Ind., vol. i, p. 118, pi. xlii, figs. 2, male ; 2a, female (1890) ; Pademma indigofera, Moore, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 306, n. 5, pi. xxxii, fig. 3, male ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., 
vol. i, p. 120, pi. xliv, fig. 3, male (1890) ; Pademma imperialis, Moore, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 307, n. 6 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 119, pi. xliii, figs. 2, 
male ; 2a, female (1890) ; Pademma regalis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 307, 
n. 8 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 119, pi. xliv, figs. 1, male ; la, female (1890) ; 
Pademma pembertoni, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 308, n. 12, pi. xxxii, 
fig. 6, male; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 124, pi. xlvi, figs. 3, male; 3a, female 
(1890) ; Pademma macclellandi, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 308, n. 13, 
pi. xxxii, fig. 4, female ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 120, pi. xliv, figs. 2, male ; 
2a, female (1890) ; Pademma uniformis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 308, 
n. 14 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 124, pi. xlvii, fig. 1, male (1890) ; Pademma api- 
calis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 308, n. 15 ; idem, id., Lep. Ind., vol. i,' 
p. 123, pi. xlvi, figs. 2, male; 2a, female (1890) ; Eupl&a apicalis, Shopland, Butt, 
coll. in Aracan, p. 4 ; Pademma burmeisteri, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 
p. 309, n. 16 ; idem, id., Lep. Inch, vol. i, p. 123, pi. xlv, figs. 3, male; 3a, female 
(1890) ; Pademma sherwillii, Moore, Lep. Ind., vol. i, p. 120, pi. xlv, fig. 1, male 
(1890). 

Geographical race E. kollari, Felder. 

Habitat : South India, Orissa, Bengal, lower slopes of the Sikkim 
Hills. 

Expanse: <?, 33 to 41; 9 , 37 to 4-1 inches. 

Description : Male and Female. Differs only from E. sinhala, 
Moore, in the marginal spots of the forewing on both sides being rather 
larger and reaching the apex of the wing usually ; the submarginal 
series also rather larger. In all other respects as in E. sinhala. 

It is rather stretching a point to admit E. kollari as distinct from 
E. sinhala, but as the differences noted above appear to be constant 
and are just recognisable, I have thought it best to separate them. 

Except in Bengal, where E. kollari is found in the Sikkim terai 
and on the lower outer slopes of the Sikkim hills and in Maldah, it ap- 
pears to be confined to the littoral, the furthest point from the coast where 
I have any record of its occurrence being Poona, about 70 miles in a 
straight line from the sea, and Bhadrachalam, on the Grodavari, Madras, 
which is about 100. Neither is it found in the hills except at the lower 
elevations up to about 2,000 feet, save in the Nilgiris, where Mr. Hampson 
took it at 3,500 feet elevation. In South India, Orissa and Bengal (with 
some exceptions) the species is quite constant, it is only at Bholahat in 
the Maldah district and on the lower slopes of the Sikkiin hills and in 



1892.] L. do Niceville — Subgemis Pademma of the gemis Euplcea. 243 

the Sikkini terai that the species begins to vary, acquiring a more or 
less well-marked blue gloss on the upperside of the wings, and some 
discal spots on the fore wing, which leads us to the typical form of the 
species. 

Typical form E. hlugii, Moore. 

Habitat : Maldah, lower slopes of the Sikkim Hills, Bhutan, Assam, 
Arakan, Pegu. 

Expanse : <7, 3-5 to 4-0; 9 , 3-0 to 4-2 inches. 

Description : Male. Upperside. [Of all the species of Euplcea 
known to me this is the most variable. Following the order of the 
Pademma group here adopted, the varieties which most nearly resemble 
E. hollari are first described, while the true E. hlugii, which is the most 
divergent form in one direction, is next described, and lastly those 
variations are described which lead up to the geographical race E. erich- 
sonii, Felder, which ends the series.] A specimen from Sikkim in my 
collection agrees absolutely with typical E. sinhala, Moore, from Ceylon, 
except that the base of the fore wing on the upperside in some lights is 
slightly blue-glossed ; other Sikkim specimens I possess have the sub- 
marginal and marginal spots to both wings rather smaller than in typi- 
cal E. hollari, while others again are normal in this respect, both the 
latter forms being slightly blue-glossed. In the next gradation the dark 
basal area of the forewing on the upperside is less well marked, and ex- 
tends more towards the outer margin, while the first discal spots divided 
by the lower discoidal nervule have appeared ; these varieties occurring 
in Sikkim, Assam, and Arakan, but always sparingly. In the next group, 
which includes the typical E. hlugii, it is quite impossible to describe 
within reasonable limits all the variations which occur. The dark basal 
area now gradually disappears altogether, the blue-glossing becomes 
more and more intense till it reaches its maximum, the spots of the 
wings are infinitely variable — in some there are the two marginal series 
only, in some one or both these series are obsolete on the hindwing, in 
some the marginal series is confined in the forewing to a few at the anal 
angle, or are absent altogether, while the submarginal series are some- 
times reduced from the full number of nine to four mere dots towards 
the apex ; the discal spots vary from a complete series of four to none at 
all ; while in some specimens there is a large spot at the end of the 
discoidal cell, in others a small spot, and in others again no spot at all ; 
the colour of the spots also varies, some are pure white, others strongly 
glossed with blue ; there is sometimes a costal spot at the base of the 
first and second subcostal nervules, this being frequently absent. On 
the hindwing some specimens are richly blue-glossed on the disc, while 



244 L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euplcea. [No. 3, 

others are not glossed at all ; some are rich chestnut-coloured towards 
the abdominal margin, this colour also being found in some examples on 
the bowed-out inner margin of the forewing. Underside. The varia- 
tions of the spots on both wings described above as found on the upper- 
side of the wings are also found on the underside, though to a less 
extent. Female varies in precisely the same way as does the male. 
The variations noted above are found throughout the range of the typi- 
cal form, but they reach their maximum development in the Khasi 
Hills, where I have been able to accurately match the following species 
figured in Moore's " Lcpidoptera Indica " — E. klugii, E. augusta, E. il- 
lustris, E. imperial-is, E. regalis, E. macclellancli, E. indigofera, E. slier- 
willii, and E. uniformis. 

Geographical race E. erichsonii, Felder. 

Habitat : [MakUh, one female ; Cachar, one female], Arakan, Pegu, 
Tcnasserim, Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin China. 

Expanse : 6", 3'2 to 4-0 ; 9 , 37 to 4-1 inches. 

Description: Male. Upperside. [Still continuing the same order 
of the Pademma group, I first take up the description of the varieties 
most nearly approaching the last geographical race.] The connecting 
link between the E. klugii race and the one now under consideration is 
/;. masani, Moore, which has the basal area of the forewing on the up- 
perside glossed with bright violet-blue, which character typically con- 
nects this race with K. Felder, from which, however, it may be 
distinguished by the submarginal series of spots gradually increasing in 
size from the anal angle till the one in the subcostal interspace is reached, 
then again rapidly decreasing to the costa. But for this single character 
it would, 1 think, be quite impossible to separate some forms of E. erich- 
sonii from E. hollari. This geographical race is not as variable as the 
last, though it is still very variable, Mr. Moore placing in it E. arasm 
( = E. eri :h8onii), E. bunneisteri, E. masoni, E. apicalis, and E. pembertoni. 
The spots on both wings are almost as variable as in E. klugii, except 
that the discal spots of the forewing never exceed two in number and 
arc usually absent altogether, and I have seen no specimen with a spot in 
the diseoidal cell. Female, markings throughout similar to those of the 
male. 

The two female specimens, one each from Maldah and Cachar, men- 
tioned under habitat above, quite upset the otherwise fairly well-defined 
geographical distribution of this local race. These two specimens both 
posses the submarginal scries of spots on the forewing of the typical 
shape of E. riclisonii, so I am reluctantly obliged to include them under 
that race. I have other aberrant male specimens from Arakan which 1 



1892.] L. de Niceville — Subgenus Pademma of the genus Euploea. 245 

have placed under E. klugii, as they are very richly blue-glossed at the 
base of the forewing, and have a large spot in the discoidal cell, but the 
submarginal spots are typically those of E. erichsonii, so these specimens 
have two characters of E. klugii and one of E. erichsonii. The two races 
over-lap in Arakan and Pegu, and many specimens from thence are 
almost intermediate between the two local races, so that the placing 
them in one or the other is purely arbitrary. 

I have taken great pains to try and define the three geographical 
races of E. klugii which at most can be admitted, but now that I have 
finished the task, I am almost of opinion that it would have been more 
philosophical and scientific to have dealt with the very large series of 
specimens I possess as one species in the way in which I treated 
E. (Stictoploea) harrisii, Felder. There is no doubt, however, that E. kollari 
is constant in certain localities, as also is E. erichsonii in other localities, 
these being the two extremes of the series, just in the same way that 
E. harrisii and E. hopei are as distinct in their respective head-quarters, 
it is only when one comes to consider the intermediate forms which 
occur in a region geographically intermediate between the two ex- 
treme forms, that it is found that the constancy of all the forms 
immediately breaks down. To deal with species like these it is 
imperatively necessary to have very extensive series of specimens 
from all the localities in which they occur, and also to act up to 
the spirit of the theory of evolution which nearly all naturalists 
profess to believe in, but some naturalists entirely ignore in their 
writings when describing different species of animals. If my indi- 
vidual opinions and conclusions be not accepted, I beg that reference be 
made to the writings of the competent field-naturalists who have studied 
these butterflies in life. It is needless here to recapitulate what they 
have recorded : reference to these papers is in all cases given in the syno- 
nymy of E. klugii. 

There is still another point I may mention. Perhaps of all the 
oriental butterflies, Euplceas are, where they occur at all, amongst the 
most commonly met with, conspicuous, and most easily captured of insects. 
They are so obviously protected that they float about in the air in the 
quietest manner and seem to court attention, and moreover are always, 
or nearly so, the commonest of butterflies. So well has the Indian 
region been explored that I should almost as soon expect to find a new 
" Cabbage-White " in a London square as a new Etiploea in any part of 
India ; and it is to be hoped that no more " new species " will be des- 
cribed from India unless they are obviously quite different from any 
hitherto known species. Doubtless from unexplored regions and islands 
many new species yet remain to be described, but certainly there are 
none from India. 

32 



246 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

The Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. — By S. E. Peal, Esq. 
Plates I and II. 
[Received ; Read November 2], 

Among the many social problems relating to the early history of 
our race which at the present day engage the attention of anthropolo- 
gists, there are probably few which surpass in interest that of the 
origin of " Marriage." 

The institution of the " family," with its attendant maternal and 
paternal duties, is so closely interwoven with all human history and 
customs that it is generally, and perhaps with some reason, taken to 
have been the normal form of development from the very first. 

But in these days when the doctrine of evolution has taken such 
a firm hold of the scientific world, it is hardly necessary to point out 
that sooner or later, we may have to reconsider the entire question, 
guided by the light of recent discoveries. 

In our endeavour to unravel the earlier phases of social life, 
we naturally look amongst the more savage races for traces of the 
social condition of our ancestors, piecing together slowly and carefully 
the relics of customs still surviving here and there, which may tend 
to throw light on this obscure and difficult question, drawing there- 
from such deductions as experience teaches may be safe and legitimate. 

From a careful study of the evidence recently accumulated, there 
can be little doubt that very much has yet to he learnt regarding the 
earlier forms of sexual relation. 

MacLennan, to whom we owe so much on the question of "Primi- 
tive marriage," has endeavoured to shew that "marriage by capture" 
probably arose from paucity of females, due to infanticide, and that 
really some form of monogamy had always existed, but more recent 
evidence seems to shew that Sir John Lubhock's view is more likely 
to be correct, i. e., that while marriage, or the private right to one 
particular woman by any man, arose by capture, this early stage of 
social development was possibly preceded by one of complete sexual 
liberty, as in a horde. 

The relics of such a stage of sexual communism seem to survive 
far more extensively among savage and semi-civilized races in our day 
than is generally supposed, especially in the Indo-Pacific and Austra- 
lian regions, and the object of the present note is to draw attention to 
the large stores of information on this question already in hand, but 
so far unutilized. 

Letourneau, in his " Evolution of Marriage," in the contemporary 
science series, has exhaustively traced for us the earlier stages of 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 247 

" marriage and the family " amongst the lower animals, shewing 
conclusively that they are by no means peculiarly human institutions. 

The various and singular forms of sexual association, past and 
present, he has also clearly laid before us, though singularly enough 
entirely omitting one which is of the utmost importance, and to which 
it is desirable to draw attention. The omission is in regard to the 
peculiar institution of barracks for the unmarried, which under so many 
surviving forms, and endless names, extends from the Himalaya and 
Formosa on the north, to New Zealand and Australia on the south ; 
from eastern Polynesia, to the west coast of Africa. 

One of the first things to strike the student who is fairly well 
acquainted with the head-hunting and semi-savage races of the 
north-eastern frontier of Bengal, on reading travels in the Malayo- 
Pacific Archipelago, is the similarity, and at times identity, of so many 
singular customs over this widely scattered region. 

Not only do we find, as Sir Henry Yule pointed out in the Journal of 
tJie Anthropological Institute for February 1880, that head-hunting, pile- 
dwelling, blackening the teeth, aversion to milk, " jhuming," and bar- 
racks for the unmarried, extend from India to New Guinea and other 
places, but that when the matter is carefully looked into, quite a 
large number of other singular customs come into view, and that the 
area over which these customs prevail, extends over a far larger part 
of the earth's surface than Sir Henry Yule had suspected. 

Taken by itself this institution of organized " barracks for the 
unmarried," is sufficiently suggestive ; but when we notice that it is 
only one of many peculiar social customs, which survive more or 
less with it, among widely scattered races, the case is doubly note- 
worthy ; first as a proof of former racial affinity among all these people, 
and secondly, as a most important and suggestive factor in social 
evolution generally. 

Their sociological significance it is the more necessary to study 
as they are so obviously survivals ; and under modified forms are seen 
amongst Indo-Mongols, Dravidians and Kols, Malays, Papuans, 
Polynesians, Australians, and African races. 

For some years past racial affinity has been suspected among these 
now distant races, and in these communal barracks we seem to have 
a clear proof that the " survival of the fittest " among human customs 
may long outlast both physical and linguistic variation. 

As might naturally be expected, with customs handed down from 
a remote antiquity, among various races, there has been a large amount 
of local geographical variation, and in some instances the subsidiary 
customs have died out entirely. 



248 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

Thus " jhuming " which so strongly differentiates all these, from 
Aryan races, is not found among the nomadic Australians. Canniba- 
lism again, which at one time was probably universal, has died out 
in most cases, or survives in the passion for " head-hunting" in 
several. 

The building of houses on piles is another singular habit which 
persists among many widely scattered groups, and that it is a sur- 
vival and not locally spontaneous, is beautifully demonstrated by the 
"araiba" or extension of the platform floor, beyond the end of the roof, 
which is characteristic of Indo-Mongols, Borneans, Papuans, the dwel- 
lers in the Phillipines, and other widely-scattered peojDle. 

The platform burial, common around Assam, is also seen in 
New Guinea, Borneo, Formosa, Sumatra, &c. 

The vertical double cylinder bellows, seen all over our north- 
eastern frontier as far as the Lutze, (Anong) turns up again in Nias 
off Sumatra, in the Ke Islands, North Australia, and in Madagascar in 
identically the same forms. 

Our Nagas and other tribes climb trees by cutting notches 
for the toes, precisely as do the Australians, and use the bamboo 
pegged to a tree stem as a ladder, the same as the Dyaks. 

The extraordinary hide cuirasses worn by the savages in the 
island of Nias, to keep out arrows and spears, are absolutely identical 
with those till lately used by our Nagas, and which are now rendered 
useless by fire-arms. 

The large canoe war drums of Polynesia, the " Lali " of Fiji, and 
"Tavaka" of the New Hebi'ides are seen all through our Naga hills, 
and stranger still, have the "crocodile heads" carved at the extremi- 
ties, though the animal is unknown locally. 

The bamboo Jew's harp of the Phillipines and New Britain, 
sounds in all our Naga villages. The singular perineal bandage of 
New Guinea is here also quite common. 

These are a few of the very singular instances of survivals, which 
unexpectedly meet us over a wide area, among races now considered 
more or less distinct, and which demonstrate a common origin in the 
far past, among races too, wherein the communal barracks for the 
unmarried is a persistent feature. 

As before stated, many of these subsidiary social customs have 
varied, or died out entirely, here and there, due no doubt to differences 
in the physical surroundings, and in the barracks themselves we see 
often variations to suit local, or recent, requirements, which indeed 
is one good proof of extreme antiquity: 

But certain features in relation to them have so persistently 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 249 

remained, that they are probably fundamental necessities in the 
case. 

Firstly, we see in all, except among the nomadic Australians, that 
there is a special and recognized building, or buildings, for the 
nnmarried young men and lads to sleep in, and at times for the young 
women, also in many cases together. 

Secondly, we notice tbat among the races having these barracks 
without exception, there is complete liberty between the sexes until 
marriage. 

Thirdly, and most significant of all, these barracks are invariably 
tabu to the married women, whether the race, or tribe is exogamic or 
endogamic. 

We may also note that, as a general rule, we see adult marriages 
where this social system is in vogue, and conjugal fidelity seems 
greater than among the more civilized races, by whom juvenile chastity 
is valued. 

The crux of the entire question appears to be in the fact that 
from Bhutan to New Zealand from the Marquesas to the Niger, there 
is a distinct tabu raised against the married woman, as against a 
social interloper or innovation ; and among tribes and races where 
otherwise there was complete sexual liberty, she is, in all cases, 
legislated against as an inferior, or slave. 

If " marriage " had preceded the barrack system, it would, in many 
instances, have dominated it ; but there are no traces of peaceful equality 
even between the parties to marriages in the past ; everything tends 
to shew that the wife was a captured slave, and hence private property, 
as much so as a spear or pig. 

As we see (still) among some savage races, the males killed or 
captured in a raid were invariably eaten, and the females reserved 
as slaves, or as we say " wives," and hence marriage arose in all these 
cases through capture, giving the successful warrior a right to one 
woman. 

To many persons this feature of " barracks " for the unmarried, 
combined as it is with juvenile sexual liberty, and strict tabu against 
the married women, may appear so novel, that a few references to 
particulars and authorities may not be out of place. We can at the same 
time note the local variations, due to the geographical surroundino-s, 
or to the social advance of the race. 

For instance among the semi-civilized Buddhist Shans of eastern 
Assam the " chang " is a semi-temple, and boys' school-house, where 
the lads at times reside for fixed periods, and which is tabu to women. 
Among the Abor tribes, north-east of Assam, the " Mosup " is 



250 S. B. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

seen in every village, and Mr. J. F. Needham describes them in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Soc, May 1886, as at times 240 
feet long by 30 wide, with 24 fire places. These are not only the 
guesfc and council houses, but among head-hunters are the guard-houses 
in which " the single men warriors reside," and where " certain warriors 
are told off daily, who keep a look out day and night." 

" The side walls are crammed with the heads of every description 
of animal, and all down the centre of it, are to be seen the bows, 
arrows, fishing gear, hats, spears, &c, of the warriors, on bamboo 
trays. The " Mosup " is close to the entrance to the village and would 
hold about 500 men." 

" The unmarried girls have apparently any amount of latitude 
given to them," and are very fond of singing and dancing. In the 
early dawn he was roused by yells throughout the village, and on 
enquiry was told it was an order from the " Mosup " going round for a 
general holiday next day, and that every man, woman and child was 
to remain in, and not go to work in the " jhums." 

Among the Miri these communal buildings are called " De-ri," 
aud there are (as among the Abors) several in each village. They are 
not only the guest and council houses but the recognized sleeping 
places for the unmarried young men and young women, boys and 
girls, between whoni until marriage, as in all these cases, there are 
no restrictions. 

As might naturally be expected, they are strictly tabu to the 
married women. 

Among the Miris settled long in the plains, there is a very distinct 
advance in individualism, and in small communities the " De-ri" is 
declining into a boy's play house, though the freedom between the sexes, 
in the unmarried state, is not curtailed, and may be called notorious. 

The great Naga communities whether savage head-hunters, or 
peacefully inclined, present us with various forms of these communal 
barracks. In some of the large eastern villages, as many as 10 or 12 
for young men, and 4 or 5 for unmarried girls are found. As a rule 
those for the young men, are guard houses, placed so as to cover the 
entrances to the village. Each being manned by the lads and young 
warriors of the adjacent section of the village, or "rnorong." 

Between the Diklm and Disang rivers among the tribes descended 
from Sangloi, these barracks or guard houses are called " Pah," and 
as there are probably an average of 6 to each of the 60 villages ; there 
would be about 360 Pah on an area of some 600 square miles. 

In some tribes on this tract, there are no distinct houses or " Pah," 
for unmarried girls, who sleep at home, and in Zu, the head village 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 251 

of the Baupara tribe, those for the young -unmarried men are named 
as follows : — 



1. 


Ra man Pah. 


2. 


Pak Ke 


3. 


Yong tong „ * 


4. 


Ra Wok „ 


5. 


Ten tok „ 


6. 


Lo tong „ * 



7. 


Ko nu Pah * 


8. 


Nok sa ,, 


9. 


]STai tong ,, * 


10. 


bin „ * 


11. 


Pa nu 


12. 


Pa sa 


13. 


Yang hum Pah. 



The first six belong to the smaller half of the village (which is divi- 
ded by a deep khud, whence water is obtained from natural springs). 
The other seven are in the other portion of the village which includes the 
residence of the chief or " Yang hum." The " Pah " marked thus* are 
large ones commanding entrances to the village and are more or less 
fortified. Towards the centre of the village there are several Pum 
Pah (3 or 4) for little boys. The others are manned by the young 
men who take it in turn to mount guard, day and night, 15 or 20 at a 
time, but who in this tribe take their meals at home. 

Among a few of these tribes, the adults as well as juveniles are 
habitually nude, and in all of them, until 17 or 18 years of age, both 
sexes are absolutely so, except when visiting the plains. 

Here as among the " Wild races of 8. E. India," (by Colonel 
Lewin,) " great license is allowed before marriage to the youth of 
both sexes," p. 193 ; " every lad before marriage has his sweet-heart and 
he cohabits with her whenever opportunity serves, p. 203. The inter- 
course between both sexes is free aud unrestrained until after 
marriage," p. 245. 

In most cases these " Pah " are obviously associated with commu- 
nal customs of the highest importance to the tribe, not only are they 
the schools in which the youths are graded and taught their duties, 
and use of arms, but they are the recognized rallying centres in times 
of public danger. Each contributes its share in all public labor, 
such as repairing fortifications, clearing roads bridging rivers and in 
building the houses, &c. 

They lie in fact at the basis of the social life as relics of a more 
extensive communal system, which is slowly giving way to indivi- 
dualism, and here, as elsewhere, the " Pah " are tabu to the married 
woman . 

West of the Dikhu river we find these communal barracks for 
young men, are called " Arlzu," by the " Ao " or Haimong. Besides 
being the guest, council, and guard-houses the Arizu has the control 
of all war matters, and fortification, has charge of the big village drum, 



252 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

sees to the fastening of the village gates at night, and other public 
matters. 

There are it seems three orders or grades in these " Arizu :" 1st, 
the Scangpur ; 2nd, the Tanabanger ; and 3rd the Tepue (or Tepoe) 
and those who have passed through all and are still unmarried are 
called Azuiner. 

As an illustration of the organization of tbe "barracks " in one 
of its many phases, a little detail may here be of some use. 

The Scangpur are the lowest grade ; they bring wood and water 
and are the servants of the other grades. No parent can interfere 
with the discipline, and as the term of each order is for three years, 
the discipline of the lower order is considerable and valuable. 

When the other orders come in at night, tired from labor or from 
being on the war path, the Scangpur has plenty to do in shampooing 
and manipulating the legs, arms and backs of the weary or sick. 

The second order or Tanabanger have less drudgery, but they have 
some ; if there is wood needed for fencing or repairs of the " Arizu," the 
two lower grades have to do the irksome parts, and the term of service 
here also is for three years. 

The third order, or Tepue, are the masters and instructors, and on 
entering it there is much rejoicing. In a war party they carry spear 
shield, and dao, the lower orders carrying the provisions, &c. The 
Ao have their kidong, or bougoh, and appoint one officer called sensong. 
Above all is one called " Linger." This last order has agi-eat feast at the 
end of three years when it retires ; the material is what the Arizu three 
orders have earned in the three years by going now and then to 
work on cultivation for rich men 

All of these three orders eat with their parents or elder brothers 
and usually work for them. 

The number of " Arizu " houses in a village depends on circum- 
stances, usually at least two, located near the chief entrances, occa- 
sionally there are 5 or 6 so as to afford sleeping places for the boys and 
young men. 

This tribe has been annexed by us for some years, but in most of the 
Tillages the "Arizu" houses are kept up though there is now no warfare, 
and the boys are all expected to work for and be subject to their parents. 

In some of these Ao villages there are, or used to be, " Ai*izu " for 
girls and unmarried young women, under control of elderly matrons. 

Among the Mikirs (or Arleng) we again find communal barracks 
called " Tarengs." Boys enter them at from 8 to 10 years of age and 
there is generally but one to each village. Those who join the " Tareng " 
do so for a fixed period of 5 or 6 years or longer, after which it is 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 253 

broken up, and those who wish to leave go out. When they form 
one they elect head nien to it. The first is called Cleng Sarpo and 
highest, the second is Cleng doon, and the third is called Sodar keta, the 
fourth Sodar loo. 

No married man or one who is a widower ever joins a " Tareng," 
and there are none for girls. No girls, yonng women or married women 
may go near them, and they are used as council and guard-houses as 
well as being the regular sleeping barracks of the unmarried young men. 
Anything happening is first reported to the Cleng sarpo, and 
thence to the villagers and head men. Any one visiting the village 
sleeps in the " Tareng," and any young man from the " Tareng" can 
go to any house he likes and sleep with an unmarried girl ; her parents 
can make no objection. When once a " Tareng " is formed no one can 
leave it until it breaks up, or he is fined. 

Among the Lushais a traveller informs us that " the custom is in all 
these villages, that the young men on arrival at a certain age, are expelled 
from their father's house at night, and sleep all together in the Zalbuk, 
or bachelors' house. The Zalbuk is one large room, inside a verandah. 
Colonel T. H. Lewin frequently and very clearly refers to this 
custom in his " Wild races of S. E. India " and to the liberty allowed 
between the sexes before marriage, (see pages 119, 121, 182, 193, 201, 
203, 215 and 254), making it particularly clear that among the " Hill 
tracts " therein referred to, the young unmarried men and lads are 
graded and governed by special communal laws, and that these domi- 
nate the rights of the parent, as will be gathered from the remark : — ■ 
" his mother abused them much, but the father and mother could not 
hurt them as they were acting by the Goung's orders." 

We constantly indeed find proofs that the right of the parents 
over their children is more or less subordinate to that of the commu- 
nal barrack, that " the family " in fact as the social unit, is not yet 
emancipated, but holds a subordinate position in the body politic. 

To a moral certainty, the above few instances do not represent 
a tenth part of the information which a systematic survey would reveal, 
in regard to this momentous subject, among the Indo- Mongolian races, 
but enough has probably been said to shew that these communal bar- 
racks are a social feature of importance, deserving more careful study. 

Turning now to Bengal and Central India, with its mixed and 
aboriginal races, we find these barracks in some form or other araono- 
the Gonds, Konds, Sonthals, Kols and others. According to the Revd. 
S. Hyslop, the Konds and Gonds have " in their villages bothies for 
bachelors." Among the Gaiti Gonds and Koitars, " each village has a 
house, or gotalghar (empty bed house) for single unmarried men to 
sleep in, and also similar ones for unmarried girls and women." 
33 



254 S. E. Peal — -Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

The Juangs (in Keonjur) have the same, and after work and eating', 
the young men drum and dance, while the girls sing. The Revd. E. 
Petrick, who lived as a Missionary for some years at Ranchi, informs me 
that under the name of " Damkuria " these communal barracks for the 
unmarried (of both sexes) are seen in all Sonthali and Oraon villages, 
and that before marriage there is complete liberty between the sexes. 

Mr. W. H. P. Driver, who has had large experience among these 
races, confirms the above. Speaking of the Koroas (Journal A. 8. B., 
Volume LX, Part I, No. II, 1891) he says :— 

" Every large village has its " Damkuria " or bachelors' quarter, 
for boys who are too old to live with their parents," girls stay with 
their parents until they are married. The dancing ground "acra," is 
usually an open space in front of the Damkuria, and young people 
enjoy considerable freedom until they are married. 

Turning now to the Archipelago and Pacific region, we find in 
more or less modified forms this singular social institution common all 
over New Guinea, and the houses conspicuous as " Dubus, Dobo, 
Dupa, Marea," &c. 

Many of our best travellers and missionaries have given us excel- 
lent descriptions of them, and the customs pertaining thereto, though 
in many cases failing to perceive their sociological significance. 

Considering the great difference between the Papuan and Indo- 
Mongol races, and the distance sepai'ating these areas, the similarity 
between the " Mosup," " Pah," " Arizu," &c, and the Papuan, " Dubu," 
" Marea," &c, is most extraordinary. 

Not only are they in each case abnormally large and long semi- 
sacred communal buildings, which serve as guest and council halls, 
decorated with skull trophies of war, or feasting, and specially set apart 
as the sleeping places for the young unmarried men ; but we find the 
structure and arrangement of the houses almost identical, not only are 
they characterized by extreme length, but in all cases the floors are 
raised on piles 6 to 10 feet high, we even see such a detail of construc- 
tion as the peculiar Naga " hum tong," Miri " tung gong," or project- 
ng siesta platform which is common among all Indo-Mongol houses, 
urning up in the Papuan " Araiba," identical in office and structure. 

Internally we see a long hall, with fire-places and sleeping bunks 
each side. Last and most significant of all we find that in all 
casea these houses are strictly tabu to women. 

In saying that the extraordinary identity seen between these 
Indo-Mongol aud Papuan buildings and their objects, cannot possibly 
be the result of accidental coincidence we tacitly admit the existence 
of a far-reaching social relation between these now distinct races. 

The Revd. J. Chalmers, describing Ipaivaitani's "Dubu," says : — 



1892. J S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 255 

" He khnself led me by the hand, women and children remaining 
behind, men and youths preceding and following until we came to the 
" Dubu " itself, where 1 was met by a number of old men who waved 
their hands and bade me welcome. Inside and on each side of the long 
beautiful aisle were seated young men, legs crossed, and arms folded 
not speaking a word, while I was led down the aisle by the chief, 
followed by the old men until we came near the end where we stayed 
a few minutes, and I was then told to turn, on doing which all the 
seated ones rose, followed me out and a general conversation went on." 

This is almost precisely the etiquette pursued in our Naga hills, 
see Journal A. S. B. Volume XLI, Part I, of 1872 pages 17 and 18." 

Further on Chalmers says : — " The temple, for a native building, 
was really good. In front was a large platform, and immediately 
under the great high peak in front, was a large verandah, on which the 
men sat sheltered from the sun and rain. I looked down an aisle 
nearly 200 feet in length. Inside the whole place was divided into 
compartments, in each of which there were fires, where the owners 
spent much of their time in eating and sleeping." 

Speaking of the Maiva villages in the Papuan Gulf Mr. Lawes 
says : — " The sacred house, a fine building 120 feetx 24, was assigned 
for lodging. Inside the building was furnished with series of shelves 
or platforms, the upright posts were mostly carved, one at the entrance 
having a full length figure of a crocodile on one side, and a human 
figure on the other. The Dupu or sacred house has its times of 
more than ordinary sanctity, at such periods it is profusely decorated, 
and no woman's or child's eye is permitted to see it. The sacred 
house of each village generally stands at the end of the single street, 
and the other houses are of poor construction." 

In the Journal E. G. 8. for April 1881, page 216, the Revd. W. C. 
Lawes refers to Mr. Chalmers' visit to Maclalchie point. " One Dubu 
or sacred house is described where two large posts 80 feet high sup- 
port the large peaked portico, which is 30 ft. wide, while the wdiole 
building is 160 feet in length, and tapers down in height from the front. 
A large number of skulls of men, crocodiles, cassowaries and pigs, 
ornamented it. The human skulls are those of victims who have 
been killed and eaten by them." 

These skull trophies which are met with all over the Pacific are 
a peculiar and suggestive counterpart to the identically similar skull 
trophies seen among most of the Indo-Mongolian races. Among the 
head- hunting Nagas, as many as 350 skulls, of men, women, and children, 
may at times be seen carefully ranged, in a" Pah," like the flower pots 
in a hot-house, the posts and beams being hung with boar, mithun and 
deer skulls tier over tier. 



256 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

Sigr. D'Albertis, in several places in his travels in New Guinea, 
describes the " Marea," as gnest and council houses, tabu to women, 
and situated at the end of a street of houses. At page 194 he refers to 
a corpse which was " taken to the house of the unmarried young men." 
In many works of travel we see illustrations of the Marea or Duhu 
in New Guinea, as being situated at the end of a street, where the 
houses of the married people ai'e placed end on, in two rows facing 
each other. At page 140 D'Albertis illustrates a "Marea" (at Para's 
village) 300 ft. long x 36 to 45 wide, this being the public hall and sacred 
house, but in this instance the huts of the married people are built 
(also on piles,) as a row of miniature houses along each side of the 
main communal building, and joined thereto by little flying 
bridges, across which the women dare not pass, their exit being by 
little doors and ladders down on the outer side. 

Viewed in plan this arrangement of the large communal hall in 
the centre, with the married quarters all divided off along each side, 
is absolutely identical with the ground plan of many Indo-Mongolian 
houses, where there is a long and wide common central apartment, 
at times reduced to a passage, and off which on each side, are the 
rooms of tho married couples all partitioned off, with their own fire- 
places, and with ladders and doors in the outer walls. 

Among the Arfak villages Sr. D'Albertis alludes to the houses built 
on piles, wherein tho men and women live, in one, divided down the 
middle by a partition, the men one side the women on the other, aud 
they eat apart. 

Captain Strachan in his "Expedition to New Guinea," page 166, 
says : — Some of the houses of the Turi Turi were from 100 to 150 
ft. long, the women and the men lived in separate houses, not even 
tho married people living together. The houses are raised from the 
ground and a broad step ladder leads to a platform at either end. 
There are also platforms at the sides with several small doors or 
openings at intervals along the building." Sr. D'Albertis, (pp. 319-20), 
referring to the Mou, Miori, and Erine villages, says that the houses 
are in 2 rows, while large houses called " Marea " on piles, and tabu to 
women, contain skull trophies, and have no doors, but platforms in 
front called " Araiba " 6 to 12 feet high. These are the young un- 
married men's sleeping houses. 

Dr. Holrong refers to these " Marea " or " Dubus," when he says : 
M The young men live together in one building which is distinguished 
by the figure of a man." (Pro., E, G. S. 1888, page 602). 

Mr. J. C. Galton writing in "Nature," (page 205, 1880) of Maclay's 
travels, says that the "Buam ram ra," or sacred house is strictly tabu to 
women and children, while the "Baruru" or great drum and all musical 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Eaces. 257 

instruments are also tabu to them, but are played by the " Malassi " 
or unmarried young men ; and women eat by themselves. 

Thus we see on the great island of Papua amongst races now 
distinct in physique and language from our Indo-Mongoliaus, Dravi- 
dians, and Kols, these singular communal barracks. Under the names of 
" Dubu, Marea, or Buam ram ra," these peculiar and conspicuous semi- 
sacred houses are built on piles, decorated with skull trophies, used as 
guest and council houses, with the projecting siesta platform, are the 
sleeping places of the young men, and strictly tabu to the women, the 
family live in subordinate huts. 

In Dr. Guppy's " Solmon Islands " page 57, we find that : — " In 
the large villages, the houses are .generally built (on piles) in double 
rows with a common thoroughfare between ; the tambu house occupies 
usually a central position, and has a staging in front. Page 67 : — 
" In the the tambu houses of St. Christoval and the adjoining Islands, 
we have a style of building on which all the mechanical skill of which 
the natives are possessed has been brought to bear. These sacred 
buildings have many and varied uses. Women are forbidden to enter 
their walls, and in some coast villages as at Sapuna in the Island of 
S. Duna, where the tambu house overlooks the beach, women are not 
permitted to cross the beach in front. The interior of these houses 
is free to any man to lie down and sleep in." 

If we turn to the Bismark Archipelago, the Louisiades, and New 
Hebrides we find either recent or former traces in them of these social 
barracks and many of the customs which so commonly accompany 
them such as " jhuming," tatooing, pile building, head-hunting, &c., and 
here there are canoe houses. 

Mr. W. Powell, referring to the little houses of the natives on 
New Britain, says : — " For each village two large houses are built; one 
for the men the other for the women, no man is allowed in the woman's 
house, nor is any woman allowed in the man's house, the latter is 
generally used for a council house. They are lined with bunks made 
of bamboo which extend along both sides, serving as beds or seats." 

Near Port Webber he found, in a clearing, several houses, a large 
one in the centre, a council or reception house, with the large "gara- 
moot" or wooden drum before it. This house " might have been as 
in other parts of New Britain, a young man's sleeping Jwuse." 

" When in want of women for their young men to marry (as they 
may not marry into their own tribe), they make a raid against the 
bush tribes of Byning and seize the young women, eating the bodies 
of the men killed or taken prisoners." 

Captain C. Bridge in the Proceedings B. G. S., September 1886, 
page 549, informs us that "at Ambrym (New Hebrides) and some 



258 S. E. Pea — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

other islands the young, unmarried men in a village always sleep in 
a large house specially set apart for them." And in the Pelew Islands 
" in each village there are large club-houses to which the younger 
men resort, a few women from neighbouring villages also frequent 
them. It is not considered comme il faut for a woman to enter one 
in her own village. If she did she would become an outcaste ; going 
into one a mile or two off, however, in no way affects her position." 

As far off indeed as New Zealand we find the so-called " bachelors' 
barracks " have spread from Polynesia. In a note from Mr. S. Percy 
Smith, he says : — " The bachelors' barrack is a Polynesian institution, 
known in New Zealand as the "Wharee Matoro," which was the 
sleeping place of the young men, and often of the young women too. 
Wltaree means " house " and Matoro is the advance made by women 
towards the other sex (often used vice versa also). These " wharee " 
were also the places where the village guests were entertained. Sexual 
intercourse between the young and unmarried was quite unconstrained 
in former times." 

Turning north to Formosa we find that Mr. Gr. Taylor, in the 
Proceedings, II. G. S. for 1889, page 2.3 1, says that in the aboriginal 
villages there are one or more buildings called " Palong Kaus," which 
are huge houses built to accomodate the youths from the time they 
attain puberty until married. Their food is prepared by the parents 
and taken to the " Palong Ivan," the lads are never allowed to reside in 
the paternal home. All public matters are discussed in the " Palong 
Kans" and it is of the nature of a caravanserai, as any visitor may enter, 
hang up his belongings and begin cooking at the public fire. 

By day the building is watched by the youths in tarn. On the 
receipt of any intelligence necessitating a meeting of the villagers, the 
watchers attach to their waists the iron bells which always hang at 
the door, and run through the village, regulating their speed by the 
importance of the matter to be discussed. 

Dr. Warbung again at page 743 refers to the Formosan skull 
hunts, blood money, and " club houses for young men." 

In Borneo again Ave find a large number of savage races, many of 
them notorious head-hunters, and who in physique and customs are 
almost identical with our Indo-Mongols of the hills round, and south 
of Assam. Not only among Dyaks and Nagas do we see, jhum culti- 
vation, building on piles, houses 200 and 300 feet long, head-hunting, 
blackening the teeth, aversion to milk, and barracks for the unmarried 
youths; but singular details absolutely identical such as the bamboo 
pegged to a tree stem for a ladder, getting fire by see-sawing a long 
strip of dry cane under a dry branch held down by the foot, &c. 

According to Sir Henry Yule: — " In Borneo as well as among the 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barraclcs of Primitive "Races. 25"9 

tribes of the Assam frontier, we find in each village one or more public 
halls used for public ceremonies, but which also form dormitories of 
the unmarried young men of the community and serve thus as a sort 
of main guard to the village, and in these halls both in Borneo and 
Assam is often seen suspended the treasure of trophy skulls. Hence 
St. John often calls them head-houses and sometimes bachelors' houses." 
Unfortunately St. John's "Life in the forests of the far East" is not in 
our library, and I must be content with the above single quotation. 

Wallace, however, in his Malay Archipelago, page 50, says, "My 
things were taken "up to the " head-house," a circular building attached 
to most Dyak villages, and serving as a lodging for strangers and the place 
for trade. The sleeping room of the unmarried youths, and the general 
council chamber." 

It may not be out of place to notice here, that in some cases the 
type of Chief's house is the same as those seen in. the hills round 
Assam, and in New Guinea. 

In Mr. D. D. Daly's note on the explorations in British North 
Borneo, {Proceedings R. G. S. January 1888, p. 6) he says: — " At Pun- 
pun, the head man. is Rendom, who lives in a large house, raised ten feet 
off the ground; there is a centre passage through the top part with many 
rooms containing families on either side." This is structurally identical 
with our Chiefs' houses in the Naga hills, and many other places, see 
" Nature " June 19, 1884 p. 169. 

The difficulty of tracing these barracks among the savage tribes 
in Sumatra has been considerable. So far my only source of informa- 
tion has been the short notice in the " Lllustrated London .News" of 
September 12th, 1891, p. 335, of M. Julius Claine's trip among the 
Battak Karo, in May 1890. He says : — "The town of Sirbayais divided 
into several "kampongs," separated by bamboo palisade and ruled by 
their respective chiefs. The houses are built on piles of squared timber. 
In front of the house is a raised platform with a staircase of bamboo. 
The interior is one large room with a trench along the middle of the 
floor serving as a passage from end to end. This abode is occupied by 
the family Patriarch, with his married sons and daughters and their 
children, each branch of the family having its allotted place. 

They pass much of their time on the outer terrace or platform, and 
occasionally sleep there at night. A dozen married couples with their 
offspring, or nearly 100 persons, may inhabit one such dwelling. Un- 
married young men live together in a large house sometimes of two 
stories, which is set apart for them. 

So that here again in Sumatra we find unmistakably this singular 
social institution, and according to •' Nature" August 13th, 1885, p. 
346, these Battaks are "head-hunters." 



260 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

Whether the segregation of unmarried youths is seen in the island 
of Nias, and among the Tagal and Igorotte of Luzon, and the forest 
nomadics of central Sumatra I cannot say, but over the whole of 
Polynesia it seems to have co-existed with a stage of complete sexual 
liberty which now appears shocking to us. 

For many years one of the greatest difficulties met with by the 
Missionaries over this region was the absence of terms in all the 
languages, denoting virtue, modesty and chastity. The attempts to ex- 
plain these terms to old or young alike, were met by shrieks of laughter, 
as they were utterly incomprehensible. 

In all cases this universal and naive immodesty seems to have co- 
existed with the communal barracks sacred to men only, whether among 
exogamic or endogamic communities, and even among those as in "Taipi" 
of the Marquesas, where marriage, as we understand it, had not been 
fully developed, or hardly begun. 

In the " Narrative of a four months' residence in the Typee Valley 
of NuTcuMva, one of the Marquesas, in 1847," Mr. Hermann Melville 
fully describes the "Ti" or bachelors' hall, "at least 200 feet in length, 
though not more than 20 in breadth ; the whole front of this structure 
was completely open. Its interior presented the appearance of an im- 
mense lounging-place, the entire floor being strewn with successive 
layers of mats. Thus far Ave had been accompanied by a troop of 
the natives of both sexes, but as soon as we approached its vicinity, 
the females gradually separated themselves from the crowd, and stand- 
ing aloof, permitted us to pass on. Inside, muskets, rude spears, and 
war clubs were ranged around." 

This is an almost exact repetition of Mr. Needham's description of 
the Abors' "bachelors' hall", or "Mosup" (Proceeding, B. G. S. May, 
1886, p. 317.) "80 yards longand 10 yards wide," and is entirely open 
along the whole of one side. In this house all the single men warriors 
reside, and it is also used as a council room, and the arms are also 
stored in it as in the " Ti," of the " Marquesas." 

The most remarkable feature in regard to Typee is that while in 
that instance the sexual liberty was unusually complete, and the 
" bachelors' barracks " seen in its purest form, the institution of " mar- 
riage " was yet in its infancy and from the very nature of the conditions 
was developing on endogamic lines. 

The "capture of wives" appears in that case to have been practi- 
cally an impossibility, as a rule, and hence it may be one of the rare 
instances where monogamy or polyandry arose by endogamy. But the 
marriage tie, or "nuptial alliance " seems to have been of a very simple 
nature, and easily dissolved. 



1892.] S, E. Peal — Communal Barracks af Primitive Races. 261 

In the case of " Taipi," we see a tribe confined to a valley 9 or 10 
miles long by 1 or 2 wide, living on bread-frnit, plantains, cocoanuts, 
yams, growing spontaneously ; no cultivation, and possessing no cattle : 
only the pig ; their houses scattered among the trees, not grouped into 
villages ; and having perpetual feud with Happar and Nukuhiva, adjoin- 
ing tribes, eating these enemies when slain. The absence of marriage 
except in a rudimentary (endogamic) form, the complete sexual liberty, 
utter ignorance of modesty, and remarkable development of the Ti, or 
barracks tabu to women, are as singular as the general happiness and 
plenty, absence of sickness and crime. 

For many years past an obscure relation has been observed in 
many ways between the Indo-Pacific region and East Africa ; it crops 
up in several matters, and hence we need not be surprized at finding 
that, in variously modified foi'ms, our communal barracks for the un- 
manned are seen among the Massai and other races. Dr. Parkes noticed 
them on the Congo. In the Proceedings, B. G. S. for December, 1884, 
page 701, Mr. Joseph Thomson says: — "The most remarkable distinc- 
tions characterise the various epochs in the life-history of the Massai. 
The boys and girls up to a certain age live with their parents, and feed 
upon meat, grain, and curdled milk. At the age of 12 with the girls, 
and 12 to 11 with the boys, they are sent from the married men's Krai, 
to one in which there are only unmarried young men and women. 
There they live in a very indiscribable manner till they are married." 

" At this stage the men are warriors and their sole occupation is 
cattle-lifting and amusing themselves at home. The young women 
attend to the cattle and build the huts, and perform other necessary 
household duties. So pleasant does the Massai warrior find this 
life that he seldom marries till he has passed the prime of life and 
finds his strength decline. The great war spear and heavy buffalo- 
hide shield, the sword and the knobkerry are laid aside. For a time — ■ 
a month — he dons the dress of an unmarried woman, and thereafter 
becomes a staid and respectable member of Massai society." The habits 
of this strange tribe are purely nomadic, they move about according- 
to the pastures. Their houses are formed of bent boughs, plastered 
with dung." 

Again Mr. D. K. Cross, in the Proceedings, B. Q. S. February 1891, 
page 87, referring to the Awamwamba of Nyassaland, thus describes 
the village houses of the unmarried people : — " the unmarried men or 
*' waken ja" as they are called, live in long-shaped houses often 50 feet 
or 60 in length built of bamboo. No man is allowed to marry till he is 
about 30, and able to buy a wife. The herds are kept in separate 
houses which are long like those of the unmarried men." 
34 



262 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

Traces of the " bachelors' barracks," young men's clubs, and 
fetich houses tabu to •women, are, I believe, found all across Africa, 
both among Bechuanas and Caffres, and the Bakalai of the Gaboon. 

Thus we appear to have in the case of the Massai, at least one 
instance in Africa, of organized sexual promiscuity as a social phase 
preceding marriage. Hitherto we have seen, this feature among 
more settled races, in this instance it is seen among semi-nomad ics, 
where from the nature of the surroundings, in past times, the develop- 
ment of " marriage " appears to have been retarded by the ample 
supplies of food due to a pastoral life. 

In strong contrast to this, we find among the Australian races, 
who are truly nomadic, and where food is procured "with difficulty, that 
the possession of a wife (i. e., female slave) is of the utmost importance 
socially and early marriage the rule. A man's wealth is measured by 
the number of his " lubras." Yet strange to say these races who have 
no settled villages or permanent buildings, exhibit the two social 
features so conspicuous in those having bachelors' barrack, i. e , com- 
plete sexual liberty among juveniles in the clan or horde, and isola- 
tion of the young men from the married families. 

It has been urged by MacLennan in his " Primitive Marriage" 
pp. 85, 86 and 87, and by Peschel in his " Paces of Man," pp. 223, 224 and 
5, that the cause of exogamy has been due to the horror of consanguinity, 
and that it is among rude and savage races " that a horror of incest^is 
developed most strongly." Apparently the fact has been unknown, 
or overlooked, that it is precisely among such races that we see the 
most complete, most unlimited, and socially recognized sexual liberty 
permitted within the tribe or clan until marriage, whether it is endog- 
amic or exogamic ; that the " communal barracks " are in fact in 
many cases directly due to this fact, and hence are universally tabu to 
the married woman whether a captive or not. It is precisely in con- 
sequence of the sexual license attached to these barracks, that they 
are tabu. So that this " horror of incest " is really a fiction. It is 
much to be regretted that the want of a little more practical knowledge 
of savages and semi-civilized races, has caused MacLennan, Peschel 
and others, to make such a serious mistake as to suppose that exogamy 
and wife capture, were due to a " horror of consanguinity," a " terror 
of such alliances," and that (MacLennan, 1. c. p. 232), " It is precisely 
nations in the most primitive stage which have the greatest abhorrence 
of incestuous marriage," and hence practice wife stealing so as to 
avoid it. This view of the savages' morality is necessarily ludicrous 
to all who understand the " communal barracks," and the sexual orgies 
so common among races having this institution, and wherein they are 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 263 

viewed as harmless juvenile amusements. A view which extends from, 
the Himalaya to New Zealand, and from the Marquesas to the Gaboon 
and beyond. 

But to return to our (exogamic) Australians, and the traces of the 
barrack system among these nomadic races. Mr. Brough Smyth at 
page 36 of his great work says : — " The unmarried young men have 
a place set apart for them in the camps, and they are not permitted to 
associate with the females, page 62. At the " mur rum " initiation 
of a girl by old women, after being painted, young men (20 or so) 
approach and take an oath not to assault her, but she may entertain 
any of them of her own free will as a lover, till married. 

As marriage is only possible by capture or exchange, a man with 
no female relations (to barter) is an object of suspicion, and Las to 
" share the discomforts of the bachelors' quarters." (page 86). A man 
calls a woman of the same caste (or clan) " Wartoa," i. e., sister, and 
cannot marry her, yet connections of a less virtuous character which 
take place between them, do not appear to be considered incestuous." 
" Intercourse between the males and females belonging to the same 
class, appear to be regarded without disfavor." " In arranging the 
" miams " (in a camp) care is taken to separate the unmarried young 
men from the married females and their families. It is not permitted 
to the young men to mix with females, but the young people of both 
sexes evade all precautions generally," (p. 124). 

" When one tribe visits another, huts are built for them by the 
hosts, and one is set apart for the young unmarried men," (p. 135). 

Again young men are taunted by the young women of their own 
tribe, if they marry outside by peaceful arrangement, (i. e., they object 
to loss of their lovers), (vol. II, p. 82). 

The above are a few references out of many (in one work) to the 
fact that, excepting the married woman alone, there was complete 
sexual liberty within the horde or clan, between those calling them- 
selves brothers and sisters. This be it observed among races where 
their strict exogamy is, or has been, attributed to the dread and 
" horror " of risk of incestuous intercourse. There can be little doubt 
that as Mr. Horatio Hale aud others believe, the Australians are a 
degenerate race, or that they have carried with them into adverse 
surroundings, these two remarkable social features of complete sexual 
liberty within the clan, and the segregation of the unmarried youths, 
after exogamy arose. They exhibit one of the rare cases where among 
savages the increased importance of marriage and the " wife " — as a 
food gatherer, — has dominated the relics of the barrack system. It is 
the opposite of what we have seen among the Massai, where the com- 



264 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Baces. [No. 3, 

muual barracks appear to have survived in greater purity than 
elsewhere, clue possibly to the absence of inducement to develope the 
marriage system. 

It is instructive to note that while in the main perhaps, the develop- 
ment of social arrangements may have been from a stage of com- 
munism, through " w T ife capture," to endogamy, these three stages are 
not necessarily so incompatible as to be impossible together at one 
and the same time. Among many of our Indo-Mongoloid races we see 
all the three forms existing tog-ether in the same community. Taking 
the Banpara tribe as an illustration, we see in the head village Zu, 
as before noted, complete sexual liberty until marriage, and 13 typical 
bachelors' barracks or Pah, which are also skull-houses, guard-houses, 
council-and guest-halls, strictly tabu to married women. 

This sexual liberty before marriage, is part and parcel of the 
whole social organization, and has been so apparently from time imme- 
morial, producing no bad results, and is strenuously defended by old 
and young alike. If any grown girl becomes pregnant, which is a 
rare case until after marriage, there is very little trouble caused, as the 
young fellow to whom she is most partial is then allowed to marry her, 
with less delay ami expense than usual. A feature in the case is 
noteworthy, i. e., that, as a rale, by the time a young man has reached 
the age of 2-A or 25, and a girl 20, both settle down as quiet and sedate 
parties while still in the early prime of life. The stage of excitement 
is over, and it is exceedingly rare to find infidelity ; divorces being 
less frequent than among civilized races who value juvenile chastity. 
But side by side with this unlimited sexual liberty before marriage, 
we see that among the chiefs of these same tribes, who are great stick- 
lei's for etiquette and customs, their marriages are strictly exogamous, 
they may not marry into their own tribes. The Chopnu (" bear ") 
chief must not marry a " bear," or Chopnu girl, but he may marry a 
Chanu or " tiger," or Yanu, " iron." A Yanu chief may marry a 
Chopnu but not a Yanu. At the same time, when young, all those 
chiefs have the same liberty precisely as the other young men, have 
several sweethearts, and at least before marriage, one or more concubines, 
from their own tribe, the children of whom, if any, do not become 
chiefs. These concubines are called " Karsais." Their " Kuries" or 
true wives are arranged for with other chiefs who have marriageable 
daughters, often a tedious and costly matter, including political alliance. 
The ceremony when it comes off is largely a mock capture, the 
bridegroom and large number of elaborately decorated warriors, in 
full war paint, with guns and spears, meet the bridal party on the 
tribal boundary, execute their war dances and bring the bride home to 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Baces. 2G5 

a grand feast and general drinking boufc. The " Karsais " or concubines, 
meanwhile, are kept on, and as before, are practically servants, the Kuri 
indeed looks on them as indispensible. So that the chiefs are exogarn- 
ic, and the marriage is a relic of wife capture, the ceremony often 
a mock capture or fight. But the rank and file of these head-hunting 
savages are now so closely packed all over these hills, and have been 
so for, at least 1,500 or 2,000 years that the difficulty of procuring 
wives, when so often at feud all round, has necessitated endogamous 
marriages, at first no doubt between different villages of the same 
tribe semi-independent. As a rule now, the common folk are endogam- 
ous, and the marriage is arranged by parents or relatives, at times 
by payment, and at others service, or both. In all cases, however, as 
amongst all the races having barracks, and sexual liberty, these mar- 
riages are adult, and not juvenile, as among Hindus and Mohamedans, 
and the parties themselves have the greatest say in the matter, they are 
not little puppets. 

Of the three form's of sexual relation the oldest is probably the 
communal barrack system, which is so generally seen as at the basis of 
many tribal customs and which underlies the whole social life, a 
stage of exogamy, following but not superseding it, survives as a relic 
among the chiefs, while endogamy is apparently more recent, and in 
turn does not violently displace either of the others. The elastic 
relations existing between the villages constituting a distinct tribe, 
give us indeed the clue to the mode of transition from exogamy to 
endogamy. Occasionally a large Tillage with one or more offshoots, 
will declare its independence, or two tribes (or clans) at peace agree to 
found a new settlement, which in time becomes distinct. 

Indeed this has been the normal mode of tribal development over 
the entire area. Occasionally a single tribe or clan will be comprised 
in one large village or "chang," and at feud with all others around it 
for 6 or 8 years, and this has no doubt led to endogamy, especially as 
so many of these "changs," are at times built on semi-detached peaks, 
and are practically almost distinct villages. But the transition from 
exogamy to endogamy among these tribes, has evidently been exceed- 
ingly slow, possibly not less than thousands of years, judging by their 
unwritten history, which goes back in some cases about 30 generations, 
and which unless secured at an early date, will undoubtedly be lost for 
ever. The remarkable feature in the case is the steady persistence 
of the "barracks" all through, as a social survival from a period which 
evidently preceded the origin of these races as we now see them. 

The sociological significance of these singular communal institu- 
tions, briefly referred to in the foregoing, it is imperatively necessary 



266 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

to study carefully if we hope to glimpse the earlier forms of social 
development, or settle whether man has heen from the first "a pairing 
animal," and the family the unit, as some suppose, or whether the 
unit has been the small chiefless communal clan. 

A general, if somewhat cursory survey in this research, is much 
more likely to elucidate the truth, than a very careful study of isolat- 
ed instances, which vary so considerably, as to be at times probably 
misleading. Collectively these barracks seem to point to a communal 
origin, incompatible with the pre-existence of monogamy, the univer- 
sality of the tabu against the married woman, among races wherein 
there is, and has been complete sexual liberty till marriage, seems to 
point out the married woman or captured slave, as a social interloper ; 
she is not the superior or even the equal in the situation anywhere, 
but is universally legislated against as an inferior, the barrack domi- 
nates her and even her offspring. They are antagonistic. 

One of the dangers of studying this subject exclusively from a few 
instances only, is seen in the fact that in many cases the tabu against 
the " wife," has gradually been extended to the other women and girls 
of the clan, a veiy natural development. But while there are appar- 
ently no cases wherein the married women can visit or sleep in these 
young men's barracks (in their own tribe) there are a large number 
wherein the unmarried girls can do so, and not o few in which these 
latter are expected to do so, or even in which special barracks (Gabru 
morongs) are built for them. Those who know anything of these primi- 
tive races, among whom we find these communal barracks and their utter 
disregard for juvenile chastity, must smile at the rem ai*k that "it is 
precisely among nations in the most primitive stage which have the 
greatest abhorrence of incestuous marriages," and that this drove them 
all into wife capture. As if to render this view still more ludicrous, 
Huth's " marriage of near kin," amounts to a demonstration that 
consanguineous marriages are not at all necessarily injurious, and 
may at times even be beneficial, as all breeders of stock well know and 
the race of Ptolemies demonstrated. That in the earlier stages of 
human development, ere social customs arose regulating the rights of 
property, there may have been a time when captured women were the 
public property of the horde, is not impossible. But as soon as rights 
in captured spoils were recognized, by races wherein there was sexual 
communism, and hence less internal competition for females, the right 
of the stronger warriors to keep their female captives as " wives," 
would be less disputed. The more valuable such females became as 
slaves, the more " wife capture " would be developed, as in Australia. 
MacLennan would appear to have been under misapprehension, when 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. 267 

in arguing against the "origin of marriage " by capture, he thought it 
unlikely, because savages had " women of their own whom they could 
marry." It is precisely because in a communal stage, all the females of 
the tribe, or horde, were public property, that no male could isolate, 
and appropriate one, as his own exclusively, that the right to a captive 
female slave (as a wife) became feasible. She was private property. 

The distinct private right to captured weapons, utensils or slaves, 
resulting from " joint action," is notorious among savages. Hence it 
is singular to see MacLennan insisting that the public right to a 
" beautiful captive," would stand as an argument against " marriage by 
capture." When we examine the matter closely, in situ, we find that 
invariably, the property captured in a joint raid, is never scrambled 
for, but subject to laws or rules minutely regulating the private rights 
of those engaged. Whether in fishing, hunting, or in raids for much 
coveted heads, to secure the envied tatooing, there are strict rules as 
to the rights in the spoils. I have known a case where the youngest lad 
in a head-hunting party alone secured the head, and the honor of tatoo- 
ing, out of a party of 63 young warriors. Without strict and recog- 
nized rules in all such matters, there would be chronic social anarchy. 
So that when closely examined MacLennan's argument will not hold 
water. Whether an exhaustive study of these singular " communal 
barracks " seen among so many distinct races under such various local 
phases, will eventually shew us that they are the relics of a former 
stage of communism, it is not easy to see, but there are certain per- 
sistent features which appear to point in that direction, among others 
the universal tabu against the married women. If " marriage " by 
capture of female slaves, arose while society was in the stage of com- 
munal hor-des, or clans, it is very easy to see that the successful 
warriors would naturally object to their female captives (or wives as 
we now call them) associating with the unmarried young men in their 
communal quarters, and hence tabu them. It is what we might 
naturally expect under the circumstances, and also that these warriors 
would generally have the power as well as the inclination to enforce 
such a social law. If there were no other females available for the rest 
of the males, it might not have been so easy perhaps, but when we 
recollect that in all these cases there was complete sexual liberty within 
the horde itself, among its normal female members, the successful 
isolation of the captive wives was probably feasible, and hence arose 
both the " marriage " and " tabu " simultaneously. The almost univer- 
sal power of these communal relics, over the children, a power which, 
as a rule, dominates that of the parent, is another indication that 
marriage and the family are of more recent development. Indeed the 



268 S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive Races. [No. 3, 

indications that some forms of communal association preceded the 
isolation of the family turn up in several unexpected ways. At page 
140 of his travels D'Albertis illustrates a " Marea " at Paras village 
300 ft. long by about 36 wide, this being the great communal 
building, or sacred house, tabu to women, and in this instance the 
houses of the married folk, also built on piles, are two rows of little 
huts, one along each side of the great building, distinct from it, yet 
with little flying bridges to it, across which the men alone could pass, 
the women's access to them being by little doors and ladders on the 
outside, as in fig. B. This arrangement and isolation of the married 
people's quarters, on either side of a common hall or passage, seems to 
underlie the construction of houses very generally all over this part of 
the world, as in figure A. In the case of the " Mou Miori," (D'Alberts) 
1. c. pp. 319-20, these married quarters are no longer little appendages 
aloug each side of the Marea, but are really distinct houses, and set 
back, so as to form a wide street, in which the communal Marea is 
placed. And here again we see that this arrangement as a street, 
is very common, from Assam to the Pacific. We even see that the 
clear space between the rows of houses used for dancing on, has a 
distinct name, the " Akra " of the Oraons, the " Inrrai" of neAV Hebrides, 
Ac, fig 0. All these houses are built on piles, 3 or 4 to 8-10 ft. long, 
and have the siesta platform S, projecting in front beyond the eaves; 
the "Airaba" of New Guinea, the "Tung gong" of Miris, and 
"Humtong" of Nagas. In all the figures, A. B. C. Co are the com- 
munal and M the married quarters. 

The building of houses on piles which is very common among 
races having communal barracks, has long been a stumbling block to 
anthropologists. Mr. Crawford in his " History of the Archipelago" 
p. 159, attributes it to the people inhabiting marshes, banks of rivers, 
and the sea coast. Others say as a means of security from attacks of 
enimies or wild animals. But as Sir Henry Yule pointed out in the 
Journal of the Anthropological Institute i February 1880, page 296, it 
cannot be due to these and is really a race character. 

The most likely cause for the custom seems to be the presence of 
the pig, which, as a domestic, or semi-domestic animal, is kept by almost 
all pile building races, and which unless there were some means taken 
to effectually frustrate its depredations, would devour everything edible 
within reach, infants included, as some of the people themselves point 
out. They could not go out to their jhums, without leaving a guard 
behind them. This " pile building " is one of the allied customs before 
alluded to ; and exhibits the usual variation due to influence of physi 
cal surroundings. 



1892.] S. E. Peal — Communal Barracks of Primitive liaces. 



2G9 



The fact that these baiTacks are found over such an immense area 
among such distinct races, and with such marked geographical vari- 
ations, ohviously due to the surroundings, indicates an extreme anti- 
quity, preceding the differentiation of physique and even language, 
and beirg essentially of a communal nature they seem relics of a social 
stage preceding monogamy, and to demonstrate more or less clearly 
that marriage arose by capture. The extreme, and indeed absolute 
freedom between the sexes before marriage, culminating in many races, 
in sexual orgies, and the absence of the ideas of modesty and chastity, 
amply demonstrate that it could not have been the dread of incest 
which drove them into exogamy. There appears to be absolutely no 
evidence that a peaceful stage of monogamy preceded the communal 
barrack system, certainly no evidence of peaceful endogamy, or "mar- 
riage " within the horde or clan. Such evidence as we have is distinctly 
in favor of " marriage by capture," having arisen during a stage of 
communism, the relics of which we see surviving in these singular 
communal barracks. That they are doomed, and ere long will become 
extinct, is not at all doubtful to those who have watched them in 
some cases for 20 years. The trader and the missionary are rapidly 
changing the old order of things, and, even without their aid, there ap- 
pears to be some evidence that among many of these races, the im- 
portance of the family is in the ascendant. It is most desirable therefore 
that these social relics should be studied systematically at an early 
date, the information gained would be of much value to anthropologists, 
and not entirely useless perhaps to those interested in such questions 
as infant marriage, and the age of consent. 





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270 P- Biiibl — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Disputdtiones. [No. 3, 

De Banunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. — Scripsit P. Bruhl. 
[Tab. iii, iv, v et vi]. 

Praefatio. 

Ex quo tempore Hooker Alius et T. Thomson de Ranunculaceis indi- 
cis in voluinine primo Flora3 imperii indici conscripserunt, maximus nil- 
merus exemplarium stirpiurn exsiccatarum adlatus est a Stoliczka, An- 
derson, Kurz, Prain, Henderson, Scully, Giles, Aitcliison, Duke, Lace, 
Brandis, Scblicb, Gamble, Ellis, Baden-Powell, Drummond, Davidson, 
Tanner, Sedgewick, C. B. Clarke, Watt, Gammie, Pantling, aliisque vir- 
is, magnaque speciminum copia cumulata est in berbariis calcuttensi et 
saharanpurensi summa inthistria atque cura Dutbiei et Doctoris King, 
clarissimorum virorum illorum de rebus botanicis iudicis optime merito- 
rum. Ac peregrinationes laboresque Hancei, Henryi, Prattii, Davidi, De- 
Iavayi, Maximowiczii, Przewalskii, Potanini, qui, fortes ad pericula, 
dcsertorum terroribus vel bostium montiumque altissimorum frigoribus 
indomiti, Mongoliam et Tibetiam et Cbinam propriam peragraverunt, 
atque species novae in impex^io sinensi repertse et ab Maximowiczio, Fran- 
clittio, Hemsleyo, aliisque accuratissime descriptae ac definitae compara- 
tionem stirpium indicarum cum stirpibus regionum finitimarum reddi- 
derunt faciliorem. 

Quamobrem Rnnunculaceas indicas denuo perscrutari et cum reli- 
quis asiatk-is et europaeis comparare instituimus, quamquam regnum 
nipalense vix cxploratuin et ese partes Himalayae quae a terra sikkimensi 
ad orientem verguut adbuc fere ignotae nos impediunt ne quaestionem 
plane cumulateque perficiamtis. Species autem Ranunculacearum valde 
variabiles suutmirumque inmodum polymorphae. ut perdifficile sit for- 
inas varias in species subspecies varietatesque disponere barumque fines 
regere. Ita fit ut genera plurima in species permultas, clescriptionibus 
bene definitas, natura plane confusas, divulsa et quasi discerpta videa- 
mus. Facilius enim est apta dissolvere quam dissipata connectere. 

Et quamquam in libellis floris excuvsoriis dictis conficiendis parvi 
interest utrum more Jordauiano subvarietates ad speciei dignitatem per- 
ducamus, an sequentes O. Kuntze sexcentas species aliorum auctorum ad 
unam redigamus : maximi momenti esse censimus in plantarum distri- 
butione investiganda et ad doctrinani transmutationum aliasque quaes- 
tiones pbysiologicas recte intelligendas non seiungere ea quae gradatim 
transeuntia unum in alterum natura sint iuncta. Itaque in bis disputa- 
tiouibus speciem statuimus esse universitatem omnium stirpium quae, 
quamvis extremae inter se differant babitu, magnitudine, induuiento, par- 
tium figura, aliisque notis, ita formis mediis copulatae connexasque sunt 



1892.] P. Briilil — Be Iianunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. 271 

tit discrimen quod in onmes partes valeat nullum reperiri possit. Sed 
quoniam summam alicuius speciei cognitionem non possmnus consequi, 
nisi eius varietates scientia complectamur earurnque affinitates indage- 
mus ; cunique investigatio variationuni niultum habeat delectationis : 
subspecies, varietates, subvarietatesque Ranunculaceaimni indicarum no- 
bis investigandas putavirnus. Yis autem et natura subspeciei et varie- 
tatis in eo est quod quibusdam notis satis distinctae sint, sed tamen 
quasi gradibus nee genere inter se differant, ita ut discrimen varietatuni 
propinquarum saepe perdifficile sit neque sine comparatione multorum 
exemplarium in herbariis conservatorum instituta possit fieri. 

Atque in bis commentariis nobis saepe mentio facienda erit cater- 
varum stirpium quae, perductae ab auctoribus quibusdam ad speciei 
dignitatem, ad subspecies vel varietates revocandae videantur. Sed 
temporis spatiique compendii faciendi causa interdum licebit subspecies 
vel ipsas varietates tractare tamquam species, si auctores quidem iis 
speciei nomen invenerint. Si autem dignitatem subspeciei vel varietatis 
plane praedicare volumus, boc modo scribere liceat : si speciem ab 
auctore quodam definitam pro subspeciem babendam censimus virgulis 
utemur et scribemus exempli gratia — Aquilegia fragrans' Bentham; si 
varietatem — Aquilegia fragrans " Bentham ; si autem ipse, qui nomen 
dedit formae quam subspeciem opinamur esse, earn pro subspecie varie- 
tateve habuit, boc modo scribemus exempli causa — Clematis sikkimensis 
Bl f. et T.' Et cum clarissimo Doctore Drude* asterisco quidem uti 
licuerit, ita ut ponamus — Aquilegia * Moorcroftiana Wall., vel Delphi- 
nium * persicum Boiss., vel Thalictrum * rufum Lecoyer in locum Aqui- 
legia3 vulgaris Bin., subsp. Moorcroftianae {Wall, pro specie) vel Delpbinii 
camptocarpi, subsp. persici (Boiss. pro sp.), vel Tbalictri punduani Wall. 
subsp. rufi (Becoyer pro sp.) ; sed facilius videtur esse minusque tardum 
virgulas scribere quam asteriscos. 

Atque Baillon, vir ille assiduus et in cognitione rerum indaganda 
sagacissimus, multa genera ad subgenera, uti in Ranunculaceis Aconitum 
ad Delpbinium, Caltham ad Trollium revocat. Eum si sequamur, mini 
censimus tanta nomina mutanda et Delpbinium lS"apellus vel Trollius 
palustris pro Aconito Napello vel Caltba palustri scribendum esse ? 
Minime vero. Nam si subgeneris pro generis nomine utarnur, vix 
unquam error nobis atque tenebrae erunt ; si autem specierum per- 
multarum nomina in alia mutemus, quanta turba erit, quanta confusio. 
Sic vero nonne iis qui rebus herbariis operam dent magis magisque 
necessitas imposita erit in synonymis solvendis ac discendis temporis 
abutendi et historiae opinionum atque errorum pro cognitione atque 

* Vide Schenk, Hauclbuch cler Botauik, vol. iii, 2. 



272 P. Briihl — De Eanunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

indagatione rerum naturae substitnendae ? Neque Baillon, vir doctissi- 
tnus, Aconite- ad subgenus Delphinii redacto, dinuuierat omnes species 
Aconiti sub nomine Delphinii neque nomen suum nominibus mutatis 
adicit. Nam satis est scribere Aconitum Napellus Lin. aut, si mavis, 
Aconitum ' Napellus Lin., virgula posita post nomen subgeneris. 
Quid ? Si quis omnino tollat genus aliquod, aut si nomina prisca 
in libris antiquis indaget atque odoretur, nomenne suum nomini mutato 
affigat ? Imitandine sunt viri illi illustrissimi qui ipsorum nominibus 
scribenclis nunquam fessi laboribus levioribus aeternitatem adipisci 
immortalitatemque sibi parere volunt et sub titulo legum conservandarum. 
omnia miscunt atque perturbant ? Immo bonorem censimus iis esse 
tribuendum qui in notis quibus species nova a reliquis eiusdem generis 
speciebus distingui possit accurate ac diligenter investigandis operam 
laboremque consumpserunt, neque iis qui in enumeratione stirpium quae 
in terra quadam crescunt conscribenda aut qui nomine geneins commutato 
speciebus veteribus nova nomina imponunt. Itaque sufficet scribere — 
Ranunculus Sbaf toanus Aitch. et Hcmsl. (sub Oxygraphide), vel, si placet, 
uti nos in bis disputationibus interdum scribemus, — Ranunculus ! Shaf- 
toanus Aitch. et Hemsl. vel plane Ranunculus Shaftoanus Aitch. et Hemsl. 
neque Ranunculus Sliaftoanus Boiss. Et scribere quidem maluissemua 
— Ranunculus Shaftoanus {Aitch. et Hemsl.), nisi Torrerj et Gray in 
Flora civitatum boreali-ainericanarum nomen auctoris nominis speciei 
inter arcus posuissent neque scripsissent exempli causa — Caltba palus- 
tris (Lin.) vel Trollius laxus (Salisb.). 

Sed ad propositum revertamur. In disputatione prima de Aquilegia 
dicemus f usius, quod magna in berbariis Aquilegiarum indicarum videtur 
esse confusio ; in altera omnes species indicas ordinis Ranunculacearum 
in subspecies et varietatcs disponere easque accuratius definire conabi- 
mur, ac praecepta addemus concisa ad species in provinciis nonnullis 
iudicis gignentes ratione ac via determinandas ; in postrema denique 
de variation e atque polymorphisms Ranunculacearum quae in imperio 
indico regionibusque finitimis nascuntur proponere instituimus. 

Materiam autem ad has disputationes conscribendas praebuerunt 
herbaria hortorum calcuttensis et saharanpurensis, thesauri illi ditissimi 
stirpiuni indicarum exsiccatarum, quarum usum debui benignitati 
liberalitatique Doctorum King et Prain, ac comitati cl. Duthiei qui non 
solum Ranunculaceas in herbario saharanpurensi conditas mihi libentis- 
sime et, propter studia mea frequenter negotiis publicis longo intervallo 
intermissa, per longum temporis spatium incommodo suo commodavit, 
sed cuius exenrplaria exsiccata etiam ab ipso magna cura ac diligentia 
lecta optimeque conservata investigationum labores mearum aliquanto 
sublevaveruut. 



1892.] P. Briihl — De Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. 273 

Nominum autem compendia quibus in his commentariis utemur 
inter alia haec sunt : — 

F. I. = Flora indica ; F. B. I. = Flora of British India ; H. E. I. C. = 
hei'barium of the late East India Company ; H. Calc. = herbarium cal- 
cuttense ; H. Sah. = herbarium saharanpurense ; A. = Dr. Anderson ; 
Aitch. = Dr. Aitchison ; B. = Dr. Brandis ; B. P. = Baden- Powell ; 0. = 
General Collett ; CI. = C. B. Clarke ; D. = Duthie ; Dd. = Davidson ; 
Dr. = Drummond ; E. = Ellis ; G. = Dr. Giles ; J. = Rev. Jaeschke ; K. = 
Dr. King; K. C. = viri qui missi sunt a doctore King stirpes legendi 
causa ; Scz. = Dr. Stoliczka ; Sy. = Dr. Scully ; W. = Dr. Watt. 

DISPUTATIO PRIMA. 

De Aquiljegia. 

Inter genera variabilia Ranunculacearum ac polymorpha vix aliud 

genus inveniri potest de quo tarn variae sint sententiae virorum reram 

herbariarum peritorum tamque discrepantes quam sunt de Aquilegiis, 

quarum nonnulli dinumerant plus quadraginta species, quas alii ad 

quinque vel sex redigendas esse censent. Atque Hooker Alius et T. 

Thomson in Flora indica et in Flora imperii indici omnes formas indicas 

ad Aquilegiam vulgarem revocant, et Aquilegiam pyrenaicam, Moorcroft- 

ianam, fragrantem, pubifloram, glandulosam, aliasque cum Aquilegia 

vulgari formis mediis connexas esse et ad earn reducendas affirmant, 

quamquam plurimi qui quidem in artis herbariae cognitione versentur 

illas species omnes inter se maxime distinctas et certe ab Aquilegia 

vulgari seiungendas esse arbitrantur. Quamobrem ad omnes formas 

Aquilegiarum, europaeas, sibiricas, caucasicas, americanas, praecipue 

autem indicas et sinenses perscrutandas nos conferre constituimus, ut 

reperiamus, si id fieri possit, quae notae constantes et ad species discer- 

nendas aptae evadant quaeque sint mutabiles neque ad species propinquas 

separandas valeant. Sed ne revolvamur eodem in hac quaestione 

tractanda, antequam formas varias denuo in species aut subspecies varie- 

tatesve distribuimus, species ita accipiemus uti sunt definitae in mono- 

graphiis Bakeri et Zimmeteri vel in Floris orientali Boissieri, rossica, 

altaica, dahurica, tangutica, mongolica, aliisque auctorum rossicorum, vel 

in germanicis, italicis, gallicis Kochii, Bertolonii, aliorumque scriptorum. 

Si autem quaerimus quibus notis ii qui de Aquilegiis scripserint ad 

harum species internoscendas in monographiis et floris usi sint, animad- 

vertimus auctores indumento, thallomatis ramificationi, foliolorumque 

figurae ac magnitudini, partium floralium formae et mensurae com- 

paratae vel per se aestimatae, denique folliculorum longitudini et 

fabricae, seminumque structurae vim discriminis adiudicavisse. 



274 P. Briihl — De B.ananculaceis Indicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

Primum igitur de indumenta) pauca dicamus. Nam species Aqui- 
legiae saepe ab auctoribus distingui invenimus praesentia ant absentia 
pilorum glandulosorum. Atque mirum quanta confusio exstiterit ex 
specie ilia Gouani, quam auctor propter indumenti natnrani Aquilegiam 
viscosam nominavit, quod nomen doctissimum Boissierum aliosque 
induxit ut stirpem Gouanianam ab Aqnilegia vulgari typica nullo modo 
diversam, tabulam autem pictam in Illustrationibus male descriptam esse 
censerent ; Kitaibel vero stirpem earn, cui postea Sehott Aquilegiam 
Kitaibelii dixit nomen, eandem esse vult ac speciem Gouanianam, quam 
quidem Zimmeter cum dubio ad Aquilegiam Eiuseleanam refert. Baker 
vero in monographia sua Aquilegiarum* Aquilegiam viscosam speciem 
bonam neque cum varietate aliqua viscosa Aquilegiae vulgaris neqne 
cum Aq. Einseleana confundendam esse putat. At vero exemplar 
vidimus humile uniflorum a Requieno in monte Ventoux Provinciae 
lectum, cuius folia omnibus notis ita cum foliis in tabula Gouaniana 
pictis congruunt ut nobis persuasissimum sit banc esse formam quam 
Gouanins dicit humilem esse atque unifloram. Exemplar autem Re- 
quieni omnino cum exemplaribus quibusdam A. Einseleanae e valle 
Sassina Savoyensi allatis convenit, ut nemini dubium possit esse, quin 
A. viscosa Gouan eadem species sit atque A. Einseleana Schulz = A. 
pyrenaica Koch — A. Baubini Sehott, quae quidem transitus praebet ad 
Aquilegiam Kitaibelii Sehott = A. viscosam Kitaibel = A. pyrenaicam 
Visiani et A. thalictrifoliam, quam Nyman sub-speciem censet esse 
A. Baubini. De sententia Bakeri et Zimmeteri pars inferior caulis folia- 
quc A. Einseleanae glabra sunt, sed in exemplaribus nonnullis, neque 
tamen omnibus, in valle Sassina lectis caulis totus petiolipetiolulifoliaque 
basilaria manifesto glanduloso-birta sunt, ita ut discrimen inter A. vis- 
cosam et A. Eiuseleanam reperixu possit nullum. lam vero indumentum 
caulis stirpium indicarum ita vaviabile est, ut nullius momenti ad species 
Aquilegiae seiungendas esse opinemur, utrum caulis totus sit pilosus an 
pars eius inferior glabrescat. Mentionem autem facere licet hoc loco 
exemplarium himalaicorum A. vulgaris var. Karelini, quorum para- 
stemones apice hirti sunt, quod in nulla alia forma Aquilegiarum 
invenimus. Atque in Himalaya Tibetiae occidentalis forma quaedam 
A. Moorcroftianae occurrit, cuius caulis infimus petioli petioluli folia 
dense vel densiuscule glanduloso-hirta sunt, quamquam illae partes A. 
Moorcroftianae plerumque sunt modice puberulae vel omnino glabrae ; 
et in exemplaribus A. nivalis' var. paradoxae P. T>. vidimus caulem nunc 
basim versus glaberrimum nunc prope basim glanduloso-hirtum nunc 
totum cum petiolis dense hirsutum. Et foliola quidem A. vulgaris typicae 

* Gardener's Chronicle, 1878. 



1892.] P. Briibl — De Banunculaceis Indicis Disputaliones. 275 

intei'dum sat dense pubescentia sunt, ut haec nota ad Aquilegiam Ebneri 
et A. vulgarem discernendas non valeat. De quo concludendum esse 
censimus indumentum caulis foliorum parastemonum ad species Aqui- 
legiarum internoscendas nullam vim discriminis habere. Meliores vero 
notas praebet indumentum carpellorum. Nam formae plurimae, quae 
cum Aquilegia vulgari et A. canadensi artioribus affinitatis vinculis 
coniunctae sunt, ovarium babent dense hirtum, cum carpella Aquilegiae 
sibiricae glabrae sint ; vidimus tamen pistilla Aquilegiae sibiricae secun- 
dum suturam ventralem pube minuta vestita, et ovaria Aquilegiae 
brevistylae nunc pubescentia nunc glaberrima inveniuntur. Atque 
carpella Aquilegiae leptoceratis a Turczaninowo glaberrima dicta sunt ; 
sed Ledebour in Flora rossica exemplaria se vidisse ab ipso Turczaninowo 
missa, quorum carpella pubescenti-villosa fuerint, et stirpes in horto 
Schweitzingensi e seminibus sibiricis ortas ovai'ia pubescentia praebuisse 
scribit. Probabile autem, carpella iuniora hirta esse, sed cum mature- 
scant, pubem fundere, ut interdum fere accidit in aliis Aquilegiis, sicut 
in A. pubiflora. 

Nunc veniamus ad staturam et ramificationem caulis foliorum- 
que divisionem. Longitudo caulis floriferi Aquilegiae glandulosae 
variat inter 12 et 40 cm., Aquilegiae kunaorensis et Aquilegiae pubi- 
florae inter 15 et 70 cm., Aquilegiae oxysepalae inter 20 et 100 cm., 
Aquilegiae vulgaris typicae inter 35 et 120 cm. Cum autem caulis 
ramique cuncti in floribus desinant, videamus quot flores in quarundam 
caule Aquilegiarum inveniantur. Habemus in A. vulgari typica 3-6-12, 
in A. nigricanti 1-5, in A. glandulosa 1-5, in A. kunaorensi 1-6, 
in A. oxysepala, canadensi, Einseleana 1-10 ; atque exemplaria reperi- 
untur Aquilegiae pubiflorae alia humilia et uniflora quae stirpes simpli- 
ces Aquiligiae viscosae Gouanii in mentem revocant, alia procera 50-70 
cm. altitudine octo vel decern flores edentia Aquilegiaeque vulgari simil- 
lima. Ramificatio igitur caulis valde varia. 

Nee foliorum divisio videtur satis constare. Nam folia basilaina 
ternata Aquilegiae leptoceratis Fisch. et Mey. et Aquilegiae dinaricae 
Beck foliis biternatis plus minus mixta sunt, et folia plerumque biter- 
nata Aquilegiae Bertolonii, A. viscosae, A. pyrenaicae, A. nivalis, A. 
nigricantis baud raro cum ternatis nonnullis sunt sociata ; quin etiam 
folia simpliciter ternata in A. pubiflora et A. alpina, speciebus foliis 
insigniter biternatis vel triternatis, baud semper absunt. 

Atque foliola media in formis indicis saepius plus minusve pro- 
funde divisa, aut in A. fragranti, A. kunaorensi, A. vulgari var. Karelini 
folia plane triternata sunt ; sed foliola terminalia A. vulgaris typicae et 
A. canadensis et A. glandulosae nunc ad basim usque trisecta, nunc ad 
medium tripartita, nunc vix ad quartam partem triloba. Species 



276 P. Briihl — Be Rariunculaceis Indicts Dispntationes. [No. 3, 

autem Aquilegiarum nonuullas ab auctoribus magnitudine foliolorum 
distinctas invenimus ; et formae inter se distantes certe foliorum men- 
sura interdum discerni possunt, uti A. pyrenaica ab A. grata ; sed 
foliola plerumque magnitudine mirum in modum variant. Longitudo 
enim foliolorum mediorum foliorum basilarium Aquilegiae nivalis 3-16 
mm., A. viscosae 5-25 mm., A. glandulosae 10-40 mm., A. alpinae 
12-40 mm., A. pubiflorae 10-45 mm., A. vulgaris var. variae 25-50 
mm., A. Moorcroftianae 9-50 mm., A. canadensis 12-50 mm., A. oxy- 
sepalae 15-60 mm. 

Latitudo quoque foliolorum cum longitudine comparata nobis in 
discrimine specierum saepe deest, quod videre licet si, mensura acta, 
latitudimem folioli terminalis cum longitudine comparemus. Quam ob 
rem in hac tabella mensuram latitudinis tanquam fracturarn longitudinis 
expressimus : — 

A. oxysepala ... ... ... £ — -V -, 

A. vulgaris typ... ... ... £-$, 

A. alpina ... ... ... -*- — -f, 

A. Bertolonii ... ... , ... \ — f, 

A. Einseleana ... ... ... £■■—• |i 

A. pyrenaica ... ... ... x — f> 

A. nivalis ... ... ... t~!j 

A. glandulosa ... ... ... f — -f, 

A. Moorcroftiana ... ... t — f, 

A. pubiflora ... ... ... f-— f (raro -|). 

Aquilegia Einseleana igitur ab A. pyrenaica et A. Bertolonii lati- 
tudine foliolorum cum longitudine comparata aegre distinguitur. Men- 
surae autem inter se comparatae foliolorum figuram partis eorum basim 
spectantis afficiunt efticiuntque ut foliola margine sese obtegant vel 
attingant aut intervallo plus minusve manifesto inter se distent. Et 
foliola quidem terminalia foliorum basilarium basim versus conspicue 
ooneata sunt in A. thalictrifolia et A. Einseleana et A. leptocerate, late 
cuneata in A. Kitaibelii, A. Bertolonii, A. oxysepala, aliisque ; sed in 
A. vulgari typica nunc subanguste nunc late cuneata nunc fere rotun- 
data, in A. alpina basi aut obtusa subcuneata aut subtruncata, in A. 
pyrenaica late cuneata v. subcordata v. rotundato-truncata, in A. nivali 
obtusa v. subcordata, raro cuneata, in A. glandulosa et Moorcroftiana 
late cuneata v. obscure cordata v. truncata, in A. pubiflora late cuneata 
v. subtruncata. Foliola marginibus plus minusve sese obtegunt in A. 
alpiua, A. Bertolonii, A. pyrenaica, A. nivali, A. grata ; in A. glan- 
dulosa foliola marginibus plerumque imbricata sed etiam subdistantia, 
quod accidit etiam in A. Moorcroftiana, A. vulgari, A. ox}-sepala, A. 
pubiflora ; cum foliola A. Einseleanae et tlialictrifoliae semper distantia 



1892.] P. Brubl — Dv Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. 277 

sint et in A. Kitaibelii sese vix attingant. Transitus vero animadver- 
tuntur inter A. Einseleanam et A. Bertolonii ; neque A. thalictrifolia 
cum A. grata et A. pyrenaica gradibus per A. Einseleanam et A. Kitai- 
belii non est connexa. Inter Aquilegias antem indicas A. pubiflora 
varietatibus foliorum insignis ; folia enim nunc Aquilegiae vulgaris, 
nunc Aquilegiae alpinae, nunc fere Aquilegiae viscosae. 

Sed haec quidem de foliis basilaribus : folia autem caulina inferiora 
A. Moorcroftianae, praesertim eius varietatis, quam Cambessede suaveo- 
lentem appellavit, mirifice polymorpba nunc Aquilegiam vulgarem, nunc 
A. glandulosam, nunc A. alpinam, nunc A. Bertolonii in mentem revo- 
cant ; et in exemplaribus afglianicis et kashmiricis ex eodem loco allatis 
nunc crenas breves et rotuudatas A. Bertolonii vel pyrenaicae nunc 
lineari-ablongas A. alpinae animadvertimus ; neque folium caulinum 
infimum A. Bertolonii basilaribus semper dissimile, et stirpes Aquilegiae 
alpinae floribus magnis baud raro occurrunt quae foliorum caulinorum 
natura inferiorum ab Aquilegia Bertolonii aegre discernuntur. 

Mittimus vero de florum colore dicere : notissima enim mira varie- 
tas ilia colorum quam vidimus in gregibus illis americanis Aquilegiae 
caeruleae et formosae ; notissimae etiam varietates florum Aquilegiae 
glandulosae quae sepalis caeruleis petala nunc alba, nunc ochroleuca, 
nunc caerulea adiungit ; notissimae denique in saltibus bimalaicis 
stirpes illae Aquilegiae kunaorensis suaveolentis speciosis ornatae flori- 
bus ex calyce albido constantibus vel stramineo et corona, cui suffusus 
est color nunc ocbroleucus, nunc albus, nunc violaceus. 

Verum baec missa facimus ; illud quaeramus num magnitudo 
florum discrimen sit inter species Aquilegiarum. Hac enim nota aucto- 
res saepe usi sunt ad Aquilegiam vulgarem et A. nigricantem, A. Ber- 
tolonii pyrenaicamque et A. alpinam, A. Kitaibelii et A. pyrenaieam et 
A. Einseleanam, A. vulgarem et A. Ebneri, A. longisepalam et A. nigri- 
cantem, A. Moorcroftianam et A. fragrantem internoscendas. Longi- 
tudinem vero sepalorum, quae nota ad magnitudinem floris attinet, in 
exemplaribus berbariorum indicorum, millimetris niensam, banc reperi- 
mus — in : — 

A. vulgari ... ... ... 18-32, 

A. atrata ... ... ... 18-32, 

A. nigricanti ... ... 27—34, 

A. alpina ... ... ... 30—45 (rarissime 

minus 30), 
A. Einseleana ... ... 14-27, 

A. Bertolonii ... ... 24-30, 

A. glandulosa ... ... 10-45, 

A. nivali ... ... ... 14-28, 

36 



278 P. Bruhl — De Hanunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

A. kunaorensi var. a Carab. ... 14-24, 

A. kunaorensi suaveolenti ... 26-50, 

A. oxysepala ... ... 17-30, 

A. pubiflora ... ... 12-28, 

A. fragranti ... ... 22-30, 

A. pyrenaica typica ... ... 17-27, 

A. canadensi ... ... 12-22, 

A. caerulea ... ... 22-40. 

Distributio igitur Aquilegiarum in micrantbas, mesantbas, niacran- 
tbas vix bortulanis quidem usui esse potest ; neque mensura sepalorum 
utenda videtur in discrimine A. Ebneri et A. vulgaris, A. vulgaris 
genuinae et A. nigi'icantis. Et quamqnam Zimmeter in' tabella analy- 
tica scribit sepala A. Kitaibelii esse 17 mm., Aquilegiae autem Einse- 
leanae et p}^renaicae 25-27 mm. longa, vidimus tamen exemplaria Aqui- 
legiae Einseleanae in alpibus savoyensibus lecta quorum sepala 14-18 mm. 
tantum longa erant, et specimina reperimus Aquilegiae pyrenaicae e salti- 
bus montis pyrenaei allata sepalis vix plus 17 mm. longis. Non est 
igitur vis discriminis in longitudine sepalorum. Melius autem insigne 
ad species diseernendas mensurae sepalorum inter se comparatae prae- 
bere videntur ; nam sepala exemplarium fere omnium Aquilegiae pubi- 
florae et Aquilegiae oxysepalae lanccolata et manifesto, interdum longis- 
Bi'me, acuminata sunt ; vidimus autem specimina A. pubiflorae sepalis 
aut ovato-lanceolatis longe acuminatis apice acutis aut obtusis, aut 
ovato-lanceolatis leviter acuminatis apice subacutis aut raro ovato- 
oltlongis neque acuminatis apice obtusis, aut rarissime late ovatis apice 
dlii usis. In bac tabella latitudo sepalorum tanquam fractura longitudinis 
expressa est — 

A. pyrenaica genuina ... ... ■§— f, 

A Einselcana ... ... ... f-f, 

A. vulgaris typica ... ... ... f-f, 

A. glandulosa ... ... ... f-f, 

A. moorcroftiana typica ... ... -i— f, 

A. kunaorensis suaveolens ... ... i-f, 

A. oxysepala ... ... ... -Hb 

A. pubiflora ... ... ... \~ \, raro ±. 

Reperiuntur autem sepala Aquilegiae moorcroftianae typicae nunc 
late ovata v. ovato-oblonga apice obtusissima aut subacuta, nunc ovato- 
lanceolata breviter acuminata apice obtusiuscula ; sepala Aquilegiae 
kunaorensis var. suaveolentis nunc ovato-oblonga neque acuminata sed 
apice acutiuscula aut breviter acuminata apiceque fere obtusa, nunc 
ovato-lanccolata acutissima conspicueque acuminata ; sepala Aquilegiae 
nlpinae nunc late ovata acuta nunc elliptico-oblonga subobtusa. Suut 



1892.] P. Briihl — De Banunculaceis Indicia Bisputationes. 279 

igitur, quoad sepala, formae mediae inter A. pubifloram et A. vul- 
garem typicam, neque e sepala A. oxysepalae latiora sepalis Aquilegiae 
vulgaris var. indica figara dissimilia. 

Alia nota quam auctores ad species seiungendas aptam existimant 
a longitudine sepalorum et petaloram comparata sumpta est, uti sepala 
A. Einseleauae dicuntur petalorum limbum superare 14 mm., A. pyre- 
naicae 9 mm., A. nigricautis 21 mm. ; eminere vero videmus sepala ultra 
petalorum marginem auteriorem 3-14 mm. in A. Einseleana, 4-9 mm. in 
A. pyrenaica, 10-21 mm. in A. nigricanti ; in Aquilegia porro pubiflora 
6-14 mm., in A. Moorcroftiana typica 35-12 mm., in A. oxysepala 4-11 
mm., in A. kunaorensi suaveolenti 15-22 mm., in A. nivali 7-14 mm., in 
A. glandulosa typica 6-22 mm., in A. viridinora interdum 0-4 mm. 

Nee mensurae comparatae limbi petalorum longiorumque staminum 
nobis ad species seiungendus suppetunt. Neque columuam stamineam 
A. atratae nunquam extra petalorum campanulam 3 mm. tantum pro- 
iectam vidimus, quod etiam accidit in A. vulgari typica ; in A. Einselea- 
na autem et in A. alpina stamina petalis sunt 2-6 mm., in A. pyrenaica 
2-4 mm., in A. glandulosa 2-11 mm. breviora, cum in aliis stamina nunc 
sint petalis paullulo breviora nunc paullulo longiora. In Aquilegia 
vero caerulea var. typica stamina nectariorum limbo nunc 10 mm. 
breviora nunc 6 mm. longiora, nunc numerosissima nunc eodem fere 
numero atqae in A. canadensi, nunc patentissima nunc subparallela, 
nunc fere eadem longitudine nunc inter se valde inaequalia. 

Proximum est ut de forma laminae petalorum investigemus utrum 
satis constet ad discrimen specierum an variabilis evadat. Margo autem 
exterior petalorum manifesto rotundatus reperitur in A. transsilvanica, 
glandulosa, iucunda, Einseleana, thalictrifolia, Bertolonii, pubiflora ; 
rotundato-truiicatus est in A vulgari, atrata, alpina, glauca, nivali, 
fragranti, Moorcroftiana, formosa, canadensi, Skinneri. Vidimus tamen 
exemplaria A. pyrenaicae typicae et A. Einseleanae et A. pubiflorae 
quorum petala apice rotundato-truncata erant neque plane rotundata ; 
Aquilegia autem glandulosa genuina Fischeri petala babet apice obtusa ; 
et petala Aquilegiae nivalis nunc fere rotundata, nunc truncata ac 
sinuata, nunc profunde emarginata sunt. Figura igitur limbi petalorum, 
quamquam satis utilis ad subspecies internoscendas, nos in specierum 
discrimine fallere videtur. 

Maximi vero momenti auctores plurimi calcaris formam magnitudi- 
nemque comparatam esse putaverunt. 

Primum igitur de mensura calcaris cum laminae longitudine com- 
parata videamus. Neque tamen de formis illis monstrosis Aquilegiae 
vulgaris ecalcaratis agemus, neque de varietate ilia Aquilegiae formosae 
cui nomen truncatam dicunt disseremus cuius calcar longitudine vix 



280 P. Briihl — Be Ranunculaceis Inclicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

quinta deciina vcl vigesima pars est petalorurn limbi, quae varietas vero 
cum forma ilia calcaribus lamina quadruplo longioribus praedita et a 
Fiscbero sub nomine Aquilegiae formosae definita gradibus connexa est ; 
cum A. formosa Fisclieri setisim in stirpem illam, quae a Plancbon 
arctica dicitur et in tabula picta* lineis descripta est, transeat. Sed 
formis Aquilegiae vulgari amnibus nos contineamus. Mensuram 
autem calcaris ad longitudinem laminae redactam ita reperimus — 
A. vulgaris typica ... ... ... y— |, 

A. pyrenaeica typica ... ... ... f— f, 

A. Einscleana ... ... ... f-y, 

A. Moorcroftiana typica ... ... T - f, 

A. kunaorcnsis suaveolens ... ... f— §, 

A. glandulosa (iucl. iucunda) ... ... i- T , 

A. fragrans ... ... ... f- T , 

A. pubiflora ... ... ... x¥~r> 

Hacc nota igitur nequaquam constat. 

Sequitur ut do forma calcaris quaeramus. Calcar vero utrum 
rectissimum sit an modice incurvum nihil interest ad species inter- 
nosccndas. Nam calcar nunc rectum nunc manifesto incurvum neque 
tamen bamatum reperitur in A. Einscleana, Kitaibelii, tbalietrifolia, 
Ottonis, leptocerate, Moorcroftiana, glauca, kunaorensi suaveolenli, 
pyrenaica. Tabula picta vero Aquilegiae viridiflorae in Iconibus Deles- 
scrtii ab auctoribus iterum iterumque reprehensa et male descripta 
existimata est quippe quae calcaria exhibeat apice incurva ; vidimus 
tamen exemplaria mongolica a Potanino lecta calcaribus vertice 
manifesto curvatis minimeque rcctis. Haec observatio nos incitat ad 
(luaestioneni investigandam num figura calcaris tanti momenti ad species 
distinguendas sit quanti cam auctores, perpaucis exceptis, esse credi- 
derint. Calcaria Aquilegiae Muorcroftianae in alabastro saepe un- 
cinatim incurva ; cum stirps floreat, nunc stricta, nunc manifesto 
incurva ac calcaribus Aquilegiae nigTicantis vix rectiora. Meliora 
vero exempla variationis calcarium ex Aquilegia pubiflora, fragranti, 
nivali ducere possnmus. Nam Aquilegiae pubiflorae calcaria reperi- 
mus saepissime uncinatim vel circinnatim incurva; in silvis tamen 
provinciao Simla forma occurrit sepalis quidem lanceolatis acuminatis 
foliisque Aquilegiae pubiflorae genuinae sed calcare nunc manifesto 
uncinato nunc leniter incurvo miniineque bamato ; et in varietate, quae 
Cunningham ex Himalaya pentapotamica attulit, calcar paullum incur- 
vum sepalis nunc lanceolatis acuminatis nunc late ovatis obtusis adiuu- 
ctum est. Vidimus etiam in herbario Kurzii exempla e Bavaria missa 

* Flore des Serres, tab. 795. 



1892.] P. Briilil — Be Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. 281 

Aquilegiae vulgaris genuinae calcaribus i*ectis nequaquam hamatis ; et 
calcaria Aquilegiae alpiuae, vix unquam recta, in Appennino septen- 
trionali fere more Aquilegiae vulgaris incurva iuveniuntur, stirpes vero 
foliis Aquilegiae alpinae typicae instructae sunt neque cum Aquilegia 
Bertolonii confuudendae. Sed ad species himalaicas revertaniur. Sunt 
in terra gilgitensi et in Kashmiria stirpes caule elato insigniter folioso 
foliis valde divisis atque haud raro triternatis floribusque mediocribus 
affinitate artissima inter se iunctae ; sed calcaria nunc perbrevia et 
circinnatim incurva Aquilegiae glandulosae, nunc lamina paullo bre- 
viora et manifesto incurva, uti haud raro sunt iu Aquilegia Einseleana, 
nunc subrecta et lamina sublongiora Aquilegiae Moorcroftianae typicae. 
Neque forma ilia, quae in montibus altissimis ad nivem deliquescentem 
nascitur et cui, auctore Bakero, Aquilegiam nivalem nomen dedit Fal- 
coner, variatione calcaris minus insignis ; stirpes sunt humiles, foliis 
biternatis, foliolis margine sese obtegentibus reniformibus vel late 
rotundato-deltoideis, floribus saepius mediocribus, sepalis caeruleis vel 
violaceis, carpellis quinque, atque omnibus notis, calcaribus exceptis, ita 
inter se congruunt ut ne in varietates quidem divelli possint. Flores 
vero plurimi calcar habent crassiuscule conicum et vix incurvum for- 
marum quarundam Aquilegiae alpinae ; reliquorum autem calcaria 
nunc graciliora atque omnino Aquilegiae pyrenaicae, nunc brevia et 
circinnatim involuta uti in Aquilegia glandulosa ; haec est forma cuius 
Hooker Alius et Thomson in Flora imperii indici nomine Aquilegiae 
iucundae mentionem faciunt, neque revera ab Aquilegia iucunda 
Fischeri distinguenda est nisi petalorum lamina truncata vel emarginata 
nee rotundata staminibusque saepius limbum subaequantibus. Quibus 
rebus expositis satis docuisse videmur calcarium figuram ad species 
indicas discernendas parvi momenti esse. 

Jam vero parastemones propter eorum varietatem praetermittamus. 
Sed de carpellis pauca dicenda esse putamus. Pistilla autem starni- 
nibus longioribus 1-5 mm. breviora vel 4 mm. longiora in A pubiflora, 
2 mm. breviora vel 3 mm. longiora in A. kunaorensi suaveolenti, 4 mm. 
longiora vel 1 mm. breviora in A. nivali, 1 mm. longiora breviorave in 
A. oxysepala, 2 mm. longiora vel 3 mm. breviora in A. Moorcroftiana, 
1-5 mm. breviora vel fere 1 mm. longiora in A. alpina. Parvi igitur 
interest utrum stylus ultra stamina emineat an a staminibus superetur. 

Styli autem primum saepissime recti, sed pollen postquam ventorum 
insectorumque ope dispersum est, parte stigmatosa saepissime paullum 
dilatata, apex styli haud raro plus minusve manifesto recurvatur. 
Occurrunt styli apice recti ac plus minusve recurvi nee raro fere revoluti 
in Aquilegia nivali, vulgari, fragranti, et stylus Aquilegiae pubiflorae et 
Moorcroftianae nunc rectus nunc apice circinnatim curyatus invenitur. 



282 



P. Briilil — Be Eanunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 



Sed quoniam de carpellis, qualia sunt ante coniunctionem pollinis 
cum ovulis factam, insignia ad species distinguendas trahere non possu- 
mus, videamus num. liceat notas ad discrimen utiles de carpellis maturis 
ducere. Et certe formae quaedam ab aliis quibusdam longitudine folli- 
culorum discerni possunt, uti Aquilegia Skinneri, cuius carpella matura 
inter Aquilegiis longissima et fere 35 cm. longa distinctionem huius 
speciei et Aquilegiae canadensis reddunfc faeillimam. Sed pritnum 
demus enumerationem longitudinurn folliculorum, sequentes mono- 
graphiam Bakeri et pollicis mensuram in millimetra commutantes : — 



A. Einseleana 
A. viscosa 
A. tbalictrifolia . 
A. pyrenaica 
A. Bertolonii 
A. Amaliae 
A. pubiflora 
A. viridiflora 
A. brevistyla 
A. flavescens 
A. Moorcroftiana 
A. glauca 
A. canadensis 
A. fragrans 
A. parviflora 
A. leptoceras 
A. vulgaris 
A. sibiriea 
A. formosa 
A. cbrysantha 
A. glandulosa 
A. caerulea 
A. alpina 
A. Skinneri 



8-13 mm. 

13 mm. 

vix 13 mm. 

13 mm. 

13 mm. 

fei*e 13 mm. 

12-16 mm. 

12-19 mm. 

13 mm. 

12-19 mm. 

15-19 mm. 

19 mm. 

fere 19 mm. 

18-25 mm. 

ad 25 mm. 

fere 25 mm. 

fere 25 mm. 

fere 25 mm. 

vix 25 mm. 

fere 25 mm. 

fere 25 mm. 

plus 24 mm. 

25-30 mm. 

35 mm. 



Verum fieri potest ut, maiore stirpium fructiferarum copia per- 
scrutata quam fere in berbariis inveniatur, magnitudo carpellorum 
magis variabilis reperiatur quam appareat es ilia tabella. Nam folliculi 
exemplarinm quorundam sinensium Aquilegiae oxysepalae 16-18 mm. 
sed in mandsburicis sunt 26 mm. longi ; et carpella matura A. pubi- 
florae et A. Moorcroftianae, ilia 13-21 mm., baec 15-22 mm. longa 
animadvertimus. 

Atque folliculi Aquilegiae pubiflorae saepissime sunt a medio valde 
recurvati uti in A. olympica ; sed exemplaria etiam indica suppetunt, 



1592.] P. Briihl — I)e Ranunculaceis Indicts Dispututiones. 283 

quorum folliculi recti et paralleli sunt, ut in A. oxysepala et A. cau- 
casica. 

Quid igitur est ? Nonne videmus omnia signa, quae ii, qui rerum 
herbariarum europearum periti sunt, ad discrimen specierum generis 
Aquilegiae adhibuerint, in stirpibus himalaicis et sinensibus fluxa esse 
atque omnino cadere ? Nonne videmus Aquilegiam fragrantem, uti 
gTadatim in Aquilegiam Moorcroftianam et Aquilegiam kunaorensem 
suaveolentem transit, ita cum Aquilegia pubiflora artissimis affinitatum 
vinculis coniunctam esse ? Nonne videmus formam illam raram et 
speciosam in iugis provinciae Grarhwal ortam, quae ab Aquilegia alpina 
morpliologice certe non seiungenda est, nihil aliud esse nisi varie- 
tatem Aquilegiae kunaorensis ? Nonne videmus Aquilegiam nivalem 
quae ipsa, et recte quidem, a Bakero varietas Aquilegiae glaucae, id 
est Moorcroftianae existimatur, non solum Aquilegiam pyrenaicam 
omnibus rebus imitari, sed etiam Aquilegiae iucundae quam proxime 
appropinquare ? Nonne verisimile est stirpes illas quae in valle Nila 
una cum Aquilegiae pubiflorae stirpibus crescunt, sed propter figuram 
calcarium indumentumque caulis atque foliorum ad varietatem Kare- 
lini Aquilegiae vulgaris referendae sunt, nihil aliud esse nisi form as 
Aquilegiae pubiflorae, quae, quasi atavismo, ut ita dicam, ad parentem 
Aquilegiam vulgarem spectent ? Si vero folia, calcaria, fructus, reli- 
quae denique partes stirpium himalaicarum atque sinensium ita vari- 
abilia evadant, ut eandem varietatem floribus nunc Aquilegiae pyre- 
naicae, nunc Aquilegiae iucundae, nunc Aqnilegiae alpinae ornatara 
inveniamus, nonne notae, quibus A. Einseleana, Bertolonii, nigricans, 
discolor, Ebneri, atrata, aliaeque internoscuntur, nimis viles ad species 
discernendas videantur ? Cognitio igitur varietatum Aquilegiarum 
indicarum ac sinensium nos in eandem sententiam adducit, ad quam 
abhinc multos annos* Hooker filius et Thomson scrutatione speci- 
erum europaearum aliarumque perducti fuerunt : Aqiiilegiam vulga- 
rem, alpinam, glandulosam, viscosam, pyrenaicam, Moorcroftianam, 
pubifloram, aliasque complures speciem unam efficere, insigniter quidem 
variabilem et propter formas plures in propinquas sensim sensimque 
transeuntes aegre in subspecies ac varietates distribuendam. Sed 
quoniam multas species ad unam redigendas esse demonstravimus, 
formas cunctas quas ab Aquilegia vulgari non seiungendas esse puta- 
mus enumerare oportet. Sunt autem baec — 

A. alpina Lin. A. kunaorensis Camb. 

A. Amaliae Heldr. A. lactiflora Kar. et Kir. 

A. atrata Koch. A. leptoceras Fisch. et Mey. 

* Flora Indica, p. 44, 45, (1855). 



284 



P. Briihl — Be Ranuncu1a.ee is Indicts Bisputationes. [No. 3, 



A. aurea Janka. 

A. Bauliini Schott. 

A. Bernard! Gren. 

A. Berfcolonii Schott. 

A. caucasica Bupr. 

A. dinarica Beck. 

A. discolor Lev. et Ler. 

A. Ebneri Zimtr. 

A. Einseleana Schalz. 

A. fragrans Benth. 

A. Fussii Zimtr. 

A. Gebleri Besser. 

A. glandulosa Fischer. 

A. glauca Linell. 

A. grata Maly. 

A. iucunda Fischer. 

A. Kitaibelii Schott. 

Hae formae ita in subspecies 
I. A. oxyscpala' Trautv. 
a. mandshnrica P. B." 
/8. kansnensis P. P." 
II. A. vulgaris' typiea Lin. 
a. caucasica Ledebour." 
(3. olynipica" Boiss., 
y. Bernardi" Gren., 
8. longisepala" Zimtr. 
e. atrata" Koch. 
£. Karelini Baker." 
r]. varia Maly." 
6. rccticornu P. B." 
i. Ebneri" Zimtr. 
k. dinarica" Beck. 
X. eynensis P. B." 
fi paraplesia" Schur. 
v. nigricans" Baumgt. 

III. A. alpina' Lin. 
a. typiea. 

/3. liimalaica P. B." 

IV. A. Bertolonii' Schult. 
V. A. viscosa' Gouan. 

a. Einseleana" Schulz. 
/3. tlialictrifolia" Schutt. 



A. longisepala Zimtr. 
A. Moorcroftiana Wall. 
A. nevadensis Boiss. 
A. nigricans Baumgt. 
A. nivalis Falc. 
A. olympica Boiss. 
A. Ottonis Orph. 
A. oxysepala Trautv. 
A. paraplesia Schur. 
A. pubiflora Wall. 
A. pyrenaica BG. 
A. Reuteri Boiss. 
A. Sternbergii Pc7i&. 
A. subalpina Bor. 
A. sulphurea Zimtr. 
A. transsilvanica Schur. 
A. viscosa Gouan. 
varietatesque disponendae videntur- 

/S. discolor" Levier et Ler. 
VIII. A. nivalis' Falconer. 

a. paradoxa P. B." 

(3. saccocentra P. B." 
IX. A. glandulosa' Fisch. 

a. iucunda" Fisch. 

(3. genuina. 

y. sulphurea" Zimtr. 

8. transsilvanica" Schur. 

e. Gebleri" Besser. 
X. A. Moorcroftiana' Wall. 

a. fragrans" Benth. 

(3. Winterbottomiana P. B." 

y. suaveolens Camb." 

8. glauca" Lindl. 

e. kunaorensis" Gamb. 

I Wallicliiana" Herb. Calc 

rj. afgbanica P. B." 

6. subapbylla P. B." 
XI. A. leptoceras' Fisch. et Mey. 
XII. A. lactifloia' Ear. Kir. 
XIII. A. pubiflora' Wall. 

a. Cunninghami P. B." 

(3. Ma^suriensis Boyle." 



1892.] P. Biuhl — I)e Iianuncidaceis Indicis Disputationes. 285 

y. Kitaibelii" ScJwtt. y. subnuda P. B." 

VI. A. grata' Maly. XIV. A. Ofctonis' Orph. 

VII. A. pyrenaica' P. 0. a. typica. 

a. genuina. /3. Amaliao" Heldr. 

Affinitates autem in tabula tertia exbibitae sunt. 

SUBSPECIES, VARIETATES, SUBVABJETATESQUE 
AQUILEGIAE VULGARIS Linn. 

I. Aquilegia oxysepala' Trautv. (1847) 

(Aquilegia vulgaris var. oxysepala Begel Flor. Ussur. A. oxypetala 
Francliet, PI. Dav., PI. Delav.), 

foliis basilaribus biternatis, foliolis incisocrenatis terminali rliombeo 
v. cuneato-obovato, foliis caulinis sparsis, inflorescentia (1-) 2-10-flora, 
alabastris subcylindricis, sepalis erectopatulis lanceolatis acuminatis 
17-30 mm. longis vinosobrunneis, petalis rotundato-truncatis lamina 
albida calcaribus laminae subaequilongis uncinatim incurvis, stami- 
nibus petalorum apicem baud attingentibus, carpellis birtis, folliculis 
cylindricis sine stylo 16-26 mm. longis. 

Area geographica — Sibiria orientalis, Mandsburia, Cbina propria 
borealis et occidentalis. 

var. a. mandslmrica P. B., 

foliolis terminalibus foliorum basilarium 4-5 cm. longis, sepalis 
27-30 mm. longis 10-12 mm. latis, parastemonibus acutissimis vix v. 
baud undulatis, folliculis sine stylo 25-28 mm. longis. Mandshuria, 
China borealis, Siberia orientalis. 

var. B. kansuensis P. B., 

sepalis 15-25 mm. longis 5-7*5 mm. latis, parastemonibus ob- 
longo-lanceolatis acutis conspicue crisp ule undulatis folliculis sine 
stylo 12-19 mm. longis. Kansu, Hupeh, Setchwan, Yunnan. 

subvar. aa. inflorescentia 3-10 flora foliolis intermediis fol. bas 
4-6 cm. longis. Vidi exemplaria ex Hupeh {Henry} et Setchwan 
{Pratt) allata. 

subvar. /3/3. inflorescentia 1-3 flora foliolis intermediis 16-25 mm. 
longis. Hupeh {Henry /). 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

EWzoma descendens, irregulariter cylindricum, collo reliquiis foliorum plus 
minusve in fibrillas solutis vestitum, atrobrunnemn, cauleni solitarium edens, 3-15 
mm. crassitudine. 

Caulis erectus simplex v. superne ramosus teres leviter sulcatus fistulosus, fioi'i- 
fer (20-) 40-70 cm. allitudine basi 2-6 mm. crassitudine, plus minus puberulus. 
37 



286 P. Bruhl — Be Banunculaceis Indicis Disputationes . [No. 3, 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata sed caule florifero multo breviora 12-30 cm. 
longa ; petiolus basi in vaginani late lanceolatam margine membranaceam 5-35 
mm. longam convergentim plurinerviam dilatatus leviter canaliculatus 2-20 cm. 
longus puberulus v. subglaber 8-2 mm crassitudine ; lamina biternata ; petioluli 
primarii graciles glabri v. puberuli, medio 15-70 mm. longo laterales -|— f medii 
longitudine ; foliola membranacea viridia infra pallidiora tenuiter nervosa, terminate 
longe petiolulatum v. eubsessile circumscrijitione rliombeum v. cuneato-obovatum 
interdum subrotundum 15-60 mm. longum latitudine -§-- V° longitudinis basi late 
cuneatum rarius subrotundatum fere ad medium rarius ad duo partes trilobum, lobo 
medio obovato saepe late cuneato apice crenis grossis tribus inciso, lobis lateralibns 
breviter oblongis inaequaliter inciso-crenatis, petiolulo 1 cm. longo v. subnullo j 
foliola lateralia breviter v. saepius brevissime petiolulata v. plane sessilia tra- 
pezoidea asymmetrice lateque cuneata v. obscure semicordata ad medium v. infra 
medium inaecpialiter biloba, lobis paucicrenatis v. intermedio plus minus profunde 
bilobulato. 

Folia caulina intermedia sparsa sursum gradatim magnitudine decrescentia 
breviusque petiolata basilaribus subconformia ; superiora subsessilia saepe profunde 
tripartita partitionibus lanceolatis, sunima parva tripartita v. bracteiformia lanceo- 
lata integra. 

Infku'escentia raro uniflora saepissime 2-10 flora laxissima. Pedunculi graciles 
longitudine varia teretes apicem versus pilis patentissimis dense pubescentes. 
Flores mediocres v. maiusculi suberecti. Alabastri subcylindrici. 

Sepala erecto-patentia membranacea lanceolata acuminata nervis ramosis tribus 
percursa basi longe cuneata v. abrupte constricta apice acuta 17-30 mm. longa 
latitudine §— f loiiLrit nilini.s, dorso parce puberula v. glabra, vinoso-brunnea, petala 
5-11 millimetris superantia. Petalorum lamina oblonga apice rotundato-truncata 
12-15 mm. longa, albida ; calcar a basi conoidea sensiui in apicem anguste sub- 
cylindricum at tenual um uniinatim incurvum (raro subrectum ?) apice nectarifero 
Bubcapitatuni, in (lore aperto distantia inter punctum insertionis et partem infimam 
calcaris quam lamina 1 mm. longiore v. paullo brevioro. Stamina modice nu- 
merosa apicem petalorum baud attingentia; filamenta longiora 7-10 mm. longa, 
lanceolato-linearia ; antherae oblongae, 1-2 mm. longae, flavae v. fusco-virides- 
centes. Parastoniones scariosi ovato-lanceolati apicem versus acutati margiuibus 
plani v. crispule undulati G-9 mm. longi, pistillis circiter 2 mm. breviores. Pistilla 
5, erecta, 9-11 mm. longa; ovaria subcylindrica, in stylum graciliter subulatum 
suliaequilongum sensim attenuata, cum parte inferiore styli dense patentissimeque 
birta. Folliculi (4-) 5 cbartacei paralleli cylindrici, stylo subulato 5-6 mm. longo 
rostrati, venis transversis crebris plus minus anastomosantibus conspicue reticulati, 
birti, sine stylo 13-26 mm. longi crassitudine |— \ longitudinis. Semina numerosa 
oblongo-obovoidea sectione transversa subtriangularia dorso curvata ventre cari- 
nata, circiter 25 mm. longa, nigra, nitida rarius subopaca, crebei'rime minuteque 
punctulata. 

Aquilegia hybrida Sims, nisi revera forma hibrida ex A. canadensi 
et A. vulgari sit, quod dubium est quoad stirpes e seminibus sibiricis in 
horto dorpatensi natas, A. oxysepalae' foliis, colore florum, forma ala- 
bastri, sepalorum directione valde affinis videtur, et vix dubitandum 
quin varietas sit huius subspecei ealcaribus subrectis praedita. 



1892.] P. Briilil — Be Ranunculaceis Indicis Dlsputationes. 287 

II. Aquilegia vulgaris Lin. 

subspecies typica 
(Aquilegia yulgaris subsp. I, H. f. eh T. in F. B. I. ; Aqailegia 
vulgaris Zimmeter No. 1, Baker No. 18; Aquilegia Ebneri Zimmeter; 
A. nigricans Baumgt., A. Sternbergii Rchb., A.. Haenkeana Koch ; A. 
atrata Koch ; A. caucasica Ritpr. ; A. olympica Boiss. ; A. paraplesia 
Schur ; A. longisepala Zimmeter ; A. dinarica Beck ; A. subalpina 
Boreau ; A. Bernai'di Gren. ; A. glaucophylla Steud.), 

foliis basilaribus biternatis, rarissime ternatis, foliolis terminalibus 
cuneato-obovatis v. reniformibus rarius rliombeis, foliis caulinis sparsis 
magnitudine varia, inflorescentia (1-) 2-15 flora, sepalis stellatim 
patentibus ovatis v. ovato-lanceolatis 18-38 mm. longis, calcaribus la- 
mina rotundato-truncata rarius obtusa paullo longioribus rarius sub- 
duplo brevioribus, staminibus petala 1-3 rarius 3-8 mm. superantibus, 
carpellis hirtis, folliculis e basi ovoidea apicem versus attenuatis sine 
stylis 18-24 mm. longis. Area geographica — Sibiria, Altai, Thian- 
Slian, Fergbana, Himalaya occidentalis, Caucasus, Armenia, Europa 
fere tota, Mons Atlas. 

Varietates. 
var. a. Caucasica Ledehour", 

(A. caucasica Bupr.), caule 50-90 cm altitudine, ramoso folioso 
glanduloso-pubescenti, foliis basilaribus biternatis, foliolo medio 
longiuscule petiolato basi cuneato ad medium trilobo, lateralibus 
sessilibus v. breviter petiolulatis profunde bilobis, lobis rotundato- 
crenatis, foliis caulinis inferioribus basilaribus subconformibus sed 
brevius petiolatis, superioi-ibus trifoliolatis foliolis bi v. trifidis v. 
integris, summis linearibus, floribus fere magnitudine var. typi- 
cae, sepalis cyaneis ovato-oblorigis in apicem acutum acuminatis, 
petalorum lamina albida apice truncata, calcaribus e basi late co- 
noidea subulatis, hamatis staminibus stylisque lirubum attingentibus, 
folliculis parallelis, e basi ovoidea attenuatis, sine stylo circiter 2 cm. 
longis, seminibus nitidis microscopice punctulatis. — Caucasus. 
var. 13. olympica" Boiss., 

uti var. a, sed folliculi usque a medio divergentim recurvi et 
semina opaca granulata. — Armenia, Persia bor. 
var. y, Bernard!" Grenier, 

caule 50-70 cm. altitudine superne ramoso 3-7 floro, foliis basi- 
laribus magnis varietatis typicae (variae), sepalis late ovatis, peta- 
lorum lamina apice rotundato-truncata, calcaribus lamina sub- 
duplo brevioribus gracilibus hamatis, staminibus lamina multo 
brevioribus. — Corsica. 



288 P. Briilil — Df Banunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

var. 8, longisepala" Zimmeter, 

(A. longisepala, Zimmeter No. 4), caule folioso 40-70 cm. altitu- 
dine superne glanduloso-pubescenti, foliis biternatis glabris viridi- 
bus, foliolis magnis (ad 50 mm. longis) cuneatis divergentibns 
ad quartam tertiamve partem trilobis, floribus saturate caeruleis, 
sepalis lanceolatis fere 38 mm. longis, petalorum lamina apice 
truncato-rotundata fere 1 cm. longa calcaribus lamina duplo longi- 
oribus uncinatim incurvis, staminibus laminam fere 5 millimetris 
superantibus. — Hungaria, Croatia. 

var. c atrata" Koch, 

(A. atrata Koch, A. nigricans BcJib. et Zimmeter nee Baumgt.), 
caule superne ramoso folioso 35-80 cm. altitudine, foliis biternatis 
foliolis fol. bas. subsessilibus v. saepius manifesto petiolulatis 
glabris v. saepius infra puberulis v. subdense pubescentibus inter- 
medio ad quartam partem v. ultra medium 3-lobo, lobo intermedio 
breviter oblongo v. cuneato-obovato, floribus purpureo-violaceis 
rarius caeruleis, sepalis 18-32 mm. longis, petalorum lamina apice 
truncata raro rotundata 11-14 mm. longa, calcaribus quam lamina 
2-5 mm. longioribus, staminibus in columnam subcylindricam 
petala (3-) 5-10 millimetris superantem associatis, stylo apice 
recto v. recurvo antlieras saepe haud attingente, folliculis var. 
typicae. — Alpcs, Jura, Silva bavarica, Transilvania ; Thian Sban in 
montibus Alexandrinis ? 

var. f. Karelini Baker" (A. Sternbergii ? Kar. Kir), 

caule 60-80 cm. altitudine folioso plurifloro, uti petioli petiolu- 
lique, usque a basi dense glanduloso-hirto, foliis basilaribus aut 
biternatis foliolisque ad medium v. magis profunde tripartitis aut 
plane triternatis, foliolis tenuiter membranaceis puberulis, crena- 
turis obtusis, foliis caulinis inferioribus basilaribus subconformi- 
bus floralibus superioribus trifoliatis v. triseclis segraeutis lanceo- 
lato-oblongis et lanceolatis, floribus puberulis, sepalis 20-24 mm. 
longis (in sibiricis longioribus) ovato-lanceolatis versus apicem 
obtusum acuminatis, calcare uncinatim incurvo laminae 11-13 mm. 
longae apice truncatae subaequilongo, antheris limbum vix atting- 
entibus, parastemonibus late linearibus apice obtusiusculo apiculato 
minute birtulis, pistillis 5-7 stamina baud superantibus dense 
glanduloso-liirtis, stylo ovariis breviore (descriptio ad exemplaria 
indica refert). Floret Iunio, Iulio. 

Area geograpliica — Altai australis, Ala-tau, Tbian-slian, Fer- 
ghana, Yarkand (?), Himalaya occidentalis. Specimina vidi in 
\alle Nila provinciae Garbwal alt. 8-9000' a Dutbieo lecta. 



1892.] P BriiM — De Ranunculaceis Tndicis Disputationes. 289 

var. rj. varia Maly" (Aquilegia vulgaris typiea et Aquilegia subalpina 
Boreau, Zimmeter No. 1), 

caule 35-120 cm. altitudine basim versus glabro v. vix puberulo 
manifesto folioso, foliis caulinis inferioribus basilaribus subconfor- 
mibus, foliolis fol. bas. infra subglabris v. densiuscule pubescenti- 
bus, foliolo medio saepe petiolulato ad tertiam partem v. fere ad 
medium trilobo rarius tripartite 25-50 mm. longo lobo medio cune- 
ato-obovato v. transverse oblongo lateralibus saepius oblique obo- 
vatis, floribus caeruleis interdum albis, sepalis 22-32 mm. longis 
apice acutiuscnlo late acuminatis, petalorum lamina rotundato- 
truncata v. retusa, staminibus petala subaequantibus v. 1-3 milli- 
metris superantibus, calcaribus |— | laminae longitudine, stylo apice 
recto v. leviter recurvo. 

Area geograpbica — Tarkand (?), Sibiria, Eurojoa, mons Atlas. 

var. 9. recticornu P. B.", 

caule elato folioso plurifloro, foliis caulinis fere omnibus biter- 
natis vel ternatis, foliolo fol. bas. medio lato trifido v. tripartite! 
partitionibus divergentibus lineari-oblongis longe cuneatis inciso- 
crenatis crenis obtusis, sepalis oblongis subobtusis circiter 2 cm. 
longis, petalorum lamina 10-13 mm. longis apice rotund ate- trun- 
catis, staminibus limbum attingentibus v. 3 mm. superantibus, 
calcaribus subulatis rectis v. vix incurvis laminam subaequantibus. 
Vidi exemplaria in berbario Kurzii e Bavaria missa ; calcaria in 
formis norwegianis etiam leviter incurvata inveni. 
var. e. Ebneri" Zimtr. (Aquilegia Ebneri, Zimmeter No. 2), 

caule basim versus glabrescente 25-40 cm. altitudine, foliis bas. 
biternatis, foliis caulinis inferioribus trifoliolatis v. trisectis, foliolis 
sessilibus v. breviter petiohilatis infra dense pubescentibus medio 
19-22 mm. longo fere ad tertiam partem trilobo lobo medio cuneato- 
obovato, floribus 2 v. 4 rubescenti-caeruleis, sepalis ovato-oblono-is 
circiter 18 mm. longis, petalorum lamina rotundato-truncata cir- 
citer 9 mm. longa, calcaribus lamina circiter 6 mm. longioribus 
bamatis, staminibus petala paullo superantibus, stylo apice unci- 
nate. — Styria. 
var. k. dinarica'' Beck (A. dinarica Beck in Ann. Hofmns.), 

caule 1-2-floro, ad 20 cm. altitudine, usque a basi uti petioli pilis 
patentibus glanduliferis obsito, foliis pubescentibus basilaribus ter- 
natis foliolis conspicue petiolulatis subcordatis tripartitis rarius 
trisectis partionibus inciso-crenatis, floribus pilosis, sepalis ovato- 
oblongis 2-3 cm. longis, albis v. caerulescentibns patentibus, peta- 
loi'um lamina caerulescenti rotundato-truncata 11-20 mm. lono-a 






290 P. Briilil — De Ranunctdaceis Tndicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

calcaribus graciliter conicis bamatoincurvis laminae subaequilongis, 
staminibus fere laminae longitudine, stylis quam ovaria paullo 
brevioiibus. — Bosnia. 
var. X. eynensis P. B.", 

caule fere ad apicem usque simplici 2-3 floro 25-35 cm. altitudine 
ut petioli basim versus parce birto sub floribus glanduloso-pubes- 
centi ; foliis bas. biternatis, petiolis 5-10 cm. longis, petiolulis pri- 
mariis 15-30 mm. longis foliolis breviter petiolulatis T. sessilibus 
aut subglabris aut utrinque dense pubescentibus basi obtusis, medio 
subrotundo v. fere reniformi 15-18 mm. longo fere ad medium tri- 
lobo lateralibus oblique reniformibus profunde bilobis, lobis crenatis 
aut bi v. trilobulatis, crenis integerrimis v. paucicrenulatis obtusis v. 
rotundato-truncatis ; folio caulino infimo a basi reinoto ternato, 
foliolis tripartitis partitionibus crenato-incisis ; foliis superioribus 2 
v. 3, trifoliolatis, foliolis oblongo-lanceolatis pedunculari lineari, 
sepalis 23-26 mm. longis late ovatis acutis unguicalatis, petal- 
orum lamina truncata v. retusa 10-13 mm. longa, calcaribus unci- 
natim incurvis quam lamina 1-4 millimetris longioribus, staminibus 
Limbum attigentibus, parastemonibus lineari-lanceolatis ovariis 
paullo longioribus, stylis apice recnrvia antberas vix attingentibus. 

Vidi cxemplaria pyrenaica in valle d' Eynes lecta. Flos omnino 
A. vulgaris typicae, Bed differt caale subsimplici haud conspicue 
folioso foliis foliolisque minoribus ; ab A. Bertolonii folio caulino 
infimo basilaribus subconformi (et ab iis remoto), lamina petalorum 
plane truncata v. retusa distinguenda. An A. pyrenaica var. B. 
decipiens Grenier et Godron, cuius calcaria dicuntur paullum cur- 
vata et lamina retusa ; an A. vulgaris var. hirsutissima quam 
Lespeyres in Flora Pyrenaica nasci scribit ad ' Font de Comps ' ? 
var. fi. paraplesia" Schur (A. paraplesia Zimmeter No. 6), 

caule 20-30 cm. altitudine basim versus glabrescente subnudo 
2-3 floro, foliis basilaribus biternatis, foliolis sessilibus glabris 
medio basi cuneato ad tertiam partem trilobo, floribus rubescenti- 
caeruleis (atroviolaceis), sepalis ovato-lanceolatis acutis circiter 
32 mm. longis petalorum limbum rotundato-truncatum fere 18 mm. 
superantibus, staminibus calcaribusque lamina longioribus stylisque 
limbum attingentibus. — Transsilvania. 
var. v. nigricans'' Baumgarten (A. nigricans Bmgt.—A.. Sternbergii 
Bchb., Zimmeter No. 7, = A. Haenkeana Koch), 

caule 25-40 cm. altitudine 1-5 floro basim versus glabrescente, 
foliis biternatis, foliolis fl. bas. saepissime subsessilibus sessilibusve 
glabris v. vix puberulis, medio ad quartam tertiamve partem, trilobo 



1892,] P. Briihl — De Ranunculaceis Indicts DUputationes. 291 

basi late cuneato, lobo medio breviter oblongo v. cuneato-obovato, 
folio caulino infimo basilaribus saepius subconformi, superioribus 
subsessilibus trifoliolatis trisectisve saepe profunde incisis, floribus 
azureis v. dilute caeruleis v. lilacino-purpureis, sepalis 27-34 mm. 
longis, petalorum lamina apice rotundato-truncata v. obtusa 13-15 
mm. longa, calcaribus hamato-incurvis quam lamina 3-10 milli- 
metris longioribus, staminibus laminam J -3 mm. superantibus, 
stylis apice i^ecurvis v. rectis. — Alpes, Transsilvania. 

Sunt in berbariis indicis exemplaria in Gilgit et Kunawar lecta 
quae sunt valde similia A. nigricanti ; sed calcaria sunt paullo 
minus incurva et laminam 1-3 millimetris tantum superant ; revera 
formae A. Moorcrof tianae' Wall. 



Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma descendens fusiforme irregulariter cylindricum interdum pluriceps, 
cortice nigra v. brunnea, collo petalorum reliquiis vestitum et 5-20 mm. crassitudine, 
caules 1-3 edens. Caulis erectus superne ramosus raro simplex teres v. obscure 
angulatus laevis v. leviter sulcatus florifer 25-120 cm. altitudine, sparse foliosus in- 
terdum subnudus, aut totus pilis crispulis v. patentissimis plus minus glandulosis 
obsitus aut basim versus glabrescens, nunc sine viscositate nunc insigniter viscosus. 
Folia basilaria conferta longissime petiolata caule florifero manifesto breviora 
(8-) 20-35 cm. longa ; petiolus basi in vaginam lanceolatam membranaceam 7-30 
mm. longam et pro ratione petioli brevem convergentim plurinerviam dilatatus 
supra canaliculars 5-30 mm. longus, 1-3 mm. crassitudine, glaber v. puberulus v. 
glanduloso-hirtus ; lamina biternata, rarius ternata atque foliolis trisectis v. tri- 
partitis ; petioli primarii tenuiter sulcati v. esulci, canaliculati, terminalis (1-) 
4-9 cm. longus, 0*8-1 "5 mm. crassitudine, laterales |—£ terminalis longitudine ; 
foliola membranacea interdum textura firmiore vmdia infra pallidiora v. glauca 
tenuiter nervosa supra glabra v. puberula infra glabra v. puberula v. dense pubes- 
centia ; terminale longiuscule petiolulatum rarius sessile circumscriptione breviter 
cuneato-obovatum v. subrhombeum v. reniforme basi obtusa v. rarius acuta late v. 
subanguste cuneatum v. subrotundatum, (10-) 15-50 mm. longum latitudinis f~f 
longitudinis, ad quartam v. tertiam partem palmatim trilobum v. ad medium v. ad 
tres partes tripartitum raro (in ternatis) trisectum, lobo medio cuneate lateque 
obovato v. rotundo v. breviter lineari-oblongo apice grosse crenato, crenis tribus, 
rarius trifido, laciniis crenisve apice obtusis v. retusis integerrimis v. paucicrenu- 
latis ; lobis lateralibus breviter oblongis v. oblique ovatis obovatisve inaequaliter 
bifidis v. bilobulatis v. grosse crenatis ; foliola lateralia oblique abovata v. rotun- 
dato-trapezoidea breviter petiolulata v. sessilia inaequaliter biloba v. bipartita, lobo 
interno bi v. trilobulato v. fisso, externo semel crenato-inciso crenatove lobis crenisve 
crenulatis v. integerrimis. 

Folia caulina inferiora, si adsunt, pauca basilaribus subconformia sed brevius 
petiolata, superiorum petioli brevissimi saepe ad vaginam brevem reducti folia 
summa saepe trifoliolata v. ti'isecta foliolis mediocribus v. parvis saepe ovato- 
oblongis v. lanceolatis integerrimis v. jjarce incisis ; folia peduncularia, si adsunt 
bracteiforrnia parva lanceolata. Inflorescentia rarius uninora saeiiissime racemosa 



292 P. Briilil — De Hanunculuceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

v. paniculato-corymbosa et 2-15 flora, ramis patentibus v. erecto-patulis ; pe- 
dunculi 3-9 cm. longi puberuli v. pilis brevibus patentissimis densissime pub- 
escentes baud raro visciduli. Flores saepius maiusculi, caerulei v. caeruleo- 
violacei v. purpurei, rarius albi v. atro-purpurei. Sepala ovata v. ovato-lan- 
ceolata basi saepe abrupte in unguem constricta apiceni versus cuneato-acutata 
v. breviter acuminata, apice acuto, nervis ramosis 3 percursa, 22-35, rarius 18 v. 
fere 40 mm. longa latitudine 3 — 2 longitudinis, petala 12-22 miliimetris excedentia 
raro iis vix longiora, dorso glabra v. plus minus pubescentia. Petalorum lamina 
dorso pilosula v. glabra oblonga apice rotundato-truncato obtusa v. retusa raro plane 
rotundata 9-15 mm. longa ; calcar conicum sed apicem versus sensim subcylindricum 
et uncinatim incurvum rarissime subrectum apice nectarifero capitatum, distantia 
a puncto insertionis ad partem infimam calcaris 10-19 mm. quam lamina saepissime 
1-5 (-8) mm. longior raro subbrevior v. subduplo brevior. Stamina numerosa 
inaequilonga petala 1-3 rarius 3-10 mm. superantia v. iis vix breviora; filamenta 
e basi dilatata gradatim angustata ; antherae oblongae muticae 1-2 mm. longae. 
Parastemones lanceolati v. lanceolato-lineares apice acuti apiculati ovaria 1-3 
mm. superantes margine plus minus undulati, interdum antheris parvis instructi. 
Pistilla 5-7, erecta, 12-18 mm. longa, stamina vix superantia v. iis rarius paul- 
lulo breviora ; ovaria cylindrica 3-6 mm. longa in stylum sensim v. subabrupte 
attcnuata dense hirta ; stylus filiformis apice rectus v. plus minus recurvus, ovariis 
saepissime 2-5 mm. longior raro iis fere aequalis. Folliculi saepissime 5, cbartacei, 
crecti, parralleli rarius a medio divergentim recurvi, e basi ovoidea rocurvo-at- 
tonuati, stylo filifuimi 7-10 mm. longo rostrati, nervis obliquis creberrimis plus 
minus anastomosantibus conspicuo reticulati, sine stylo 18-25 mm. longi. Semina 
numerosa oblongo-obovoidea, sectione transversa subtriangularia, dorso modice cur- 
vata, ventre carinata, nigra v. raro atro-brunnea, nitida v. rarius subopaca et granu- 
lata, 2-25 mm. longa, crebre minutissimeque punctulata. 

Tabella ad varietates Aquilegiae vulgaris typicae 
determinandas. 

I. Canlis saepius conspicue foliosus ramosus altitudine 35-120 cm., folia caulina 
inferiora basilaribus subconformia saepe fere eadem magnitudine sed breviter 
brevisBimeve (rarius longiuscule) petiolata, flores 3 v. saepius plures. 

A. Flores discolores sepalis cyaneis v. lilacinis (25-35 mm. longis ovato-acu- 

minatis), petalorum lamina alba, calcaria non capitata. 
%. Folliculi paralleli subrecti, semina nitida subtilissime punctulata. 

A. caucasiea Ledeb". 
33. Folliculi usque a medio divergentim recurvi, semina opaca granulata. 

A . olympica" Boiss. 

B. Flores concolores, calcaria plus minus distincte capitata. 

Q. Stamina petalorum lamina multo breviora, calcar lamina subduplo 
brevius. 

A. Eernardi" Grenier. 
J3. Stamina pet. limbum fere attingentia v. eo conspicue longiora. 

a. Sepala pet. lamina fere triple longiora ovato-lanceolata latitudine 
vix J longitudiuis (circiter 38 mm. longe 12 mm. lata violaceo- 
caerulea, stamina limbum 5 mm. superantia). 

A. longisepala" Zimtr. 



1892.] P. Briilil — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 293 

b. Sepala pet. lamina subduplo lougiora latitudine f— § longitudinis. 
a. Stamina petalorum limbum 3-10 mm. suj^erantia in columnam 
subcylindricam associata et si 3 mm. fcantum longiora flores 
atro-purpurei (purpureo-violascentes), caeteroqui flores sae- 
pius atro-purpurei rarius caerulei. 

A. atrata" Koch. 
it. Stamina petalorum limbum fere attingentia v. eum 3 mm. 
superantia, flores colore vario. 
o. Caulis usque a basi, uti petioli petiolulique, dense glandu- 
loso-birtus. Flores purpurei v. cinnamoneo-rubescentes. 

A. Karelini Baker". 
0. Caulis basim versus glaber v. vix puberulus, flores cae- 
rulei. 
aa. Calcar uncinatim incurvum. 

A. varia Maly". 

00. Calcar subrectum v. leviter incurvum. 

A. rectieornu P. B." 
II. Caulis 20-35 raro 40 cm. altitudine, aspectum subnudum praebens propter folia 
caulina basilaribus saepissime manifesto minora, infimo saepe a basi remoto. 
Flores 1—2 rarius 3 rarissime 4. 

A. Sepala circiter 18 mm. longa, folia infra dense pubescentia. 

A. Ebneri" Zmtr. 

B. Sepala plus 20 mm. longa. 

%. Caulis a basi, uti petioli petiolulique, pilis glanduliferis obsitus, sepala 

alba v. caerulescentia, folia plura ternata. 

A . dinarica" Beck. 
93. Caulis basim versus parce hirtus v. glaber, flores violacei v. caerulei v. 

rubescenti-cyanei. 

a. Caulis basim versus parce hirtus, foliola subtus subglabra v. utrinque 

dense pubescentia, sejDala 23-27 mm. longa. 

A. eynensis P. B." 

b. Caulis basim versus glaber v. puberulus, foliola glabra v. infra vix 

puberula, sepala (27—) 30—35 mm. longa. 
a. Flores cyaneo-rubescentes, sepala petalorum limbum circiter 18 
mm. superantia, stamina limbum vix attingentia. 

A. paraplesia" Schwr. 
fr. Flores caerulei rarius purpureo-lilacini, sepala petalorum lim- 
bum 6—15 mm. superantia, stamina limbum 1-3 mm. super- 
antia. 

A. nigricans" Bmgt. 

III. Aquilegia alpina' Lin. (Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. alpina H. f. 
et T. in F. B. I. ex parte. Aquilegia alpina Lin. ; Allioni, Flor. 
Ped. tab. LXVI ; Beichb. Flor. Germ. tab. CXIX.), 

foliis basilaribus ornnibus v. pluribus biternatis, foliolis margine 
sese plus minus obtegentibus terminali reniformi v. suborbiculari fere 
ad medium trifido v. profundius tripartito, laciniis creuato-incisis, 
folio caulino infimo petiolato foliolis saepius in lacinias magis dis- 
38 



294 P. BrtiM — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

tincte lineares incisis, floribus subconcoloribus caeruleis 32-45 mm. 

longis late ovatis, calcare crassiuscule conico subrecto v. manifesto 

incurvo quam lamina truncato-rotundata paullo breviore v. longiore 

staminibus lamina 2-6 mm. brevioribus, carpellis 5, folliculis 25-30 

mm. longis. 

Area geograpbica — Alpes, Apennini boreales, (Pyrenaei niontes?), 

Himalaya occidentalis. 
var. a. typica, pistillis antberas vix v. baud attingentibus. 
var. /3. himalaica P. B., pistillis antberas 2-3 mm. superantibus. 
Forma afnnis A. Moorcroftianae Wall. var. suaveolenti et A. nivali Falc. 
var. saccocentrae. Garbwal (K /). 
Formae etiam occurrunt in Himalaya occidental! et in Gilgit, quae 

mediae sunt inter A. alpina Lin, et A. Moorcroftiana Wall. 

Descriptio Subspeciei. 

Rhizoma fusiforme v. subcylindricum, descendens, vaginis foliorum fusorum plus 
minus tectum, collo 2-6 mm. crassitudine, caulem solitarium edens. 

Caulis teres ei'ectus rectus v. vix flexuosus simplex v. rarius superne parce 
ramosus manifesto sulcatus v. esulcus, florifer 20-40 cm. altitudine, prope basim 
l'5-4 mm. crassitudine, plus minus foliosum, inferne glabrescens v. hirtulus, sub flora 
dense minuteque glanduloso-hirtus. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata caule manifesto breviora (5-) 10-25 cm. 

longa ; petiolus basi in vaginam membranaceam late v. anguste lanceolatam conver- 

gentini nervosam 1-2 cm. longam et pro ratione petioli perbrevem dilatatus, lamina 

Bcsijuilongior v. quadruplo longior, supra sulcatus subteres, supra vaginam 1-3 mm. 

crassitudine, puberulus ; lamina biternata, v. folii infimi ternata sed foliolis fere ad 

basim tripartitis ; petioluli primarii tenues v. subcrassi supra tenuiter canaliculati 

0.5-1 (-2) mm. crassitudine, terminalis 16-30 (-40) mm. longus, laterales |— f ter- 

minalis longitudinc ; foliola membranacea viridia, infra pallidiora, glabra v. vix hirtula 

marginibus plus minus sese obtegentia, terminale breviter petiolulatum v. sessile 

cireumscriptione subreniforme v. suborbiculare, aut versus basim obtusam subcunea- 

tum aut basi subtruncatum, 12-40 mm. longum, latitudine -|— | longitudinis, saepius 

fere ad medium trifidum v. ad tres partes tripartitum, lacinia media obovato-oblonga 

basim versus cuneata latitudine f-f longitudinis, apice crenato-incisa, crenis saepe 

parce crenulatis, laciniis lateralibus late obliqueque obovatis v. breviter longiusculeve 

lineari-oblongis inaequaliter crenato-incisis raro integris, lacinula externa breviter 

oblonga apice subrotundata saepe crenula instructa, lacinula interna saepe crenis tribus 

instructa ; foliola lateralia rarius fere symmetrica atque terminall conformia, saepius 

asymmctrico reniformia lateve obovata profunda bipartita, partitione externa late 

et oblique obovato-cunneata bifida aut bipartita, interna inaequaliter biloba lobulo 

intcrno saepius crenis 2 externo crenis tribus incisis, crenis omnibus apice obtusis v. 

subacutis rarius rotundatis ; folium primarium interdum foliis basilaribus Aquilegiae 

pyrenaicae omnino conforme. 

Folium caulinum infimum longiusculo petiolatum conspicue vaginatum, petiolo 
laminae saepe snbaequilongo, lamina biternata v. subbiternata interdum laminis fol. 
bas. conformi saepius laciniis pro ratione longitudinis angustioribus ideoque magis 



1892.] P. Briihl — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Blsputationes. 295 

distincte liiiearibug ; folia media 1-2, aut nulla, brevissiuie petiolata, petiolo ad 
vaginam reducto, lamina ant biternata efc laminis folii infimi subconformi ant ternata 
et foliolis tripartitis v. trisectis, partitionibus aut integerrimis lanceolatis aut incisia 
lacinulis lanceolato-linearibus subacntis ; folia summa 1-2 bracteiformia linearia 
acuta 1-2 cm. longa, interdum nulla. 

Flores magni, suberecti v. nutantes. Sepala 32-45 mm. longa (rarissime bre- 
viora), petalorum limbum 10-22 mm. superantia, late ovata, basi in unguem brevem 
constricta, apice acuta v. obtusa cuneato-acutata aut breviter acuminata, latitudine- 
fere f- longitudinis, caerulea rarius albida v. rubescentia apice saepissime vires- 
centia. Petala campanulam efficientia, lamina late obovata apice truncato-rotundata 
13-20 mm. longa, sepalis magis dilute caerulea ; calcar crassiuscule conicnm versus 
apicem subcapitatum sensim attenuatum 10-25 mm. longum subrectum v. saepiua 
incurvum rarissime fere uncinatum interdum lamina paullo brevius saejrius ea 1-6 
mm. longius. sub apice saepe 15—2 mm. crassitudine. Stamina numerosa (40—50) 
inaequilonga, longiora lamina petalorum 2-6 mm. breviora, glabra ; filamenta a basi 
plus minus dilatata gradatim attenuata, longiora (6— j 8—12 mm. longa ; antherae 
oblongae muticae fere 2 mm. longae fusco-virentes. Parastomones lanceolati undulati 
apice acuti 7-10 mm. longi, ovaria superantes, interdum pistilla subaequantes, 
Pistilla 5 erecta 10-13 mm. longa, stamina superantia v aequantia interdum iia 
breviora ; ovaria subcylindrica 6—7 mm. longa dense hirta ; styli subulati infra hirti, 
ovario paullo v. 3 mm. breviores, apice recti v. leviter recurvi. 

Folliculi 5, subparalleli, e basi ovoidea apicem versus attenuati, 25-30 mm. 
longi, hirti v. pubescentes, stylo 5-8 mm. longo rostrati. 

Semina nigra, nitida, obovoidea. 

IV. Aquilegia Bertolonii', Schott (Aquilegia pyrenaica Bertoloni, 
et Reichb., Ic. PL Germ. 4732 ; A. Bertolonii Schott ; A. Reuteri 
Boiss.), 

foliis basilaribus saepissime biternatis, foliolis margine sese ob- 
tegentibus, terminali late obtriangulari trilobo 12-20 mm. longo, 
lobis crenatis crenis mediis rotundatis v. retusis, folio caulino in- 
fimo (fere semper) basilaribus multo minore trifoliolato foliolis 
lanceolatis integris v. fissis, inflorescentia 1-4-flora, floribus conco- 
loribus, sepalis ovatis 24-30 mm. longis, petalis rotundatis v. sub- 
truncatis, calcaribus conico-subulatis hamato-inciirvis, laminam 
subaequantibus y. ea paullo longioribus, folliculis 12-15 mm. longis. 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma fusiforme collo, reliquiis foliorum plus minus tectum. Caulis erectus 
simplex v. superne modice ramosus vix sulcatus 15-50 cm. altitudine subnudus, aufc 
basim versus glabrescens aut totus tenuiter patentimque glandulosoqiubescens. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata ; petiolus basi in vaginam late lanceolatam 
brevem dilatatus, 4—20 cm. longus, glaber v. villoso-pubescens ; lamina biternata, 
rarius ternata, foliolis reuiformibus profunde trilobis v. trisectis ; petioluli primarii 
saepe villosuli, intermedio 8-30 mm. longo, lateralibus fere f- terminalis longitudine ; 
foliola sessilia v. breviter petiolata, textura subfirma, supra viridia et glabra, infra 
pallidiora et glabra v. puberula, margine sese obtegentia, ad marginem interdum 



296 P. Briihl — T)e Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputaticmes. [No. 3, 

ciliatula ; termmale foliorum biternatorum late triangnlare basi saepe obtusa late 
cuneatum ] 2—20 mm. longum, latitudine -J— § longitudinis, ad tertiam partem v. ad 
medium regulariter v. irregulariter trilobum, lobo medio breviter oblongo saepissi- 
me crenis tribus integerrimis v. vis cremilatis inciso, lobis lateralibus breviter ob- 
longis v. subobovatis crenis birds inaequalibus praeditis ; foliola lateralia asymmetrice 
lateque obovata v. subreniformia terminali angustiora v. latiora basi late cuneata v. 
obscure cordata, ad tertiam partem v. fere ad basim inaequaliter biloba, lobo interno 
tri- externo bicrenato, crenis foliolorum omnium intermediis apice apiculato v. 
mutico rotundato-truncatis v. retusis, lateralibus obtusis. 

Folia caulina saepissime basilaribus dissimilia ; infrrnuni, si est foliis bas. simile, 
paullum a basi caulis remotum ; folium infimum saepissime basilaribus multo minus, 
trifoliolatum, foliolis lanceolatis, intermedio integro v. trifido, lateralibus interdum 
bifidis ; superiora simplicia lineari-lanceolata, peduncularia 8-12 mm. longa, Flos 
lilacinus v. caeruleus, solitarius v. inflorescentia 2—4 flora corymboso- racemosa. 
Pedunculi gracilcs, laterales interdum 15 cm. longi, visciduli. 

Sepala ovata v. ovato-oblonga, apice acuta v. brevissime acuminata, basi in 
unguem conspicuum constricta, 24-30 mm. longa, latitudine circiter •§• longitudinis, 
dorso puberula, pctalorum limbum 6-10 mm. superantia. Petalorum lamina apice 
rotundata v. subtruncata, 14—20 mm. longa; calcar e basi conica subulatum bama- 
tum (rarius levius incurvum), laminae aequilongum v. ea paullo longius. Stamina 
petalorum limbum aequantia v. saepius co 1-7 mm. breviora ; filamenta angusta, 
longiora circa 1 cm. longa; antherae oblongae, lo— 2 mm. longae, muticae. Para- 
stomones lanccolati, apice apiculato obtusi v. acuti, vix v. manifesto undulati, 7-8 
mm. longi, ovariis subaequilongis. Pistilla 5 ; ovaria obato-oblonga, 7—8 mm. 
longa, hirta, in stylum subulatum leviter recurvum ovariis fere dimidio breviorem 
gradatim attenoata. Folliculi 5, 12-15 mm. longi, hirti. 

Area geograpliica — Appeuniui, Alpes peclemontani et maritimi, 
(Pyrenaei montes ?). 

Haec subspecies congeries esse vicletur formarum mediarnm ; nam 
non solum folia similia sunt foliis A. pyrenaicae, sed transitus etiam 
animadverti possunt partim in stirpes appenuinas A. alpinae floribus 
quam in formis typicis minoribus atque calcaribus multum curvatis, 
foliis tamen caulinis A. alpinae genuinae, partim in A. Einseleanam, 
cuius calcaria baud raro fere bamata sunt. Affinitatibus minus artis 
etiam cum A. nigricanti" et A eynensi" connexa. Stirpes iu Afgbauia 
oriental! crescentes et varietatem subspecici Meorcroftianae efficieutes 
baud raro A. Bertolonii valde similes, sed calcaria recta vel vix cur- 
vata. 

V. Aquilegia visCOSa' Gouan, (Aquilegia gland ulosa, Gouan 
lllustratioues botanicae tab. 19 fig. 1, Flor. Monsp. 267 ; = Aquilegia 
Einseleana Schulz = A. Baubiui 8chott = A.. pyrenaica Koch — A.. Kitai- 
belii layman ex parte ( = A. pyrenaica var. /? decipiens G. et G. ?) ; et A. 
glandulosa TT. et Kit.=A. Kitaibelii Schott = A.. pyrenaica Visiani ; A. 
thalictrifolia Schott), 

foliis basilaribus saepissime biternatis, foliolis subdistantibus 



1892.] P. Briihl — De Banimculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 297 

brevissime petiolulatis v. sessilibus, terminali triangulariter cuneato- 
obovato latitudine i— ■§■ — -i longitudinis, folio caulino infimo (v. 
altero) ternato foliolis segmentisve lanceolatis v. oblanceolatis, 
summis lanceolato-linearibus, floribus parvulis v. mediocribus cae- 
ruleis v. violaceis, sepalis oblongis v. oblongo-lanceolatis 14-27 mm. 
longis, petalorum lamina rotundata 9-16 mm. longa, calcaribus 
rectis y. incurvis neque uncinatis, staminibus pet. lamina 2-6 mm. 
brevioribns, folliculis 5-6 cylindricis patulis 8-15 mm. lonoig. 

Area greograpbica — Montes Europae centralis. In Himalaya non 
invenitur ; sed varietas A. Moorcrof fcianae a nobis Winterbot- 
tomiana dicta quoad folia valde similis A. tbalictrifoliae, et varietas 
altera, subapbylla, caule foliisque gland uloso-hirtis instructa, A. 
viscosam typicam in mentem revocat. 

var. a. Einseleana" Schulz, 

foliolis foliorum basilarium biternatorum infra glabris v. parce 
rarius subdense glanduloso-pnberulis ad quartam vel tertiam 
partem rarius ad medium usque trilobis lobis saepissime rotundatis 
v. rotunclato-subquadratis v. cuneate obovato-oblongis, foliis caulinis 
aut minimis aut conspicuis foliis basilaribus subconformibus sed 
segmentis magis linearibus, superioribus saepius trisectis v. simpli- 
cibus segmentis oblanceolatis v. linearibus, calcare laminae sub- 
aequilongo rarius f eius longitudine, folliculis subspaz-se glanduloso- 
birtulis. — Alpes, Gallia austr. 

var. (3. thalictrifolia" Schott, 

foliis glanduloso-hirtis et ciliatis, foliolis mediis fol. bas. ad 
medium v. tertiam partem trifidis longe et saepe subanguste cun- 
eatis laciniis lineari-oblongis inciso-serratis, foliis caulinis inferiori- 
bus nonnullis foliis basilaribus subconformibus sed laciniis mao-is 
linearibus, superioribus trifoliatis v. trisectis segmentis rite lanceo- 
latis, calcare laminae aequilongo v. paullo breviore, folliculis vis- 
coso-birtulis. — Alpes. 

var. y. Kitaibelii" Schott, 

foliolis foliorum basilarium villoso-pubescentibus, foliis caulinis 
nullis vel 1-2 linearibus v. infimo trisecto, calcare lamina fere 
duplo breviore, folliculis dense birtis. — Croatia. 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma directione varia, subfusiforme, atrobrumieum, foliorum relfquiis plus 
minusve vestitum, caules 1-2 edens. Caulis erectus simplex v. superne ramosus teres 
laevis v. vix sulcatus, florifer altitudine 12-50 cm. prope basim l-2 - 5 mm. erassitu- 
dine subnudus supra basim aut glabrescens axit villoso-pubesceus atque plus miuus 



298 P. Bruhl — De Ranunculaceis Indicis Bisputationes. [No. 3, 

glandulosus aut parce v. densiuscule glanduloso-hirtus ; rami, ubi adsunt, gracilea 
patuli. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata 3-20 cm. longa ; petioli basi in vaginam 
lanceolatam membranaceam 3-7 mm. longam et pro ratione petioli brevissimam 
convergentim nervosam dilatati, basi breviter canaliculati subteretes, 2—14 cm. longi, 
0'5-l - 5 mm. crassitudine, subglabri v. pilosuli v. parce glanduloso-hirti ; lamina 
ternata v. biternata, foliolis biternatorum subdistantibus ; petioluli primarii tenues 
leviter sulcati, terminalis 2—45, saepius 5-15 mm. longus, laminae aequilongus v. ea 
manifesto longior, laterales terminali aut aequilongi aut subduplo breviores ; foliola 
textura firmiora, aut parte utraque glabra aut supra glabra infra puberula v. plus 
minus glandulosa aut utrinque glanduloso-pubescentia infra pallidiora ; foliolum 
terminale foliorum biternatorum brevissime petiolulatum v. subsessile, triangulare 
cuneato-obovatum, (5—) 9—20 (—25) mm. longum, versus basim acutam v. obtusius- 
culam insigniter cuneatum, latitudine ■ § — £ — \ longitudinis, apice vix ad tertiam partem 
v. paullo ultra medium trilobum v. trifidum, lobo medio subquadrato v. lineari-ob- 
longo apice crenis tribus obtusis v. rotundatis inciso, lateralibus breviter semi-ob- 
ovatis v. lineari-ablongis integerrimis v. crenis binis inaequaliter incisis ; foliola 
lateralia subsessilia v. piano sessilia asymmetrice obovata rarius subtrapezoidea 
inaequaliter biloba v. rarius bisecta,lobo interno subobovato trifido v. saepissime 
crenis term's subinaequalibus inciso, lobo externo bifido v. saepissime integerrimo 
bicrcnatove ; foliola foliorum basilarium ternatorum subreniformia v. semiorbi- 
cularia, basi truncata v. subcordata, ad duas partes v. fere ad basim palmatim tri- 
partita partitiono media cuneato-obovata lateralibus oblique obovatis, omnibus 
crenatis v. crcnato-lobatis. 

Folium caulinum infimum interdum foliis basilaribus conforme v. saepius ternatum 
foliolis segmentisve lanceolatis v. oblanceolatis interdum longissime cuneatis, aut 
integerrimis apice obtusis, aut incisis ; folia intermedia subsessilia, petiolo ad vagi- 
nam reducto, trifoliolata, foliolis breviter petiolutatis, aut integerrimis atque oblanceo- 
latis apico rotundatis obtusis acutisve, aut rarius basilaribus conformibus sed minori- 
bus, aut parce incisis ; folia summa bracteiformia saepissime integra lanceolato- 
linearia 3-14 mm. longa. 

Flores parvuli solitarii v. 2—5-10 in racemum paniculamve subcorymbosam 
laxissimam dispositi, nutantes v. suberecti, caerulei v. violacei ; ramis laterales in- 
florescentiae gracilibus infimo interdum 20 cm. longo. Pedunculi apice dense viscoso- 
birti. Sepala elliptico-oblonga v. oblongo-lanceolata, apice acuto breviter acuminata, 
basi in unguem brevem constricta, 14-27 mm. longa, latitudine f-f longitudinis, 
glabra v. dorso vix puberula, petala 3-14 mm. superantia. Petalorum lamina obovato, 
apice saepissime rotundata rarissime rotundato-subtruncata ; calcar subulatum 
apice nectarifero capitatum, rectum v. manifesto incurvum neque tamen uncina- 
tum quam lamina 2 mm. longius vel 1-16 mm. brevius, |-£ laminae longitudine. 
Stamina numerosa inaequalia, limbo petalorum 2-6 mm. breviora, glabra ; filamenta 
a basi modice dilatata in apicem filiformem angustata ; antberae oblongo-ellipsoideae 
circa 1'5 mm. lon^ae muticae v. distincte apiculatae flavae. Parastemones lanceolati 
6-7 mm. longi apice acuti, plus minus undulati, ovaria superantes. Pistilla 5-6 
erecta, 7-10 mm. longa ; ovaria cylindrica dense birta ; styli filiformes, apice recti 
V. ad ultimum recurvi, infra hirti, ovario subaequilongi. 

Folliculi 5-6, cylindrici, patuli, apice rotundato obliquo, stylo persistenti filifonni 
4-6 mm. longo rostrati, nervoso-reticulati, 12-15 mm. longi, pilosuli v. glanduloso- 
hirti. 



1892.] P. Briihl — De Rnnunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 299 

VI. Aquilegia grata' Maly, (Aquilegia grata Maly in Zimmeter, 
Mon. Aq. No. 13). 

Caule 12-25 cm. altitudine, uti petioli petioluli foliola, usque a 
basi glanduloso-hirto, foliis basilaribus biternatis, foliolis magnis 
rotuudato-deltoideis margine sese plus minus obtegentibus, foliis 
caulinis inf. basilaribus subconformibus, floribus 3-5 pallide cae- 
mleis, sepalis circiter 2 cm. longis ovatis, fere 1*5 cm. petala super- 
antibus, pet. lamina circiter 6 mm. longa, calcare recto v. paullura 
incurvo quam lamina subduplo longiore, staminibus limbum super- 
antibus, folliculis brevibus. — Croatia, Serbia. 

VII. Aquilegia pyrenaica' DO. (Aquilegia pyrenaica DO. nee 
KocJi neque Bertoloni nee Visiani), 

caule 10-30 cm. altitudine simplici v. subsimplici subnudo v. vix 
folioso, foliis basilaribus ternatis v. saepius biternatis foliolis 
approximates v. margine sese obtegentibus glaberrimis v. infra 
vix puberulis, terminali late rhombeo v. subreniformi basi late 
cuneato v. subcorclato 3-18 mm. longo, inflorescentia uni v. pauci- 
flora, floribus concoloribus caeruleis rarius discoloribus, sepalis 
ovatis 16-26 mm. longis, petalorum lamina apice truncato-rotun- 
data v. plane rotundata, calcare recto v. leviter incurvo, staminibus 
lamina brevioribus, carpellis fere 5 hirtis, folliculis subparallelis 
12-15 mm. longis. 

var. a. vera, floribus concoloribus, sepalis saepius plus 2 cm. (sed etiam 
16 mm.) longis. 

var. /3. discolor" Levier et Lev., floribus discoloribus, sepalis vix 2 cm. 
longis. 

Vidimus exemplaria rara subsp. nivalis, e Kashmiria allata, a 
var. a. huius subspeciei nullo modo distinguenda. 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma horizcratale v. descendens, simplex, fusiforme v. cylindricum, atro- 
brunneum, crassitudine 2—5 nun., collo foliorum reliquiis vestftum, cauleni soKtarium 
edens. 

Caulis erectus simplex v. apice vix ramosns subteres sulcatus plus minus fistulo- 
sus, florif er 10-25 ( 30) cm. altitudine, prope basim 1-2 mm. crassitudine basi f oliosus, 
infra inflorescentiam nudus v. folio uno alterove instructus, subglaber v. puberulus. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata sed caule saepissime manifesto breviora raro 
eum aequantia 3-15 cm. longa ; petiolus basi in vaginam membranaceam lanceolatam 
6—15 mm. longam et pro ratione petioli brevem convergentim plurinerviam dilatatus 
2—12 cm longus, 0'7-l'5 mm. crassitudine, supra leviter canaliculars, puberulus v. 
glaber ; lamina aut teimata atque foliolis trisectis v. triiiartitis, aut saepius biternata • 
petioluli primarii tenuiter sulcati glabri v. subglabri, tei-minalis 7-15 mm. lon°-us 
laterales |-| terminalis longitudinej foliola membranacea, valde approxuuata et 



300 P. Briibl — De Ttanunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

sese margine obtegentia supra viridia, infra pallidiora v. glauca, glaberrima v. infra 
vix puberula, lobis vix distantibus v. sese attingentibus v. paullum se obtegentibus ; 
terminale late rhombeum v. subreniforme, basi late cuneatum v. subcordatum v. rotun- 
dato-truncatuni, 3—18 mm. longum, latitudine -j— § longitudinis saepissime latiore 
quam longiore, ad tertiam partem v. ad medium trilobum v. ultra medium trijmrti- 
tum v. raro ad basim usque trisectum, lobo medio obovato apice subtruncato crenis 
tribus mstructo, lobis lateralibus breviter oblongis v. oblique obovatis saepissime 
inciso-lobulatis lobulis parce crenatis v. rarius integerrimis, petiolulo subnullo v. 
1-5 mm. longo, uti laterales, glabro v. pilosulo ; foliola lateralia brevius petiolulata 
v. sessilia reniformia v. late trapezoidea v. asymmetrice truncato-obovata profunde 
inaequaliterque bipartita, partitione interna oblique triangulari v. subreniformi 
saepe bifida v. lobulis tribus crenato-incisa, partitione externa obovato-oblonga v. 
semiovata saepissime lobulis binis incisa, lobulis crenisve haud raro parce et sub- 
obscure crenulatis apice late obtusis v. rotundatis v. subretusis. 

Folia caulina inferiora uno alterove longe v. breviter petiolata, foliis radicalibus 
aut conformia aut simpliciora aut plane nulla ; superiora (floralia) breviter brevis- 
eimovo petiolata, petiolo saepius ad vaginam brevem reducto, lamina aut trifoliolata 
aut trisecta, foliolis v. segmentis trisectis divisionibus lineari-lanceolatis apice acutig 
v. subobtusis, summa v. omnia saepo integra lanceolato-linearia 7—12 mm. longa. 
Inflorescentia uni v. pauciflora, floribus mediocribus nutantibus v. suberectis, con- 
coloribus caeruleis v. petalis alliis discoloribus. Pedunculi glanduloso-pubescentes. 
Sepala late ovata v. ovato oblonga, basi in uuguern brevem contracta, apice subacuto 
breviter acuminata, nervis tribus ramosissimis percursa, 16—26 mm. longa latitudine 
i- 1 (-|) longitudinis, pctala 5-11 mm. superantia. Petalorum lamina obovato- 
oblonga v. plane oblonga apice truncato-rotundata v. plane rotundata, 10-16 mm. 
longa ; calcar e basi subangusta conico-subulatum, apice ncctarifero vix capitatum 
nil uni v. leviter incurvum, 15-20 mm. longum, |— f laminae longitudine, sub apice 
0'5— 08 mm. crassitudinc. Stamina numerosa valde inaequalia, longiora petalorum 
lamina 2-4 mm. breviora, lilamenta e basi modice dilatata in apicem subfiliformem 
gradatim attenuata, longiora 7-11 nun. longa ; antherae elliptico-oblongao l'5-2 mm. 
longae apice rotundato muticao. Parastemones ovato-lauceolati v. lineares acuti 
undulati 7-9 mm. longi, ovaria superantes. Pistilla 5 erecta 85-10 mm. longa, 
stamiuibuB aequilonga v. ea paullo superantia; ovaria 4—5 mm. longa anguste 
ovoideo-oblonga glanduloso-liirta ; styli filiformes subrecti infra liirta ovario sub- 
aequilongi v. subduplo longiores. 

Folliculi 4-5, subparalleli, subcylindrici, apicem versus modice attenuati, sub- 
obliqui, nervoso-reticulati, glanduloso-pubescentes, 12-15 mm. longi. 

VIII. Aquilegia nivalis' Falconer (A. nivalis Falc. in herbario 
Kewensi de sententia Bakeri), 

caule 3-30 cm. altitudine 1-v. rarius 2-floro, folii3 basilaribus 
plerisque biternatis, foliolis margine sese obtegentibus 1-16 mm. 
lono-is, medio deltoideo v. reniformi basi obtuso v. subcordato fere 
ad medium trilobo, lobis lobulatis v. crenatis, crenis ovatis et rotun- 
dato-subquadratis, foliis caulinis paucis v. nullis vagina consjaicua, 
sepalis stellatim patentibus 12-24-40 mm. longis late ovatis v. 
oblongis apice obtusis v. subacutis, petalis apice truncatis sinuatis 
retusis emarginatis, calcare uncinato v. recto couico v. cylindrico 



1892.] P. Briihl — Be Ranuneulaceis Indicia Bisputationes. 301 

v. saccato, staminibus saopius lamina brevioribus, carpellis hirti.s, 
folliculis circiter 5 fei'G 1*5 cm. longis. 

var. a. paradoxa P. B., 

saepe caespitosa, caule florifero 4-16 (-24) cm. altitudine, sepalis 
(12-) 20-25 mm, longis, calcare ant uncinato aut recto aut incui'vo 
efc tenui v. crassiuscule cylindrico. Himalaya occidentalis, Gilgit. 
Lecta in Gilgit (Giles sub nominibus A. glaucae var. nivalis et A . 
vulgaris var. pubiflorae) ; Kashmir (herb. Falc ! H. Sah ! Winter- 
bottom!) ; Tibetia occidentalis (H. E. I. 0. No. 58!); Kunawar 
(Scz!). 

var. (3. saccocentra P. B., 

caule florifero 20-30 cm. altitudine, sepalis 35-40 mm. longis, 
calcare saccato medio 3-4 mm. crassitudine. In valle fluminis 
Chenab alt. 11000 ped. (E. !) 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma fusiforme v. irregulariter cylindricum, descendens v. horizontale, sub- 
gracile v. percrassum, atro-brunneum, saepe pluriceps, collo vaginis folioruni delap- 
sorum dense vestitum, caides 1—3 edens. 

Caulis erectus v. ascendens, simplex v. subsimplex saepissime uniflorus interdum 
biflorus, inidus v. folium unum alterumve edens, 3-30 cm. altitudine, prope basim 
1—2 mm. crassitudine infra aut denso glanduloso-hirtus aut pubescens aut glaberri- 
mus, sub flore semper dense glanduloso-hirtus. 

Folia basilaria longissime v. partim longe petiolata ; petiolus basi in vaginam 
membranaceam brunneam 1-2 cm. longam convergentim plurinerviam dilatatns supra 
basim leviter canaliculatus striatus (1-) 2-8 cm. longus, 5— 13 mm. crassitudine, 
glaber v. birsutus ; lamina biternata v. folii unius alteriusve ternata ; petioluli 
primarii striati glabri v. plus minus pilosi, terminalis 2-20 mm. longus ; foliola 
marginibus sese obtegentia tenuia 3-16 mm. longa supra viridia infra pallidiora 
glabra v. vix pilosula, medium reniforme v. deltoidoum v. semiorbiculare basi lata 
obtusum v. subcordatum rarius manifesto cunneatum circiter ad medium regulariter 
v. subirregulariter trilobum latitudine -|— f longitudinis, lobo medio obovato plus 
minus cuneato raro subintegerrimo (in foliis perpaucis tantum) saeiDissime trilobu- 
lato, lobis lateralibus oblique obovatis v. late irregulariterque obtriangularibus saepius 
bilobulatis, lobulis integerrimis v. -plus, minus crenatis ; foliola lateralia oblique 
reniformia latitudine ^— | longitudinis, basi subcuneata v. obscure cordata, plus 
minus profunde (mterdum ad basim usque) irregulariter biloba, lobo interno 
subregulariter trilobulato v. tricrenato, externo bilobulato, lobulis crenatis v. sub- 
integex*rimis, crenis foliolorum omnium breviter ovatis v. mediis rotundato-sub- 
quadratis plus minus obtusis v. rotuudatis. 

Folium caulinum infimum, aut unicum, (ubi adest,) longe v. longissime petiola- 
tum maiusculum v. parvuin, foliis basilaribus interdum omnino conforme, saepius 
flori apiDroximatum, petiolo basi in vaginam conspicuam lanceolatam dilatato l-2'5 
cm. longo, lamina saepissime ternata, foliolis nunc fcripartis sectisve et foliolis foliis 
bas. subsimilibus, nunc bi- v. trifidis laciniis lanccolatis nunc lanceolatis integerrimis ; 
folium caulinum summum (v. unicum) saepe lineari-lauceolatum S-12 mm. longum 
petiolo ad vaginam conspicuam redacto. 
39 



302 P. BriiLl — Be Ranunculaceis Indicis Bisputationes. [No. 3, 

Flos maiusculus inagnusve v. mediocris plus minus nutans. 

Sepala stellatiru patentia, late ovata v. ovato-oblonga, basi in unguem brevem 
constricta, apice obtusa v. acutiuscula interdum brevissime acuminata, (12—) 20-40 
mm. longa, latitudine (f— ) -|-f longitudinis, petala 6-12-22 mm. superantia, caeru- 
lea, dorso puberala v. glabra. Petalorum lamina obovato-cuneata apice truncata 
plus-minusve sinuata v. retusa v. emarginata 7-12 mm. longa purpurea v. violacea ; 
calcaria aut e basi brevi ample conica in apicem tenuem uncinatim incurvum ir — f 
laminae longitudine attenuata, aut a basi conoidea tenuiter cylindrica incurva v. 
Bubrecta aut saej>ius crassiuscule conica leviterque incurva laminae subaequilonga, 
aut tenuiter conica v. fere cylindrica lamina paullo longiora, aut saccata laminae 
subaequilonga v. paullo breviora, apice aut couspicue capitata aut obtusissima. 
Stamina longitudine inaequalia, petalorum lamina paullo breviora raro eorum 
limbum 1 mm. superantia ; filamenta e basi paullum dilatata sensim in apicem 
attenuata, longiora 6—8 mm. longa ; antherae elliptico-oblongae, exteriores saepius 
maiores, apice muticae, fere 1 mm. longae, flavae v. fusco-virescentes. Parastemones 
lineares v. lanceolati plus minus unclulati apice acuto apiculati 5—7 mm. longi, filamen- 
tis longioribus breviores, ovaria sujierantes, unus alterve saepe antbera parva instruc- 
tus. Pistilla 5, staminibus breviora v. ea 5 mm. superantia, 9-14 mm. longa ; 
ovaria subcylindrica 4—5 mm. longa dense glanduloso-hirta, in stylum subulatum ad 
altitudinem variam hirtum ovarii -j — f longitudine apice ad ultimum plus minus 
uncinatim recurvum subabrnpte attenuata. 

Folliculi 5 (v. plures ?) suborecti, e basi ovoidea in apicem oblique truncatum 
paullum attenuati, conspicuo transversim reticulato-nervosi, sine stylo circiter 1'5 
cm. longi, birti, stylo filiformi (fere 5 mm. longo) rostrati. 

Semina obovoidea, laevia, nigra, (subopaca), circiter 15 mm. longa. 

IX. Aquilegia glandulosa' Fisch. (Aquilegia glandulosa Fischer, 
Zirameter No. 10; A. jucuuda Fischer; A. Gebleri Besser ; A. trans- 
silvanica Schur, Zimmeter No. 5; A. Fussii Zimmeter ; A. sulphurea 
Zimmeter No. 9, A. aurea Janka. Icones : Delessert Icones vol. I tab. 
4S ? ; Sweet, Br. Fl. Garcl. vol. I tab. 55 ; Edwards' bot. reg. vol. X, 
tab. 19 ; Flore des Serres, vol. V, 535), 

caule 12-40 cm. altitudine 1-5-floro, foliis basilaribus biternatis, 
foliolis margine sese obtegentibus rarius subdistantibus, medio lata 
triangular! v. reniformi rarius rhombeo v. obovato-cuueato trilobo 
latitudine saepissime \ — -f longitudinis, crenis mediis rotundato- 
subquadratis v. breviter oblongis, folio caulino infimo saepissime 
brevissime petiolato subtrifoliolato, floribas magnis v. mediocribns, 
sepalis stellatim patentibus late ovatis v. ellipticis 1G-45 mm. 
longis, petalornm lamiua apice rotundata raro obtusa, calcare un- 
cinato \ — \ lamiuae longitudine, staminibus lamina 2-11 mm. brevi- 
oribus, carpellis (5-) 6-12 glanduloso-hirtis, folliculis 2-3 cm. 
longis. 
var. a, iucunda" Fischer ex parte (A. glandulosa vai\ discolor BG.), 

caule plus minus glanduloso-pubescenti, foliolis saepissime mar- 
gine sese obtegentibus termiuali reuiformi basi saepissime sub- 



1892.] P. Briibl — Be Banwnculaceis Indicia Disputationes. 303 

cordato v. subtruncato, peduncnlis plus minus glandulosis, floribus 
discoloribus lamina alba v. ochroleuca calcare -|— ^ laminae lon<n- 
tudine. Sibiria. 
var. (3. vera", (A. glandulosa Fisch., Zimmeter. No. 10), 

caule foliisque uti in a, floribus concoloribus azureis v. caeruleis, 
calcare i— § laminae longitudine. Variat floribus magnis v. medio- 
cribus. 

subvar. aa. lamina petalorum elliptico-oblonga apice obtusa 
( = A. glandulosa typica Fischeri). — Sibiria. 

subvar. (3(3. lamina petalorum oblongo-obovata apice rotun- 
data v. rotundato-truncata ( = A. iucunda Fischer ex parte). — 
Sibiria, Transsilvania. 
var. y. SUlphurea" Zimmeter, (A. aurea JanJca, Zimmeter No. 9.), 

foliolis sese paullum obtegentibus inciso-crenatis, terminali rhom- 
beo basim versus cuneato saepius paullo longiore quam latiore 
floribus magnis concoloribus sulphureis v. aureis, peduuculis glabris, 
calcare fere f laminae longitudine. — Macedonia. 

var. 8 transsylvanica" Schur, (A. transsylvanica Schur, Zimmeter 
No. 5 ; A. Fussii Zimmeter) , 

foliolis sese attingentibus v. vix distantibus, terminali late 
rbombeo v. subreniformi, peclunculis puberulis v. glabris, floribus 
magnis concoloribus violaceo-caeruleis, calcare |— § laminae lon<n- 
tudine. — Transsilvania. 
var. e, Gebleri" Besser (?), 

foliolis sese attingentibus vix se obtegentibus, terminali sub- 
rbombeo versus basim obtusam late cuneato, peduncnlis plus 
minus glanduloso-pubescentibus, floribus concoloribus caeruleis. — 
Sibiria (Gebler /). 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma fusiforme descendens collo foliorunt reliquiis obtectum. 

Canlis erectus simplex v. superne modice raniosus strictus v. vix flexuosns 
subteres leviter svdcatus, florifer 12-40 cm. altitudine, prope basim 1-4 mm. crassi- 
tudine, aut raro totus glaber ant saepius parte inferiore glabreseeute sub flore 
pubescens v. glanduloso-hirtus aut basim versus birtulus apiceque glanduloso- 
subtomentosus, subnudus v. parce foliosus. 

Folia basilaria lougissime petiolata, caule manifesto breviora, 10-30 cm. longa • 
petiolus basi in vaginam membranaceam lanceolatam v. o vat am 1-2 cm. longam 
convergentim plurinerviam brunneam dilatatus, subteres, supra canaliculars. 7-20 
cm. longus, 1-3 mm. crassitudine, glaber v. puberulus v. glanduloso-hirtulus ; lamina 
biternata ; petioluli primarii supra canaliciUati, puberuli v. subglabri, terminalis 
1-4 cm. longus, laterales f-f terminalis longitudine ; foliola membranacea tenuiter 
palminervia margine sese obtegentia v. rarius subdistantia, supra viridia infra 



304 P. Briihl — Be Ranunculaceis Indicts Bisputat tones. [No. 3, 

pallidiora, aut utrinque glabra aut supra glabra et infra ad nervos praecipue et 
prope basim pilosula ; termiuale sessile v. breviter petiolulatum, rarius subrhom- 
beum v. obovato-cuneatum saepissirne late obtriangulare v. renifonne, aut basi 
obtusa late cuneatum aut obscure cordatum, vix ad tertiam partem v. ad medium 
usque regulariter v. irregulariter trilobum, 1—3 (-4) cm. longum latitudine \— § raro 
f longitudinis, lobo medio obovato-cuneato v. breviter lineari-oblongo latitudine 
■§— a longitudinis apice crenis tribus regulariter v. saepius irregulariter inciso, lobis 
lateralibus semiovatis v. saepius transverse oblongis obovatisve bilobulatis lobulis 
inciso-crenatis ; foliola lateralia sessilia v. subsessilia asymmetrice reniformia ad 
medium v. fere ad basim bi- v. triloba, basi latisssime cuneata v. subsemicordata, 
lobis lobulatis et inciso-crenatis, crenis foliorum omnium mediis rotundato-sub- 
quadratis v. transverse longitudinaliterve lineari-oblongis lateralibus breviter ob- 
longo-ovatis, apice obtusis v. rotundatis sacpe leviter retusis ; petioluli secundarii, 
ubi adsunt, haud raro magis pilosi quam primarii, terminalis subnullus v. 8 mm. 
longus, laterales saepe nulli semper terminali breviores. 

Folium caulinum infimum interdum longe petiolatum basilaribus subconforme, 
saepius folia caulina inferiora, ubi adsunt, brevissime petiolata petiolo ad vaginam 
reducto, lamina subtrifoliolata, foliolis aut trisectis aut integris segmentis foliolisve 
lineari-lanceolatis ; folia summa bracteiformia sessilia trisecta v. saepe lanceolato- 
linearia raro ovato-lanceolata 5-9 mm. longa, in pedunculis lateralibus praesertim 
haud raro duo plus minus approximate v. fere opposita. 

Florcs solitarii v. 2-3 (-5) in racemum subcorymbosum dispositi, nutantes v. erecti, 
mediocres v. magni. Bepala Btellatim patentia, nervis tribus valde ramosis peroursa 
late ovata v. elliptica, basi in ungucm perbrevem constricta, apice acuta v. subobtusa 
saepe brevissime acuminata, 1G— 20— 45 mm. longa latitudine |— § longitudinis, azurea 
v. dilute caerulca raro aurea v. sulphurea v. albida, dorso glabra v. puberula, apiculo 
plerumque albicante v. viridi, pctala 6—22 mm superantia. Petala aut concoloria 
caerulea purpurea albida aurea sulphurea aut discoloria calcare azureo v. dilute cae- 
rulea ac lamina alba v. ochroleuca, dorso glabra v. puberula ; lamina aut obovato-ob- 
longa apice rotundata raro rotundato-truncata aut elliptieo-oblonga in apicem obtu- 
Bum attenuata, 10-27 mm. longa ; calcar late conoideum apice capitato uncinatim 
iiHiirvum, laminae rarius subaequilongum saepius ^-f rarius ^ laminae longitudine. 
Stamina numerosa longitudine inacqualia lamina 2-6 raro 11 millimetris breviora 
glabra ; filamenta longiora 8-11 mm. longa, a basi vix dilatata gradatim atte- 
nuata ; antherae oblongae 2-5-35 mm. longae muticae flavae. Parastemones 
liiuari-lanceolati v. lineares, apice acuto apiculati, undulati 7-9 mm. longi, fila- 
menta longiora aequantes v. iis manifesto breviores, ovaria distincte superantes 
interdum apicem styli attingentes, apice haud raro antheris parvis globosis instructi. 
Pistilla 6—12, erecta, supra stamina vix v. 1-3 mm. prominentia raro iis breviora, 
8-11 mm. longa; ovaria subcylindrica, dense glanduloso-hirta ; stylus filiformis apice 
subrectus v. circinnatim recurvus, ovario saepissirne paullo bx'evior. 

Folliculi 6-12 patuli, a basi ovoidea sensim attenuati, apice obliquo in stylum 
persistentem attenuati, sine stylo 2-3 cm. longi, hirti saepe glandulosi. 
Semina numerosa, cuncato-obovoidea, ventre cariuata, saepe 3- v. 5-costata, nigra, 
nitida. 

X. Aquilegia Moorcroftiana' Wall. (Aquilegia Moorcroftiana 
Wall. Cat. 4713, Rojle 111. 55; Aquilegia glanca IAndl. (J840) ; A. 
kunaovensis Comb. (1844) ; A. fragrans Bth., Baker ex parte ; Aquilegia 



1892.] P. Briihl — Be Banunculaceis Indicts Bisputationes. 305 

vulgaris subsp. 4. alpina, subsp. 5. pyrenaica, Hook. f. et T. in F. B. L; 
Aquilegia vulgaris, var. pyrenaica et grandiflora H f. et T. in F. I. 
Icones : Jacq. Voy. Bot. tab. V" ; Bot. Mag. tab. 4493 ; Lindl. Bot. Reg 
XXVI tab. 46 ; Maund's Bot. IV. tab. 151.), 

caule 10-80 cm. altitudine conspicue folioso rare- subnudo ramoso 
rarius simplici, foliis basilaribus biteimatis v. triternatis, foliolis 
parvulis v. magnis sese oblegentibus v. subdistantibus, terminali 
obovato subrotundo reniformi trilobo v. trisecto, foliis caulinis infe- 
rioribus ternatis v. biternatis, floribus 3-9 raro solitariis medi- 
ocribus v. magnis concoloribus v. discoloribus colore vario, sepalis 
ovatis v. oblongis 14-45 mm. longis, petalorum lamina saepissime 
truncata, calcare saepissime subulato recto v. modice incurvo rarius 
uncinato longitudine comparata vario, staminibus limbum attin- 
gentibus v. superantibns, carpellis 5-9 glanduloso-hirtis, folliculis 
18-25 mm. longis. Floret ab Iunio ad Septembrem. 

Area geograpliica — Paropamisus, Hinialaya alpina et subalpina 
occidentalis, Afgliania orientalis, Belutchia. 
var. a. fragrans" Bth. {Baker ex parte), 

rhizomate crasso, caule 60-90 cm. altitudine, valde folioso, foliis 
basilaribus biternatis v. saepius plus minus triternatis, petiolulis 
gracillimis, foliolis tenuibus infra plus minus glaucis, terminali fol. 
bas. subreniformi profunde tripartito partitionibus 2-3-fidis laciniis 
lineari-oblongis plus minus inciso-crenatis crenis obtusis v. rotun- 
datis, floribus 2-5 albidis v. pallide purpureis, sepalis ovatis v. 
ovato-lanceolatis apice obtusiusculis 19-25 mm. longis, calcaribus 
lamina subduplo brevioribus v. earn subaequa,ntibus apicem versus 
gracillimis, aut uncinatim incurvis aut rarius subrectis, folliculis 
5-7, 16-18 mm. longis. 

Lecta in Kashmir (H. Falc. !) ; Gilgit ad Kala Pani 10-11000' 
(G. /)• 
var. (3. Winterbottomiana P. B., 

caule 25-40 cm. altitudine, foliis basilaribus caulinisque inferi- 
oribus aut triternatis aut biternatis atque foliolis trisectis, laciniis 
foliorum intermediorum oblongo-lanceolatis, petiolulis plus minus 
glanduloso-pubescentibus, segmentis foliorum flor. inferiorum 
lineari-lanceolatis latitudine ±- ± longitudinis, sepalis fere 2 - 5 cm. 
longis, petalorum lamina 10-12 mm. longa apice truncata, calcare 
subbamato circiter 15 mm. longo, carpellis 5-6. 

In iugo inter Kashmiria et Darawar {Winterbottom /). 

var. y. SUaveolens (= A. kunaorensis var. /8 suaveolens Camb. ; = 
A. fragrans (Bth.) Baker ex parte, 

caule 30-70 cm. altitudine folioso, foliis caulinis saepissime con- 



306 P. Briihl — Be Bammculaceis Indicis Bispntationes. [No. 3, 

spicuis, basilaribus biternatis rarius subtriternatis, foliolis raeni- 
branaceis infra saepissirne plus minus glaucis terminali fol. bas. 
reniformi v. semiorbiculari v. subrotundo fere ad basim usque 
tripartite) v. ad tertiam partem trilobo segmentis 2 v. 3 lobis v. 
crenatis lobis crenisque obtusis breviter lineari-oblongis, foliis 
caulinis superioribus valde variis, floribus saepissirne 5—12, sepalis 
albidis v. stramineis, petalis saepe violaceis v. purpureis sed etiam 
albidis 25-50 mm. longis acutis v. acuminatis, calcaribus laminam 
1-10 mm. superantibus rectis v. leviter incurvis, carpellis 6-9, 
folliculis sine stylo 20-25 mm. longis. Yidi allatam e Gilgit 
(T ! Biddulph /), Kasbrniria (Sedgewick ! W. 8. A. ! Levinge!), Dran- 
kar 17-19000' (Scz. !), Lalml (JT. Gale! J! H !), Pangi {Scz. !), 
valle fl. Chenab superiore (B. B. !). 

var. 8, glauca" Lindl., 

foliis basilaribus biternatis glaucis, laciniis fol. intermediorum 
obovato-cunneatis v. breviter oblongis, segmentis fol. flor. inf. 
ol)ovato-cuneatis v. late lunceolatis, sepalis 25-30 mm. longis strami- 
neis v. albo-purpureis, petalorum stramineorum calcaribus rectis 
conicis apice capita tia lamina truncata 2-4 mm. brevioribus, car- 
pellis 6 (v. pluribus ?), folliculis circiter 2 cm. longis. 

Kasbrniria (Forma rara et vix a varietate € distinguenda). 

var. £. kunaorensis" Camb. (A. kunaorensis Cavib. var. a = A. Moor- 
croftiana Wall. Cat. No. 4713 a Royleo in 111. male descripta), 

foliis plus minus glaucis, basilaribus aut triternatis, aut biternatis 
et foliolis fere ad basim usque tripartitis, petiolis petiolulisque glabris 
v. parce Lirtulis, foliis flor. inf. trifoliolatis v. trisectis foliolis sub- 
rbombiis v. late lanceolatis, sepalis 14-23 (saepissirne 17-21) mm. 
longis stramineis v. saepins violaceis, petalorum violaceorum v. 
plus minus ocbroleucoi'um lamina 9-17 mm. longa, calcare recto v. 
leviter incurvo 11-21 saepissirne 14-18 mm. longo lamina saepissirne 
3-10 mm. longiore rarissirne vix breviore, carpellis 5 rarius 6, 
folliculis 15-20 mm. longis. Gilgit (Giles sub nomine A. fragrantis ! 
et A. Moorcroftianae Wall ? ! et A. viridiflorae !) ; Baltistan, prope 
Kapala (llunter-Weston .'), Ladakb (Moorcroft !), in Kurang prope 
Rumbog (JBce. /) ; Kunawar (sec. Jacqem.) ; Afghanistan, in valle 
Kurrum (' A. vulgaris, var. Moorcroftiana Wall.' Aitcb.), ad Kair- 
was 12000 ped. ( 4 Aquilegia vulgaris, var. frag vans Benth.', Aitch.), in 
rupestribus montium Safed Kob 10-12000 ped. (' A. pubijlora 
Wall-, var. humiliur,' Aitch. et Hemsl., A. pubiflora Boiss. Fl. Or. 
Suppl. nee Wall). 

var. C Wallichiana" (A. Wallicbiana in herb. Calc), nti var. c, sed 
foliolis viridibus nee glaucis. Kumaon (Vicary !). 



1892.] P. Briilil — De Banunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 307 

var. 7). afghanica P. P., 

caule 10-30 cm. altitudine 1—4 (-6)-floro usque a basi villoso- 
pubescenti plus minus glauduloso, petiolo petiolulisque plus minus 
villosis, foliis basilaribus biternatis, foliolulis textura finuiore sae- 
pissime manifesto petiolulatis glabris v. puberulis nee glaucis inter- 
medio plus minus profunde trilobo lobis parce crenatis crenis rotun- 
datis rarius breviter oblongis, foliis caulinis variis interdum subcon- 
spieuis, sepalis 18-28 mm. longis, lamina petalorum truncata, calcai-e 
lamina longiore subulato recto v. subincurvo, staminibus petala 1—4 
mm. superantibus, carpellis 5. Floret ab Iunio ad Aug. 

Afghania orientalis ; in valle Kurrum. — in monte Sikaram 
10-14000 ped. (Aquilegia nov. sp. Aitch.). Calcaribus exceptis, 
valde similis Aquilegiae Bertolonii. 

var. 6. subaphylla P. B., 

caule 25-35 cm. altitudine simplici v. superne parce ramoso a 
basi usque, uti petioli petioluli pedunculi, glanduloso-birto, foliorum 
basilarium biternatorum lamina 2"5-5 cm. longa, foliolis parvulis 
breviter petiolulatis textura subcaimosa glabris v. puberulis terminali 
reniformi trilobo 12-18 mm. lato, lobis parce crenatis, foliis caulinis 
inferioribus 1 v. 2 ternatis v. subbiternatis, sepalis circiter 2 cm. 
longis, petalorum lamina rotundato-truncata, calcare subulato recto 
lamina longiore, staminibus limbum pet. 2-5 mm. superantibus. 

In valle Spiti, versus iugum Ringun 13-14000 ped. (Scz. /), prope 
Tbissigaong J 5-16000 ped. (Scz. !). 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma descendens v. liorizontale crasse fusiforme v. cylindricum, interdum 
pluriceps, nigricans, collo vaginis foliorum fusorum vestitum, caules 1-3 edens. 

Caulis erectus v. ascendens rai'issime simplex saepissime superne jalus minus 
ramosus, teres, sulcatus, altitudine 10-80 cm, basi l'5-4 mm. crassitudine, conspicue 
foliosus raro subnudus, puberulus v. glabrescens aut a basi villoso-pubescens v. 
glanduloso-liirtus. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata caule florifero breviora 5-12-35 cm. longa; 
petiolus basi in vaginam lanceolatam membranaceam 15-30 mm. longam conver- 
gentim nervosam dilatatus, canaliculatus 3-20 cm. longus crassitudine 1-2 mm., 
hirtus v. puberulus ; lamina biternata raro ternata, interdum triternata ; petioluli 
primarii tenues puberuH v. pubescentes v. glanduloso-liirti, terminalis 2-S cm. 
longus 0-8-1-5 mm. crassitudine, laterales f-* terminalis longitudine ; foliola mar- 
gine approximata v. sese obtegentia, membranacea raro subcarnosa, supra glauca v. 
viridia infra pallidiora saepius glauca, glabra v. puberula v. densiuscule pubescenria, 
tenuiter nervosa ; terminale circumscr^tione late obovatum v. obovato-cuneatum v. 
suborbiculare v. semiorbiculare v. reniforme, longe v. breviter petiolulatum, basi 
late cuneata obtusum v. truncatum v. subcordatum, 9-50 mm longum latitudine |-f 
lont'itudinis, fere ad medium trilobum v. ad basim uscpie trisectum v. rarius tri- 



308 P. Briihl — De Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

foliolatum segmentis vix v. baud margine imbricatis, segmento lobove medio 
cuneato-obovato apice crenis grossis v. lobulis tribus inciso, segmentis lateralibus aut 
late oblongis aut oblique cuneato-obovatis inaequaliter bilobulatis lobulis plus minus 
grosse crenatis v. integerrimis ; foliola lateralia aut trapezoidea aut terminali sub- 
conformia, crenis brevissime lineari-oblongis v. oblongo-ovatis apice obtusis v. rotun- 
datis; petioluli ultimi glabri v. villoso-pubescentes, terminalis 2-35 mm. longus, 
laterales multo breviores v. nulli. 

Folia caulina intermedia, uno alterove saepe longe petiolato excepto, breviter 
brevissimeve petiolata, inferiora saepe biternata superiora baud raro ternata, foliolis 
lateralibus fol. bitern. sessilibus v. vix petiolulatis folia summa subsessilia reliquis 
multo minora trifoliolata v. trisecta ad ultimum saepe integra bracteiformia anguste 
lanceolata, segmentis integerrimis v. incisis saepissime lanceolatis, interdum ovatis 
acutis v. acuminatis, 1-3 cm. longis. 

Inflorescentia rarissime subuniflora, saeinssime 3-9 flora corymboso-paniculata, 
ramis valde elongatis. Pedunculi graciles teretes dense pubescentes saepe viscosi. 
Flores mediocres v. magni subnutantes, concolores v. discolores. Sepala ovata v. 
ovato-oblonga, nervis tribus ramosissimis percursa, apice acuta v. obtusa, cuneato- 
attenuata v. acuminata, basi saepe abrupte constricta, 14-45 mm. longa, lati- 
tudiue circiter ^ longitudinis dorso puberula violacea v. purpurea v. straminea v. 
alljida, petala 4—15 mm. superantia. Petala glabra v. calcaria puberula, v. pur- 
purea v. violacea v. straminea v. ochroleuca v. albida ; lamina obovata, apice 
truncata rarius truncato-rotundata, 11—15 mm. longa ; calcar e basi conoidea sensim 
in partem apicalem tenuitor cylimlricuni v. subulatum attenuatum, raro uncinatim 
incurvum saepius rectum aut a basi aut apicem versus incurvum, laminae sub- 
aequale v. ea sesquilougum raro duplo longius v. duplo brevius, ajrice manifesto v. 
vix capitatum. 

Stamina longitudine inacqualia, numerosa, longiora petalorum limbum subae- 
quantia v. paullo superantia, glabra, filamenta angusta e basi paullum dilatata sensim 
attenuata ; autberae oblongae v. ellipticae muticae circiter 2 mm. longae. Para- 
stcmoncs ovato-lanceolati vix v. distincte undulati acuti ovaria superantes. 

Pistilla 5-9, stamina vix v. manifesto superantia, 9-14 mm. longa ; ovaria cylin- 
drica dense hirfca plus minus glanduloso-pilosa, in stylum subulatum parte inferiore 
hirtum apice rectum v. recurvum aequilongum v. sesquilongum attenuata. 

Folliculi 5-9 patuli Babcoriacei subcylindrici, e basi ovoidea sensim attenuate 
apice oblique rotundato-truncati, nervis obliquis crebris prominentibus plus minus 
anastomosantibus reticulati, sine stylo 18-24 mm. longi, plus minus birti, stylis 
filiformibuB G-10 mm. longis apioe saepe circinnatim rccurvis rostrati. 

Semina numerosa cuneato-obovoidea ventre carinata, interdum subcostata, 
nigra, nitida v. subopaca, vix punctulata, 2-2'5 mm. longa. 

Tabella ad varietates Aquilegiae Moorcroftianae' 
determinandas. 

I. Caulis plus minusvo conspicue foliosus et saepissime (30-) 40-90 cm. altitudine, 
basim versus glabrescens v. parce birtulus. 
A. Calcar petalorum lamina brevius v. earn vix aequans. 

21. Sepala 19-25 mm. longa; calcaria uneinata v. plus minus manifesto 
incurva ; folia basiluria saepe triternata.] 

A. fragraus". 



1892.] P. Bruhl — Be Ranunculaceis Indicts Bisputationes. 309 

33. Sepala 25-30 mm. Tonga ; caloaria recta v. vix incurva ; folia basilaria 
biternata. (Flores albidi v. straminei.) 

A. glauea". 

B. Calcar lamina panllo v. multo longius. 

<&. Laciniae foliorum caulinorum mediorum oblongo-lanceolatae ; segmenta 
foliorum floralium inferiorum lanceolata, latitudine |— A longitudinis ; 
calcar gracillimum lamina vix longius subhamatum ; (sepala fere 
2'5 cm. longa ; stirps aspectum A. tlialictrifoliae praebens). 

A. Winterbottomiana". 
33. Laciniae foliorum mediorum lineari-oblongae v. obtuse ovatae v.. rotun- 
dato-subquadratae. Calcar rectum v. leviter incurvum, gracile v. 
crassiusculum. 
a. Sepala 25-50 mm. longa. Carpella 6-9. 



, Sepala 14-23 mm. longa. Carpella 5-6. 
a. Foliola infra plus minus glauea. 



A. suaveolens' 



A. kunaorensis". 



6. Foliola utrinque viridia, infra pallidiora. 

A. "WaHichiana". 
II. Caulis (saepissime) subnudus v. foliis uno alterove vix consjoicuo instructus, 
10-40 cm. altitudine, a basi usque villoso-pubescens aut, uti petioli petiolulique, 
glanduloso-birtus. 

A. Caulis usque a basi, uti petioli petiolulique, villoso-pubescens, 10-30 cm. 

altitudine. 

A. afghanica". 

B. Caulis usque a basi, uti petioli petiolulique, glanduloso-hirtus, 30-40 cm. 

altitudine. 

A. subaphylla". 
XI. Aquilegia leptOCeras' Fisch. et Meyer (1837). (Aquilegia 
leptoceras Fisch. et Mey. Linnaea XII, Litt. 153 ; Bot. Reg. X, 61 ; 
Flore des Serres III, 296), 

caule humili (circiter 20 cm. alt.), foliis aut biteruatis, aut ter- 
natis atque foliolis tripartitis, glabris, terminali obovato cuueato 
apice ad tertiam quartamve partem trilobo latitudiue circiter |- 
longitudinis, floribus compluribus, discoloribus, sepalis stellatim 
patentibus ovato-oblongis 18-22 mm. longis, petalorum lamina apice 
rotundato-truncata v. retusa, calcare conico recto v. subincurvo, 
staminibus pet. limbum superantibus, carpellis 5. 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Caulis humilis (circiter 20 cm.) teres pluriflorus aut basim versus glaber aut, 
uti petioli petiolulique, totus pubescens. Folia longiuscule petiolata, partim biter- 
nata, partim ternata atque foliolis profunde tripartitis ; petioli foliorum maiorum 
4-8 cm. longi basi vaginantes ; petioluli primarii teretes terminalis 1-2 cm. longus 
laterales -| — f terminalis longitudine ; foliola membranacea, viridia infra pallidiora, 
glabra, foliorum biternato urn sessilia ; terminale obovatnm basi cuneatum apice ad 
40 



310 P. Briibl — Be Ranunculaceis Indicis Disputation es. [No. 3, 

quartam v. tertiain partem trilobuni 15-20 mm. longnm latitudine circiter f longi- 
tudinis ; lateralia oblique obtriangularia plus minus profunde biloba ; lobis f oliolorum 
omnium parce inciso-crenatis, crenis obtusis. Folia caulina infeiiora 1-3 brevius 
petiolata, snbbiternata ; intermedia sessilia trifoliolata v. trisecta plus minus fissa ; 
petiolaria lanceolata bracteiformia. 

Flores mediocres. Sepala stellatim patentia, ovato-oblonga, basi breviter con- 
Btricta, apice obscure producto subobtusa, 18—22 mm. longa, latitudine circiter -J 
longitudinis, laete lilacino-eaerulea, apicem versus albescentia, vero apice virides- 
centia. Petalorum lamina obovato-cuneata, apice rotundato-truncata v. retusa, 10—12 
mm. longa, albida aj>ice ochroleuca ; calcar graciliter conicum, rectum v. modice 
incurvum, apice subcapitatum, fere -| laminae longitudine, laete caeruleum. Stami- 
na petala 2—5 mm. superantia ; antherae ellrptico-oblongae muticae flavae. Pistilla 
5, stamina paullo superantia ; ovaria pubesceutia (an unquam glabra ?) ; styli 
Bubrecti. 

Folliculi recti v. apice divergentes. sine stylo 20-22 mm, longi, (glabrescentes ?). 

Dauria, Sibiria transbaicalensis. 

Valde affinis A. Moorcroftianae' var. kunaorensi. 

XII. Aquilegia lactiflora' Kar. Kir. (Aquilegia lactiflora, 
Karelin et Kiriloiv in Mosc. Bull. 1841, vol. XIV, p. 374), 

caule subprocero folioso parce raraoso, foliis biternatis, foliolis 
ecssilibus v. breviter petiolulatis maiusculis viridibus ad medium 
fere tripartita segmenlis inciso-crenatis crenis rotundatis v. ob- 
longis, infloresceutia fere triflora, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis 15-20 
mm. longis lacteis petalorum limbo fere duplo longioribus, calcari- 
bus gracilibus rectis v. leviter iucurvis laminae aequilongis v. ea 
manifesto longioribus apice nectarifero vix capitatis, staminibus 
petalorum laminam rotundatam subaequantibus, carpellis 5 villosis. 

Ai*ea geograpbica — Montes Tarbagatai Asiae rossicae. 

XIII. Aquilegia pubiflora' Wall. (Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. 
Cat, 4714 ; Boyle 111. pag. 55 ), 

caule (15-) 40-70 cm. altitudine saepissime superne ramoso et 
folioso, foliis basilaribus saepius biternatis, foliolis mediis sub- 
rbombeis v. subreniformibus saepius ad medium trifidis latitudine 
i— f longitudinis, foliis caulinis saepissime conspicuis, inflorescentia 
(1-) 2-5 (-lO)-flora, floribus mediocribus, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis 
(12-) 20-28 mm. longis latitudine saepius J longitudinis, petal- 
orum lamina apice rotundata raro rotundato-truncata, calcare 
nncinato rarius modice incurvo saepissime quam lamina breviore, 
staminibus laminam subaequantibus, carpellis 5-6 glanduloso-hirtis, 
folliculis fere 2 cm. longis. 
Floret a Maio ad Iulium. 

Area geographica — Himalaya occidentalis temperata (frequens) et 
subalpina (rara), Afgbania oiientalis. 



1892.] P. Bruhl — Be Banunculaceis Indicts Bisputationes. 311 

var. a. Cunninghami P. P., 

caule 25-40 cm. altitudine plus minus folioso paucifloro, sepalis 
acutis petala pau.Ho superantibus, calcaribus incurvis neque uncinatis. 
Himalaya pentapotamica (Cunningham!), 
var. ft. Massuriensis Boyle, 

caule 40-80, rai*o 12—30 cm. altitudine plus minus ramoso (2—) 
3—8 floro conspicue folioso, sepalis longe acuminatis petala multo 
superantibus, calcaribus brevibus. 

subvar. aa caule 40-80 cm. alt. calcare subcircinnatim in- 
curvo. Afghania, in valle Kurrum (Aitch!), in monte Shend- 
toi (Aitch. /) ; Kasbmiria (R. Sail. !, Sedgexvick !) ; Dalhousie 
{herb. Br.!); Sirmor, in monte Chur 9-10,000' (herb. Br. !) ■ 
Simla (T. T. !), in silva Mashobra (G. !) ; Jaunsar Bahar, in 
montibus Droban (B !), ad Pakri (P /) ; Baira (B /), montes 
Trusa(P/); Tihri-Grarhwal: supra Bhowani 13-11000' (B !), 
in valle Gangis 6-7000' (B !), ad Nag Tibba 8-9000' (Gollan !), 
Massuri (Boyle ! K !) ; Kumaon ; prope Naini Tal (A ! Bd !), 
in valle Nila 8-9000' (B /). 

subvar. 0(3. caule 12—30 cm. altitudine, calcare hamato rarius 
levius incurvo. — In montibus pro v. Simla (herb. Br. !). 

var. y. subnuda P- P., 

caule gracili 15-35 (-40) cm. altitudine simplici v. apice 2—3- 
floro vix folioso, sepalis longe acuminatis petala manifesto supe- 
rantibus, calcaribus brevibus subcircinnatim incurvis. N. W. Him, 
(Wall. Cat. 4714 !) ; ad Serahan (Scz !), Dalhousie 7000' (Clarke !) 
Simla (Scz !), Garhwal (herb. Falc. ! K!). 

Descriptio subspeciei. 

Rhizoma horizontale v. verticale, subcylindricum v. subfusiforme, cortice uigra, 
collo foliorum reliquiis vestitum et 3-15 mm. ci'assitudine, caules 1-3 edens. 

Caulis erectus, superne ramosus raro simplex, teres, leviter sulcatus, fistulosus, 
florifer saepissime 40-70 cm. rarius 15 cm. altitudine, basi 1'5— 3 mm. crassitudiue, 
foliosus raro subnudus, subglaber v. plus minus hirtellus. 

Folia basilaria longissime petiolata caule florifero saltern subdujalo breviora 
5—30 cm. longa ; petiolus basi in vaginam lanceolatam membranaceam 10—30 mm. 
longam convergentim nervosam dilatatus, subteres tenuiter sulcatus, basi supra 
]<*~ ; ter canaliculatus, 2'5-20 cm. longus, 1—2 mm. crassitudiue ; lamina biternata rarius 
triternata, raro folio uno alterove ternato atque foliolis trisectis ; petioluli primarii 
graciles subglabri v. proj^e insertionem petiolorum secundariorum jjraesertim villoso- 
pubescentes, terminalis 12-50 mm. longus 0'4-0'8 crassitudine, laterales |— | terminalis 
longitudine ; foliola tenuiter membranacea, viridia infra pallidiora, terminale longi- 
uscule v. breviter petiolulatum v. subscssile circumscriptione subrhombeum snb- 
isodiametricum l-4o cm. longum latumque et basi late cuneatum, vel semiorbi- 



312 P. Briihl — De Baminculaceis Indicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

culare v. subreniforme basique subtruncatum, saepissime fere ad medium palmatim 
trilobum rarius ad duas partes v. fere ad basim usque tripartitum, lobo medio 
cuneato-obovato v. breviter oblongo, latitudine %-\ longitudinis, symmetrice v. 
asymmetrice lobato-crenato crenis lateralibus duabus saepius integerrimis terminali 
brevioribus, lobis lateralibus breviter lineari-oblongis parce creuatis v. irregulariter 
'nciso-crenatis crenis paucicremilatis v. integerrimis ; petiolulus secundarius medius 
cm. longus v. subnullus, laterales terminali manifesto breviores v. sessiles ; foliola 
lateralia trapezoidea asymmetrice lateque cuneata, ad medium v. fere ad basim 
inaequaliter bipartita v. tripartita lobatave partitione externa inaequaliter crenate 
bilobata media triloba v. tricrena, lobis crenisve integerrimis v. paucicrenulatis, 
crenis apice obtusis v. rotundatis, ovatis v breviter oblongis. 

Folia caulina intermedia sparsa sursum gradatim minora et brevius petiolata, 
basilaribus subconformia sed foliola baud raro subsessilia et lobi saepe manifestius 
lineari-oblongi ; folia floralia inferiora brevissime petiolata, petiolo ad vaginam 
linearem 3-7 (-1(3) mm. longam reducto, ternata v. subbiternata foliolis longe 
petiolulatis trisectis v. tripartitis, segmentis incisis laciniis sublinearibus crenato- 
eei'ratis rarius lanceolatis ; folia floralia superiora subsessilia trisecta, segmentis 
lateral ibus integris lanceolatis, rarius trifidis, integerrimis v. parce serratis, ter- 
minali integro v. trifido, summa saepe bracteiformia lanceolata. 

Inflorescentia raro nniflora saepissime 2-5 (-8j-flora, laxissima. Pedunculi 
graciles 2-10 cm. longi leviter sulcati v. teretes, apicem versus pilis patentissimis 
dense pubescentes interdum viscosi. Flores mediocres erecti v. nutantes purpurea v. 
lnrida, concolores. Sepala membrancea ovato-lanceolata longe acuminata rarissime 
puneato-aoutata, basi saepe constricta, apice semper obtnsiusculo berbacea, 20-28 
rarius 12-16 mm. longa, latitudine saepissime circiter •£, rarius y v. \ longitudinis, 
norvia 3 ramosis apioem versus convergentibus percursa, petala 6—14 mm. exce 
dentia rarissime petala paullulo tantum supcrantia, dorso plus minus pubescentia. 
Petala dorso puberula ; lamina oblongo-obovata apiceque rotundata rarius oblonga 
truncata 1 1-18 mm. longa ; calcar e basi ample conoidea subabrupte v. sensim 
in partem apicalem Buboylindrioam v. lenitor conicam attenuatum, apice circinna- 
tiin v. uncinatim iucurvum J— | laminae longitudino rarius leviter incurvum, apice 
vix capitatum. Stamina 30-40, laminam petalorum vix superantia ; filamenta inae- 
qualia, lougiora 7-9 mm. breviora 5-6 mm. longa, e basi modice dilatata in partem 
fiuperiorem angustissime linearem angustata ; antherae conformes, oblongae, 2— 2 - 5 mm. 
longae. Parastemones oblongi, apice acuto apiculati, subundulati, 5-6 mm. longi, sub- 
persistentes. Pistilla 5-6, erecta v. subpatula, 10-13 mm. longa ; ovaria cylindrica 
patentim pubescentia, in stylum gradatim v subabrupte attenuata ; styli subulati 
ovario vix v. multum longiores, apice ad ultimum recurvi. 

Folliculi 5-6 chartacei, subcylindrici et apicem versus paullum attenuati, in 
stvlum filiformem 5—6 mm. longum oblique attenuati, tenuiter sed conspicue cre- 

ae reticulato-nervosi, subglabri, sine stylo circiter 2 cm. longi, aut jjaralleli 
aut saepissime a medio recurvi et apice late divergentes. 

Scmina numerosa, oblonga, sectione transversa subtriangularia dorso leviter 
curvata ventro carinata, testa nigra v. subbrunnea nitida laevi. 

Folia et foliola A. vulgari plerurnque subsimilia, sed interdum omnino sunt 

Aquilegiae pyreuaicae. 

X1Y. Aquilegia Ottonis' Orph. (Aquilegia Otfconis, Orphanides 
iu Boiss. Diagn. ser. II. No. 1 pag. 14 et 15 ; Aquilegia Amaliae Held- 






1892.] P. Briihl — Be Eanunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 313 

reich in Boiss. Diagn. ser. II. No. 1 pag. 11 ; A. pyrenaica=A. Bertolonii 

=A. Magellensis Porta et Rigo exsicc. ; A. nevadensis Boiss. ?), 

caule, uti petioli petiolulique, glanduloso-pubescenti, 35-70 cm. 
altitudine 1—6 floix) folioso ; foliis basilaribus biternatis ; foliolis 
sessilibus v. saepius petiolulatis supra viridibus infra glaucis basi 
longe cuneatis, terminali ad medium usque v. ultra medium tri- 
partite, partitione media crenis tribus, lateralibus crenis binis in- 
cisis, crenis iutegris v. crenulatis ; foliis caulinis inferioribus duo- 
bus v. tribus foliis basilaribus subconformibus v. brevius petiolatis, 
superioribus trifoliolatis v. trisectis segmentis lineari-lanceolatis, 
summis lanceolatis integris, floribus paullo minoribus quam in 
Aqnilegia vulgari typica (var. varia Maly), sepalis oblongis acutis 
pallide violaceis v. laete caeruleis, petalorum lamina albida apice 
rotundata v. rotundato-truncata, calcaribus apice subincurvis 
laminae subaequilongis, staminibus limbum superantibus, carpellis 
parallelis v. apice divergentibus, 12—15 mm. longis seminibas 
granulatis. — Graecia, Italia meridioualis, (Sierra Nevada?). 

var. a. typica, 

foliolis in segmenta oblonga ultra medium incisis, sepalis calcari- 
busque laete caeruleis obtusiusculis, petalis apice rotundato-trun- 
catis, (carpellis apice divergentibus). 

var. /3. Amaliae" Eeldr., 

foliolis ad medium usque bi- v. trilobis, sepalis calcaribusque 
pallide violaceo-caeruleis acutis, petalis apice i-otundatis, (carpellis 
parallelis). 

Tabella analytica ad subspecies Aquilegiae vulgaris Lin. 
determinandas. 

I. Alabastri subcylindrici. Sepala in flore aperto erecto-patuli (oblongo-lanoeolata. 

Flores bicolores. Calcaria saepissime uncmata). 

A. oxy sepala' Trautv. 

II. Alabastri, neglectis calcaribus, plus minus ovoidei v. ellipsoidei. Sepala in 

flore patentia v. patentissima. 
A. Calcaria in flore aperto uncinatim incurva. 

^[. Calcaria laminae subaequilonga v. ea manifeste longiora. 

a. Stamina longiora lamina 1 mm breviora v. 1—10 mm. longiora. 

3. Folliculi 18-25 mm. longi, e basi ovoidea attenuati. Folia caulina 

inflma baud raro foliia basilaribus subconformia, (foliola fol. bas. 

10—50 mm. longa). 

a. Crenae fol. bas. breviter lineari-oblongae, mediis rotundato-sub- 

quadratis. (Foliola tenuia, plus minus glauca ; calcaria gracil- 

lima gradatim hamata ; flores albidi v. straminei v. pallide 

purpureij. 

A. Moorcroftiana' Winterbottomiana". 



314 P. Bruhl — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

£. Crenae fol. bas. saepissirrie rotundatae v obtusae. (Foliola viridia ; 
calcaria crassiuscula saepe subabrupte uncinata ; flores pur- 
pureo-caerulei v. violacei v. caeruleo-lilacini v. rufescenti-cinna- 
monei. ) 

A. vulgaris' Lin. 
b. Folliculi 12—15 mm. longi. Folium caulinum infimum saepissime 
foliis basilaribus dissimile. Foliola media fol. bas. 12—20 mm. 
longa. 

A. Bertolonii' Schott. 
b. Stamina quam lamina 2-11 mm. breviora. 

E- Crenae mediae fol. bas. rotundatae v. rotundato-subquadratae. Folia 
caulina saepius basilaribus dissimilia. Lamina petalorum saepius 
apice rotundata. 
a. Pistilla 5. Folliculi 12-15 mm. longi subcylindri. (Sepala 24-30 
mm. longa, apice acuta v. acuminata. Flores caerulei). 

A. Bertolonii' Schott. 
0. Pistilla (5-) 6-12. Folliculi 20-30 mm. longi, e basi ovoidea plus 
minus attenuati. (Sepala 16-45 mm. longa. Flores saepe dis- 
colores.) 

A. glandulosa' Fischer. 
b. Crenae mediae fol. bas. breviter lineari-oblongi. Folia caulina in- 
feriora basilaribus subconformibus, laciniis vero saepissime magis 
linearibus. (Sepala saepissime 32-45 raro 27 mm. longa. Flores 
subconcolores. Folliculi 24-30 mm. longi.) 

A. alpina' Lin. 

33. Calcaria \~ £ laminae longitudine. 

a. Stamina petalorum limbo 2-11 mm. breviora. 

a. Calcaria e basi late conoidea in apicem uncinatum attenuata. Caulis 
12—40 cm. altitudine. Petalorum lamina rotundata v. oblonga et 
apice obtusa. Flores caerulei v. discolores. Sepala saepe plus 
30 (16-45) mm. longa. 

A . glandulosa' Fischer. 
fa. Calcaria gracilia. Caulis 50-70 cm. altitudine. Lamina rotundato- 
truncata. Flores violacei. Sepala minus 30 mm. longa. 

A. vulgaris' Lin. Bernardi" Gren. 

b. Stamina limbum fere attingentia v. superantia. 

a. Petalorum lamina apice rotundato-truncata v. plane truncata. 

a. Caulis 3—25 cm. altitudine, 1- (rarissme 2- J florus, saepissime uni- 
folius. Flores caerulei v. petala purpurea. Sepala ovata apice 
obtusa. 

A. nivalis' Falc. 
/3. Caulis 40-70 cm. altitudine, foliosus, 2- v. pluriflorus. Flores albi 
v. straminei v. pallide purpurei. Sepala ovato-lanceolata v. 
elliptico-oblonga breviter acuminata. 

A. Mooreroftiana' fragrans". 
y. Caulis 12—80 cm. altitudine, saepius pluriflorus et foliosus. Sepala 
saepissime anguste ovato-lanceolata longe acuminata. Flores 
purpurei v. luridi. 

A. pubiflora' Wall. 



1892.] P. Briilil — De Ranunculaceis Jndicis Disputationes. 315 

u. Petalorum lamina apice rotundata. 

A. putoflora' Wall. 

B. Calcaria recta vel leviter incurva neque uncinata. 

21. Petalorum lamina fere 6 mm. longa. Calcar lamina plus duplo longius. 
(Stirps glanduloso-pubescens plurifiora foliosa.) 

A. grata' Maly. 
23. Lamina 9-45 mm. longa. Calcar laminae subaequilongum v. sesqui- 
longum, rarius lamina fere duplo brevius, rarissime duplo longius. 

a. Stamina limbo 2—6 mm. breviora. Flores caerulei. 

H. Petala apice saepissime rotundata. Sepala 14—27 mm. longa. Folli- 

culi subcylindrici, 8—15 mm. longi. 

o. Foliolum medium foliorum basilarium biternatorum triangulariter 

cuneato-obovatum v. cuneato-deltoideum, Iatitudine |— | longi- 

tudinis. Foliola distantia v. appro ximata. Caulis petioli petio- 

luli saepius hirti v. pubescentes. 

A. viscosa' Gouam. 
£. Foliolum medium fol. bas. reniforme v. late rhombeum, Iatitudine 
(i— ) -| _ l longitudinis. Foliola sese attingentia v. saepius sese 
obtegentia. 

A. pyrenaiea' DC. 
b. Petala apice rotundato-truncata. Sepala 32-45 mm. longa. Folliculi 
e basi ovoidea attenuati 25-30 mm longi. 

A. alpina' Lin. 

b. Stamina petalorum limbum fere attingentia v. superantia. Flores baud 

raro discolores, sepala saepe albida v. straminea v. violacea. 
a. Petalorum lamina ajoice rotundata. 

a. Flores concolores. (Semina minntissime punctulata, fere laevia). 
aa. Sepala oblongo-lanceolata (15-20 mm. longa) petalaque colore 
lacteo. 

A. laetiflora' Ear. Kir. 

PP. Sepala ovato-lanceolata rarissime ovata (12-28 mm. longa). 
Flures purpurei v. luridi. 

A. pubiflora' Wall. 
P. Flores discolores, sepalis ac calcaribus violaceo-caeruleis, petalis 
albidis. Semina granulata. 

A. Ottonis' Amaliae" Held*. 
6. Petalorum lamina rotundato-truncata. 

a. Semina granulata. (Caulis 35-70 cm. alt., foliis bas. biternatis, 
sepalis calcaribnsque laete caeruleis, lamina pet. albida). 

A. Ottonis' typica" Orph. 
j8. Semina microscopice punctulata, fere laevia 

aa. Latitudo folioli terminalis fol. bas. -j— f longitudinis. Folia 
basilaria vix unqnam simpliciter ternata. 
83. Flores saepius 3-9. Sepala apice cuneato-acutata v. acumi- 
nata. Calcaria subulata. Pet. lamina apice rotundato- 
truncata. 
aa. Flores caeruleo-violacei, concolores. 

A. vulgaris Lin. recticornu P. B." 
/3j3. Flores concolores albidi v. stramiuei, v. discolores sepalis 
dilute violaceis petalis ocbroleucis v. caeruleis v. pur- 
pureis. 

A. Moorcroftiana' Wall. 



316 P. Briihl — Be Banunculaceis Indicts Bisputationes. [No. 3, 

fcfr. Flores solitarii v. raro 2. Sepala apice obtusa. Calcaria crassi- 
uscule conoiclea v. subcylindrica v. saccata. Pet. lamina apice 
truncata et sinuata, v. retusa, v. emarginata. 

A . nivalis' Falc. 
bb. Latitudo folioli medii fol. bas. fere f longitudinis. Folia saepe 
simpliciter ternata. (Sepala caerulea, pet. lamina ochroleuca.) 

A. leptoeeras' Fisch. et Mey. 

Aquilegia autem inter Ranunculacearum genera recentior videtur 
esse. Quae sententia non solum insigni ilia mutabilitate forniarurn 
atque summa omnium inconstautia nofcarum quibus rerum herbariarum 
periti ad species discernendas uti cousuerunt, sed etiam subspecieram 
per regiones boreales orbis terrarum distributione comprobatur. Nam 
varietate varia Aquilegiae vulgaris typicae excepta, nulla subspecies 
vel varietas montuosis Asiae communis est cum regionibus Europae 
occidentalis, atque una tantum species, A, glandulosa, non solum in 
iugis Sibiriae sed etiam in montibus transsilvanicis nascitur. Aquilegia 
quidem atrata in saltibus thiansbanicis gigni dicitur, sed veri simile 
est stirpem illam in varietate Karelini Aquilegiae vulgaris adnume- 
randam esse. Neque dubitandum est quin stirpes illae himalaicae, 
quae morpliologice ab A. pyrenaica' et A. alpina' nullo modo diffe- 
runfc, varietates existimandae sint Aquilegiae nivalis' et Moorcroftianae', 
nee proxime connexae cum formis illis in Alpibus et monte pyrenaeo 
natis. 

Atque propter artissimam omnium Aquilegiarum cognationem vix 
difficile esse dixeris historiam generis vestigare. Et certum quidem 
est nectaria formae illius priscae, ex qua omnes species Aquilegiae 
ortae sunt, ecalcarata fuisse, cum non solum flores monstrosas A. 
vulgaris ecalcaratas in hortis nasci videamus, sed etiam, quod maximi 
argumenti est, species una rite ecalcarata a Potauino ex Kansu allata sit. 
Sed inter stirpes generi Aquilegiae propinquas vix ullae sunt quae tarn 
insignem Aquilegiae ecalcaratae vel Aquilegiae brevistylae similitudi- 
nem prae se f ei'ant quam Isopyri species nonnullae asiaticae et americanae. 
Et petala gibba Aquilegiae ecalcaratae petalis quarundam formarum 
Isopyri microphylli et grandiflori simillima, sed duplo vel triplo 
maioi'a ; haec interdum a vera basi aperta minimeque bilabiata, obova- 
to-oblonga, dorso vix minus gibba quam petala A. ecalcaratae, apice 
retusa v. emarginata, nervis interdum ramosis. Et quamquam necta- 
ria Aquilegiae brevistylae, quae statura foliorumque figura Isopyro 
biteruato quam proxime accedit, calcarata sunt, eorum laminae haud 
raro more Isopyri grandiflori v. anemonoidis apice sunt emarginatae. 
Carpella autem A. brevistylae interdum glabra sunt et nucleus ovulorum 
binis iutegumentis vestitus, uti sunt in grege Isopyrorum. 






1892. J P. Briihl — Be Ranwnculaceis Indicia Disputationes: 317 

Quaruru rerum considerationern sequentibus nobis licitura con- 
cessunique sit speciem illam antiquam, cui Aquilegiam cascara nomen 
dicere liceat, quasi construere atque aedificare. Stirps erat altitudiue 
niediocri, foliis biternatis, floribus parvulis, sepalis quiuque, nectariis 
subconcavis gibberis apice emargiuatis, filamentis staniinum intirnorum 
lanceolatis antberis parvis termiuatis, carpellis quinque glabris, semi- 
nibus laevibus. Hanc speciem terra genuit ilia, qua Asia et America 
olini iuncta erant. Ex ea natae sunt species illae priscae asiaticae 
atque americanae : primum Aquilegia ecalcarata, turn, gibbere in calcar 
producto, Aquilegia parviflora et Aquilegia brevistjla. Cum autem 
initio huius aevi planities Sibiriae et Euroj>ae septentrionalis e mari 
glaciali emersissent et caelum mitius fieret, species illae priscae primum 
varietates tres ediderunt : unam carpellis glabris (A sibiricam), alteram 
(A. viridiflorum), Aquilegiae parviflorae proximam, sepalis vix praeter 
nectaria eminentibus sed carpellis hirtis, tertiam sepalis petalisque 
yalde variabilibus, carpellis autem semper hirtis. Tertia haec species 
parens fuit duaruni gregum, quarum una, sepalis lanceolatis erecto- 
patulis alabastris subcylindricis, regionum illarum incola fiebat quae a 
mari gobieusi ad orientem solem spectabant ; altera autem non solum 
per regiones Asiae borealis ac centralis, sed etiam per Europam totam 
usque ad montem Atlantem late diffundebatur. Mirifica vero eius 
facultas ad varias conditiones caeli loci insectorumque se accommodandi. 
Nam Mores mediocres stirpium in locis silvaticis demissioribus ortarum 
in montibus altioribus saepe maximi atque speciosissimi evaduiit, ut 
facilius apes papilionesve procul ad se alliciant. In locis bumidioribus 
autem caules petioli foliolaque saepe magis villosa vel birta, atque in 
stillicidiis rupestribus conspicue glanduloso-pilosa. 

Ab Aquilegia autem vulgari mutabilitate nequaquam superata est 
grex ilia quae, orta, ut videtur, in Asia orientali, per Alashkam et 
Montes saxosos diffusa usque ad mare atlanticum et in Americam cen- 
tralem pervenit. 

Vix dubitaudum esse opinamur quin Aquilegia canadensis originem 
trabat a parente varietatis illae Aquilegiae formosae cuius iniagmeni 
Plancbon*) iu tabula nomine Aquilegiae arcticae dej^inxit ; verisimile 
autem est Aquilegiam arcticam, quae vix a varietate kamtshatica a 
Fiscbero descripta calcaribus brevioribus videtur differe, profectam esse 
a forma ilia prisca Asiae orientalis, quae, immigrans in regiones maud- 
sburicas et sinenses in Aquilegiam oxjsepalam commutata est. Nam 
utrum stirps ilia, cui Aquilegiam bybridani Sims dixit nomen, bibrida 
fuerit an species vera nescio ; stirpes vero, quas Ledebour scribit e semi- 

* Flore des Serres fig. 795. 

41 



318 P. Briibl — De Banunculaceis Inclicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

nibus davuricis in borto dorpatensi natas esse, vix dixeris liibridas fuisse 
Aquilegiae vulgaris et Aquilegiae canadensis. Folia autem et alabastri 
figura et sepalorum directio et color floris, uti depicta sunt in tabula 
Simsii, omnino sunt Aquilegiae oxysepalae, neque similitudo Aquilegiae 
bybridae cum Aquilegia arctica et A. canadensi minus insignis. 

At vero quanta nectariorum est mutabilitas in Aquilegia formosa ! 
Nam varietas arctica, in tabula picta a Plancbon lineis descripta et a 
Bongard in insula Sitcba lecta, non solum sensim sensimqne in Aqui- 
legiam truncatam, varietatem eximiam, transit, sed calcaria stirpium in 
borto kewensi cultarum gracillime evadebant atque calcaribus Aqui- 
legiae caeruleae simillima. At Ledebour in annotatione ad Aquilegiam 
formosam discrimen buius speciei et Aquilegiae canadensis partim in 
longitudine calcaris cum lamina comparata ponit ; dicit enim de A. for- 
mosa : — ' calcaribus rectis lamina truncata quadruplo longioribus genitalia 
subaequantibus, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis patentissimis genitalia calcaria- 
que superantibus,' et de A. canadensi : — ' calcaribus rectis lamina trun- 
cata duplo longioribus, genitalia subaequantibus, sepalis ovatis calcari- 
bus genitalibusque brevioribus, stylis demura exsertis.' Vidimus tamen 
specimina A. canadensis var. typicae calcaribus lamina quintuplo longi- 
oribus et sepalis riorum apertorum androecio sublongioribus. 

Atque formae illae cultae, quae cum stirpibus kamtshaticis quoad 
calcaris longitudinem cum laminae mensura comparatam congruere 
videntur, ab Aquilegia cbrysantba non distinctae nisi notis, ut videtur, 
vilibus. De staminibus Aquilegiae caeruleae ante diximus. Mensura 
autem calcaris cum limbo nectariorum compai'ata vebementer variat ; 
lamina enim nunc vix vicesima pars calcaris nunc calcare ferme sesqui 
longior. Forma quoque limbi petalorum vix ad species discernendas 
apta ; nam in exemplaribus in borto kewensi cultis lamina a medio 
versus apicem attenuata est,* quod vidimus etiam in Aquilegia truncata ; 
in varietate arctica autem Plancbonii et in varietate typica Fischerif 
nectariorum lamina est apice truncata. Aquilegiae igitur americanae 
idem spectaculum praebent atque Aquilegiae asiaticae et europaeae : 
omnes enim partes, quae quidem ad praegnationem ope insectorum 
factam aptae sint, eximie mutabiles esse, praesertim cum pollen etiam 
sine adiumentis externis et adventiciis in stigmata eiusdem floris per- 
venire potest. At vero cum meminimus Aquilegiam arcticam, formo- 
sam Fischeri, truncatam ad eandem speciem pertinere atque stirps ilia 
in tabula 6552 Bot. Mag. depicta, non possumus non concludero Aqui- 
legiam caeruleam et chrysantbam quoque ad eandem gregem esse redi- 
gendas. 

* Vide etiam Bot. Mag. tab. G552. 
t Ledebour, Flora rossica vol. I. 






1892.] P. Briilil — De Ranunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. 319 

Discrimen auteni Aquilegiae Skinneri et A. canadensis in magni- 
tudine florem positum est. Sepala vero A. canadensis typicae nunc 
vix 12 nim, nunc fere 24 mm longa, ac magnitudinem florum notam 
demonstravimus esse maxime dubiam in Aquilegiis himalaicis. Qua- 
propter credimus fore ut formas medias inter A. canadensem et A. 
Skinneri in Mexico boreali inveniantur. 

Insigne unum et solum quod, praeter indumentum carpellorum, 
magis constare reperimus in cognatione Aquilegiae vulgaris est directio 
sepalorum ; nam cum in plerisque subspeciebus sepala patentia vel 
patentissima sint, in Aquilegia oxysepala sepala saepissime erecto- 
patula reperiuntur, vix unquam subpatentia. rTon est hoc tamen 
semper signum certum speciei bonae ; nam sepala A. canadensis typicae 
interdum magis patent quam solent in stirpibus plurimis, neque sunt, 
ut videtur, semper patentissima in Aquilegia clirysantha. Quodsi banc 
notam putemus ad species internoscendas non satis habere facultatis, 
ac si reliquorum inconstantiam signorum in mente agitemus, harum 
reram cogitatione coactis nobis, quamvis invitis, concedendum esse 
videtur, formas omnes americanas ad duo species referendas esse : 
unam, Aquilegiam brevistylam, quae vinculis propinquitatis maxime 
cum Aquilegiae sibirica coniuncta est, alteram quae, magis cognata 
Aquilegiae oxysepalae, Aquilegiam formosam, truncatam, caeruleam, 
chrysantham, flavescentem, canadensem, Skinneri amplectitur. Hac 
sententia perducti Aquilegias americanas hoc modo disponendas esse 
existimamus. 

(1). A. brevistyla Book. 

(2). A. canadensis Lin. 

subsp. I. A. formosa' Fischer. 

subsp. II. A. caerulea' James. 
subsp. III. A. flavescens' Wats, 
subsp. IV. A. canadensis typica Lin. 
subsp. V. A. Skinneri' Hook. 
Si vero directioni sepalorum maiorem ad species discernendas vim 
tribuamus, formas americanas hoc modo disponere licuerit. 

(1). A. brevistyla Hook. 

var. a. vera, carpellis pubescentibus. 

var. /?. leiocarpa P. B., carpellis glaberrimis. Montes saxosi. 
(2). A. formosa Fischer. 

Subsp. I. vera. 

var. a. arctica Planch., nectariorum lamina truncata, cal- 
caribus subinfundibuliformibus lamina sesqui v. sub- 
duplo longioribus. 



320 P. Bruhl — De Ranunculi* ceis ludicis Disputationes. [No. 3, 

var. /?. kamtshatica P. P., lamina truncata, calcaribus 

lamina subquadruplo longioribus. 
var. y. truncata Fisch., lamina truncata v. apicem versus ob- 

tusa calcaribus conicis vel crasse subulatis multo breviore. 
var. 8. saxicola P. P., lamina rotunclato-ovata apice obtusa 

calcaribus subulatis breviore. 
Subsps. II. caerillea James. 

var. a. macrantha Hoolc, floribus albidis v. plus minus 

caeruleis v. ocbraceis. 
var. (3. chrysantha A. Gray, floribus aureis. 

(3). A. flavescens Wats. 
(4.) A. canadensis. 
Subsp. I. typica. 

var. a. vera, sepalis 10-24 mm. longis, calcaribus lamina duplo 
v. quintuplo longioribus elongato-subinfundibuliforrnibus. 

var fi. Fendleri, sepalis fere 9 mm. longis, calcaribus elongatis 
gracilibus. 

Subsp. II. Skinneri Hook. 

Aqnilegiam Skinneri vero, dum formae mediae inter banc formam 
et A. canadensem desunt, speciem propriam sumere licebit. 

Adicimus tabellam analyticam ad species subspeciesque americanas 
determinandas. 

I. Calcar crassiuscule subulatum manifesto incurvnm laminae aequilongum v. ea 

paullo biwius. Bepala 12-18 mm. longa. Stamina petaloruin limbo breviora. 
Carpella glabra v. pnbescentia. 

A. brevistyla Hoolc. 

II. Calcaria aut elongato-infnndibuliformia lamina paullo v. permulto longiora 

recta v. leviter incurva aut gracillimo subulata aut conica. Stamina sae- 
pius ultra limbum pet eminentia vel, si Umbo breviora, sepala 2 cm. longa v. 
longiora. Carpella liirta. 
A. Sepala patentia v. patentissima. 
( 3i. Calcaria gracillime subulata. 

a. Filamenta in columnam subcylindricam sociata, stamina conspicue 

exserta. Flores aurei v. calcaria sepalaque plus minus lateritia v. 
rubra. 

A. formosa Fisch., subsp. vera, ex parte. 

b. Filamenta plus minus divergentes, haud raro in capitulum subglabo- 

sum congesta, v. si subparallela, stamina pet. lamina breviora v. earn 
fere aequantia. Petalorum lamina apice truncata. Flores albi, 
ocliroleuci, caerulei, aurei. (Calcaria 25-70 mm. longa.) 

A. caerulea James. 
13. Calcaria elongato-infundibuliformia. Columna staminea cylindrica petala 
multo superans. 






1892.] P. Briihl — De Ttanunculaceis Tndicis Disputation es. 321 

a. Calcar lamina sesqui v. pernmlto longius. Sepala calcariaquo lateritia 

v. rubra. 

A. formosa Fisch. subsp. vera ex parte. 

b. Calcar lamina vix longius. Flores flavi. (Sepala 12-18 mm. longa.) 

A. flavescens, Wats. 

B. Sepala erecta, erecto-patula v. vix patentia. 

%. Calcaria 15—25 mm. longa. Folliculi fere 2 cm. longi. 

A. canadensis Lm. 
23. Calcaria fere 4 cm. longa. Folliculi 3-3"5 cm. longi. (Sepala virentia.) 

A. Skinneri Hook. 

Nunc progrediamur ad species, quas quidem accipiamus, rite de- 
finiendas. 

N"e tamen nimia nominum ac synonymorum stirpium americanarum 
confusio exstiterit, Aquilegiam formosam et flavescentem ab Aquilegia 
canadensi sciungemus, quae res necessitatera nobis afferfc, si quidem 
nobismet ipsis veliums constare, Aquilegiae oxysepalae ab Aquilegia 
vulgari separandae. 

I. Aquilegia ecalcarata Maxim., 

sepalis subpatentibus 1 v. fere 1*5 cm. longis, nectariis gibbis 
nee calcaratis, lamina apice complanata fere f sepalorum longitu- 
dine, carpellis hirtis. (Vix ab A. parviflora separanda.) 

II. Aquilegia parviflora Ledebour, 

sepalis patentibus 1—1*4 cm. longis, nectariis breviter calcaratis, 
lamina apice obtusa concava sepalis subduplo breviore, carpellis 
hirtis. 

III. Aquilegia viridiflora Pallas, 

sepalis patentibus v. patulis (virescentibus) 10-18 mm. longis, 
nectariorum lamina sabcomplanata subbrevioribus v. fere -£ eius 
longitudine, calcaribus rectis v. apice incurvis, carpellis hirtis. 

IV. Aquilegia brevistyla Hooker, 

sepalis patentibus 12-15 cm. longis, nectariorum lamina apice 
haud concava sepalis subdnplo breviore, calcaribus crasse subulatis 
modice incurvis fere laminae longitudine, carpellis glaberrirais v. 
pubescentibus. 

V. Aquilegia sibirica Lam., 

sepalis patentibus v. patentissimis 13-25 mm. longis, nectari- 
orum lamina apice non concava f— % sepalorum longitudine, calcari- 
bus subulatis apice hamatis, carpellis glaberrimis v. ad suturani 
ventralem minute puberulis. 

VI. Aquilegia vulgaris Lin., 

sepalis patentibus v. patentissimis nectariorum lamina saepissi- 



322 P. Briihl — De Banunculaceis Indicts Disputationes. [No. 3, 

me manifesto longioribus, alabastris (calcaribus neglectis) ovoideis 
v. ellipsoideis, nectariorum lamina apice non concava calcaribus 
rectis v. uncinatis forma varia, carpellis liirtis. 

VII. Aquilegia oxysepala Trautv., 

sepalis erecto-patulis, nectariorum calcaribus bamatis (vix un- 
quam rectis) subulatis lamina sepalis manifesto breviore sublongi- 
oribus, carpellis liirtis. 

VIII. Aquilegia canadensis Lin., 

sepalis erectis v. erecto-patulis 9-25 mm. lougis, nectariorum 
lamina longioribus, calcaribus lamina duplo v. quintuplo longiori- 
bus elongato-subinfundibuliformibus v. gracilibus, carpellis hirtis. 

IX. Aquilegia flavescens Wats., 

sepalis plus minus reflexis nectariorum lamina paullo longioribus, 
calcaribus lamina vix longioribus elongato-subinfundibuliformibua 
subincurvis, (floribus flavis), carpellis birtis. 

X. Aquilegia formosa Fisch., 

sepalis patentissimis v. subreflexis rarius patentibus nectariorum 
lamina manifesto longioribus, calcaribus aut crassiuscule conicis 
lamina multo longioribus, aut elongato-subinfundibuliformibus 
lamina sesqui v. subduplo longioribus aut gracillime subulatis rectis 
V. modice incurvis, carpellis birtis. 

Aquilegia vero volubilis Maack mibi plane ignota. 
Cognationes autem specierum generis Aquilegiae in tabula nostra 

prima monstrare conati sumus ; in tabula secunda affinitates gregis 

Aquilegiae vulgaris exlnbentur ; in tertia denique propinquitates forma- 

rum americanarum indicavimus. 

Atque ut in rerum, de quibus quaesierimus, repetitione per capita 

decurramus, baec nos existimamus demonstravisse : — 

(1) indumentum caulis et foliorum ad species generis Aquilegiae 
discernendas non usui esse ; 

(2) folia basilaria ac caulina quoad divisiones foliolorumque 
figuram et magnitudinem ita variabilia esse ut ad species seiungendas 
non valeant, quod quidem saepe accidit in generibus, quae constant 
ex stirpibus, quarum folia sunt composita ; 

(3) partes eas stirpium, quae in praegnatione ope insectorum 
facta auxilio Bint, saepe mutabilitate maxima affectas esse, ut notae ab 
iis sumptae, uti magnitudo colorque florutn, nectai'iorum forma, meti- 
surae comparatae nectarii ac staminum atque carpellorum, directio 
partis styli stigmatosae, haud raro dubiae sint minimeque certae ; 

(4) omnes Aquilegias artissima naturae colligatione consociatas 
esse, quod efficiat ut formae liibridae quam facillime ex formis diversis 
procreeutur, quae res notissinia est bortulanis ; 






1892.] P. Briili 1 — De Ttanunculaceis Indicis Disjnitationes. 323 

(5) stirpes omnino similes non solum ex eadem forma sed etiam 
ex diversis in locis longinquis atque disiunctis nasci posse, sicuti : 
A. glandulosa ex varietate quadam Aquilegiae vulgaris in montuosis 
Sibiriae ac Transsilvaniae ; aut A. pyrenaica ex A. Bertolonii in monte 
pyrenaeo efc ex A. nivali in terra gilgitensi ; vel A. incnnda, ut videtur, 
ex A. vulgari in Sibiria et ex A. nivali in Kashmiria ; vel A. alpina 
ex A. Bertolonii vel e varietate nigricanti Aquilegiae vulgaris in 
Alpibus et montibus appenninis, et ex A. Moorcroftiana suaveolenti in 
Himalaya centrali ; 

(6) varietatem eandem, cum in locis diversissimis orta sit, in uno 
loco saepius stabiliorem esse quam in reliquis, sicut Aquilegia pyrenaica 
satis constat in Pyrenaeis, sed maxime fluxa est in montuosis altissimis 
Himalayae occidentalis ; 

(7) verisimile esse eandem forma/m interdum in locis diversissi- 
mis inveniri quod varietas recentior in figuram speciei parentis trans- 
lata sit (atavismus), sicuti stirpes indicae Aquilegiae vulgaris verae ex 
Aquilegia pubiflora natae videntur esse. 

EXPLICATIO FIGURARUM TABULAE SEXTAE. 

1-3. Isopyrum grandiflorum, f, Afghanistan. 

4-8. Isopyrum xnicrophylluin, f, Himalaya bor. occ. 

9. Idem, \. 

10. Aquilegia parviflora, Sibiria. 

11. Isopyrum grandiflorum, \, Vallis Kurrum. 

12. A. ecalcarata, \, Kansu. 

Figurae 13—74 magnitudine propria descriptae sunt. 
13—18, 20, 21, 21* A. nivalis' paradoxa", Gilgit, Kashmir, Tibetia occ. 
19. A. nivalis' saccocentra". 
22—26. A. Moorcroftiana' fragrans", Kashmir, Gilgit. 

27. A. alpina', Mont Cenis. 

28. eadem, Helvetia. 

29. eadem, Mons appenninus. Folia caulina A. alpinae typicae. 

30. eadem, himalaica", Garhwal. 

31. A. glandulosa' typica Fischeri, Sibiria. 

32. A. glandulosa, 8ibii-ia. 

33. A. Moorcroftiana' suaveolens", Lahul. 

34. eadem, Vallis flum. Chenab. 

35. A. Moorcroftiana' kunaorensis", Kashmir. 

36. eadem, Gilgit, LadaJch. 
37, 38. eadem, Kashmir. 

39. A. viscosa' Einseleana", Venetia. 

40—42. eadem, Val Sassina. 

43. A. viridiflora, Thian Shan. 

44. eadem, Mongolia. 
45-50. A pubiflora'. 



324 P. Briihl — De Ranuuculaceis Indicis Bisputationes. [No. 3, 

45. Silva Mnshobra prope Simla, 46. Massuri, 47. Oarhwal, 48. Simla 
49. Simla, 50. Him. pentapotamica. Sepala noruni 48 et 49 lanceolata 
acuminata. 

51. A. vulgaris' eynensis", Valle' d' Eynes. 

52. A. vulgaris' Kareliui", Vallis Nila. 

53. A. vulgaris' recticornu", Bavaria. 

54. A. pyrenaica', Montes pyr. occ. 

55. eadem, Herb. Forestier, Moris, pyr. 
56—58. A. Moorcroftiana' suaveolens", Ladakh. 
59—61. A. Moorcroftiana' kunaorensis", Gilgit. 

62. eadem, Ladach, eadem ac 35. 

63. A. pubiflora', Silva Mashobra, eadem ac 45. 

64. eadem, Vallis Ktirrum. 

65. eadem, Simla. 

66. eadem, Him. occ. 

67, 68. eadem, Him. pentapotam., ex eodem flore ; eadem ac 50. 

69. eadem, Simla. 

70. eadem, ex codem loco ataxic 67. 

71. Carpella A. pubiflorae'. 

72. Carpella A. kunaorensis". 

73. Carpella A. nivalis'. 

74. Apex parastomonis A. Kareliui". 

75. Parastemones A. pubiflorae'. 

76. iidem, aucti. 

77. Parastcmoues A. Moorcroftianae', aucti. 



hed 2,20< 




or Banpar 

iistinct tri 
luses are i 
Zu" split i 



RACES. 



Joura. Is. Soo., Part II, Ko. 3, 1898, 




Telescopic outline of " Ru sa" or Khulun Mutun Naga village, perched 2,200', S. E. Sibsagar, Asam. 



A* V< J, 













Singpho girl's house. 

Jagon Diking. 



v/j r m 







. ? <ra»« o/" Cannibalism. 



S. E. Peal. 



" Ru sa " was founded some 200 years ago, by Ike Rot/en (crop-haired) Khel, from Ru Nil ( Zu or Banpara). 

A peculiarity of the 45 or 60 villages, indirectly offshoots of "Chang mi" (now 10 or 12 distinct tribes of head hunters, often at feud) is, that the 
central posts of the houses project thro the ridge and are lowered as they decay below. The houses are irregularly placed amid Bread-fruit trees and 
nd if attacked there U thus instant cover. There were 8 generations in Chang rsu, ere " Za" split off] and founded Ru Nu, in which, since then, 
there have been 12 generations, say 2o . 30 yrs. each. 



COMMUNAL BARRACKS OF PRIMITIVE RACES. 




Tattoo for " heads " taken. 
One pattern. Sibs. 

S. E. Peal. 



Plate II. 



Platform Burial. 
Naga "Ruk tua" 




Formosa, Borneo, Papua. Solomon Is. and 
Aru Is., Marquesas, pts. of Africa § Australia, 
often as a canoe on posts. 




f to | size. 



ftllllflX 



Z_JJ 



Jews harp Naga New Britain, 
Phillip i nes, cfo. 





Naga Tung Rung. 

Canoe Drum., can he heard at 8 ($■ 10 miles. 
Tavaka of New Hebrides. Lali of Fiji. 

S. E Peal. 



t RACES. 



Jonrn. As. Soo., Part II, Eo. 3, 




Double Cylinder bellows. w mA'iMJ/M- ||] L 

Asam, to the Anong or Lutse. ^' ™"|{'?i|^f?2^~ 

Sumatra, Java, Phillipines, Discs of wood on posts of 

Madagascar. granaries to keep out rats 8c mice. 

Asam, Formosa, Papua, New Britain, Sfc. ' 



Naga Tung Kung. 

Canoe Drum, can be heard at 8 ij- 10 miles. 
Tavaka of New Hebrides. Lali of Fiji. 

S. E Peal. 



COMMUNAL BARRACKS OF PRIMITIVE RACES. 



\ 



BRUHL, Jour. Asiat. Sou. Bengal, Vol. LXI. Ptt II 



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BRUHL, Jour. AsiaA. Soc. Bengal, Vol.LXI, P^ II. 



PLATE V. 




BBUHli. Journ.Asia.t Soc.Bengul, Vol : LXI,PbII. 






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Figuras lireis 
dp.3cnp.sit P. Briihi 



AQ.UILEGIA 



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